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Archetypes of Wisdom An Introduction to Philosophy

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780495007074

ISBN10:
0495007072
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/13/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 6th edition with a publication date of 2/13/2006.
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

Featuring Douglas J. Soccio's lucid and conversational prose and a well-chosen, reader-friendly array of succinct excerpts from canonical primary sources, ARCHETYPES OF WISDOM brings philosophy to life for its readers through the examination of many paradigmatic philosophies and philosophers. Very much a student-focused book that speaks out of Soccio's non-condescending desire to speak to students where they "are" and not where they "should be," ARCHETYPES OF WISDOM includes numerous pedagogical illustrations and features (Philosophical Queries, a Marginal Glossary, Chapter Summaries, End-of-Chapter Questions for Reflection, to name a few) to make this often-times daunting subject the approachable and engaging subject it ought to be. The Sixth Edition represents a careful revision, with all changes made by Soccio to enhance and refresh the book's reader-praised search-for-wisdom motif. In particular, this edition features new coverage of Lao-Tzu; expanded, chapter-length treatment of Kierkegaard; and an engaging introduction to the complex landscape of philosophy in the twentieth century focusing on the two archetypal thinkers of this time period: Wittgenstein and Heidegger. Soccio's lauded prose is also enhanced in this Sixth Edition by the text's new full-color design. The text is supported by an unmatched array of teaching and learning resources that include CengageNOW-a powerful online tutorial and course management system, and dynamic easy-to-use lecture and class preparation tools exclusive to Wadsworth, a part of Cengage Learning.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Philosophy and the Search for Wisdom
1(22)
What to Expect from This Book
3(1)
Areas of Philosophy
4(1)
Philosophical Archetypes
5(3)
Are Philosophers Always Men?
8(1)
Philosophy and the Search for Truth
9(1)
``Isn't All This Just a Matter of Opinion?''
10(2)
Wisdom, Knowledge, and Belief
12(2)
Ignorance Is Not An Option
13(1)
Summary of Main Points
14(1)
Reflections
14(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
15(2)
Overview of Classical Themes
17(2)
Nature and Convention
19(1)
Contemporary Lessons from the Past
19(2)
The Search for Excellence
21(1)
The Search for Happiness
21(2)
The Asian Sages: Lao-Tzu, Confucious, and Buddha
23(38)
The Harmony of Heaven and Earth
24(1)
Sagehood
25(1)
The Do-Nothing Sage: Lao-tzu
26(1)
The Way
27(3)
People Cannot Stop Talking About It
28(2)
The Way of Reversal
30(3)
Prefer Yin to Yang
31(1)
The Union of Relative Opposites
32(1)
The Way of Inaction
33(2)
The Social Sage: Confucius
35(2)
The Teacher
36(1)
Confucian Humanism and the Golden Mean
37(2)
Virtue and Ceremony
39(1)
The Example of the Chun-tzu
40(1)
The Thread of Humanity
41(1)
The Buddha
42(3)
Siddhartha the Seeker
43(1)
The Long Search
44(1)
The Bodhisattva
45(3)
The Death of the Buddha
46(2)
Unsatisfactoriness and Karma
48(2)
The Four Noble Truths
50(1)
The Eightfold Path
51(3)
The Buddha's Legacy
54(1)
What The Buddha Did Not Explain
55(2)
Commentary
57(2)
Summary of Main Points
59(1)
Reflections
60(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
60(1)
The Presocratic Sophos
61(18)
From Sophos to Philosopher
62(2)
The Search for a Common Principle
64(1)
Rational Discourse
64(2)
The Problem of Change
66(1)
The Logos
66(2)
Appearance and Reality
68(1)
The One
69(3)
Being and Change
70(2)
The Many
72(2)
Mind
73(1)
Atoms and the Void
74(2)
Reason and Necessity
75(1)
Nature and Convention
76(1)
Commentary
76(1)
Summary of Main Points
77(1)
Reflections
78(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
78(1)
The Sophist: Protagoras
79(20)
The Advent of Professional Educators
82(1)
The Sophists
83(2)
Power and Education
83(2)
Relativism
85(2)
Protagoras the Pragmatist
87(4)
Moral Realism: Might Makes Right
91(1)
The Doctrine of the Superior Individual
92(2)
Commentary
94(2)
Summary of Main Points
96(1)
Reflections
96(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
97(2)
The Wise Man: Socrates
99(34)
The General Character of Socrates
101(7)
Barefoot in Athens
103(2)
A Most Unusual Father and Husband
105(1)
The Archetypal Individual
105(3)
The Teacher and His Teachings
108(1)
The Dialectic
108(2)
Socratic Irony
109(1)
Socrates at Work
110(5)
Sophos versus Sophist
111(4)
The Unexamined Life
115(5)
Socratic Ignorance
116(2)
The Power of Human Wisdom
118(2)
The Physician of the Soul
120(4)
No One Knowingly Does Evil
121(1)
Virtue Is Wisdom
122(2)
The Trial and Death of Socrates
124(5)
The Death of Socrates
126(3)
Commentary
129(1)
Summary of Main Points
129(1)
Reflections
130(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
131(2)
The Philosopher-King: Plato
133(34)
Plato's Life and Work
135(4)
The Decline of the Aristocracy
136(1)
Plato's Disillusionment
137(2)
The Academy
139(1)
Plato's Epistemology
139(2)
Plato's Dualistic Solution
140(1)
Knowledge and Being
141(1)
The Theory of Forms
141(5)
What Are Forms?
142(2)
Why Plato Needed the Forms
144(1)
Knowledge and Opinion
144(1)
What Happens When We Disagree?
145(1)
The Divided Line
146(3)
Levels of Awareness
148(1)
The Simile of the Sun
149(2)
The Allegory of the Cave
151(2)
The Rule of the Wise
153(5)
The Search for Justice
155(1)
Function and Happiness
155(1)
The Philosopher's Republic
156(1)
The Parts of the Soul
156(1)
The Cardinal Virtues
157(1)
The Origin of Democracy
158(4)
The Pendulum of Imbalance
160(2)
The Tyranny of Excess
162(1)
Commentary
162(1)
Summary of Main Points
163(1)
Reflections
164(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
165(2)
The Naturalist: Aristotle
167(28)
Works
168(1)
Aristotle's Life
169(1)
The Lyceum
170(1)
The Naturalist
171(1)
Natural Changes
172(3)
Form
172(2)
Matter
174(1)
Change
174(1)
Aristotle's Hierarchy of Explanations
175(1)
The Four Causes
176(3)
Material Cause
177(1)
Formal Cause
177(1)
Efficient Cause
178(1)
Final Cause
178(1)
Entelechy
179(1)
The Hierarchy of Souls
179(1)
Natural Happiness
180(7)
The Good
182(1)
Teleological Thinking
183(1)
The Science of the Good
184(1)
Eudaimonia
185(1)
The Good Life Is a Process
186(1)
Hitting the Mark
187(5)
The Principle of the Mean
188(1)
Character and Habit
189(1)
Application of the Mean
190(2)
Commentary
192(1)
Summary of Main Points
193(1)
Reflections
194(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
194(1)
The Stoic: Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius
195(32)
Hedonism
198(1)
The Meaning of Life Is Pleasure
198(1)
Epicureanism
199(3)
Quality of Life
200(2)
The Cynical Origins of Stoicism
202(1)
A Scout For Wisdom
203(2)
Epictetus: From Slave to Sage
205(2)
Marcus Aurelius: Philosopher-King
207(1)
The Fated Life
208(4)
The Stoic Logos
209(1)
The Disinterested Rational Will
210(2)
Stoic Wisdom
212(9)
Control versus Influence
213(2)
Some Things Are Not in Our Control
215(1)
Some Things Are in Our Control
215(2)
Relationships
217(1)
Everything Has a Price
218(1)
Suffering and Courage
219(2)
The World of Epictetus
221(2)
Commentary
223(2)
Summary of Main Points
225(1)
Reflections
225(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
226(1)
The Scholar: Thomas Aquinas
227(34)
The God-Centered Universe
229(1)
The Seeds of Change
229(1)
Augustine: Between Two Worlds
230(4)
Pride and Philosophy
233(1)
The Life of Thomas Aquinas
234(4)
The Dominican
235(1)
The University of Paris
235(1)
Albertus Magnus: The Universal Teacher
236(1)
The Task of the Scholar
237(1)
The Wisdom of the Scholar
238(1)
Why Do People Argue About Spiritual Matters?
239(1)
God and Natural Reason
240(1)
Proving the Existence of God
240(6)
The First Way: Motion
241(1)
The Second Way: Cause
242(1)
The Third Way: Necessity
243(1)
The Fourth Way: Degree
244(1)
The Fifth Way: Design
245(1)
Commentary on the Five Ways
246(2)
Complications for Natural Theology
248(4)
The Problem of Evil
249(3)
Commentary
252(1)
Summary of Main Points
253(1)
Reflections
254(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
254(2)
Overview of Modern Themes
255(1)
Reason, Reformation, and Revolution
256(5)
The Reformation
256(2)
The Copernican Revolution
258(1)
Where Are We, Then?
259(2)
The Rationalist: Rene Descartes
261(28)
The Problem of Authority
262(1)
Rene Descartes: The Solitary Intellect
263(2)
Rationalism
265(3)
Against Disorganized Thinking
265(3)
The Method of Doubt
268(3)
The Cartesian ``I'' and Methodic Doubt
269(1)
Standard of Truth
269(1)
Innate Ideas
270(1)
The Cartesian Genesis
271(5)
Maybe It's All a Dream?
273(1)
The Evil Genius
274(1)
Cogito, ergo sum
274(2)
The Innate Idea of God
276(5)
The Perfect Idea of Perfection
277(2)
Descartes' Ontological Argument
279(1)
Reconstructing the World
280(1)
The Cartesian Bridge
281(3)
Cartesian Dualism
282(1)
The Mind-Body Problem
282(2)
From Cosmos To Machine
284(2)
Commentary
286(1)
Summary of Main Points
287(1)
Reflections
288(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
288(1)
The Skeptic: David Hume
289(34)
John Locke
291(7)
Experience Is the Origin of All Ideas
293(1)
Locke's Rejection of Innate Ideas
293(1)
Locke's Dualism
294(2)
Primary and Secondary Qualities
296(1)
Locke's Egocentric Predicament
296(2)
George Berkeley
298(2)
David Hume: The Scottish Skeptic
300(4)
The Skeptical Masterpiece
301(1)
An Honest Man
302(2)
Hume's Skeptical Empiricism
304(4)
Impressions and Ideas
305(1)
The Empirical Criterion of Meaning
306(1)
The Self
306(1)
Personal Immortality
307(1)
The Limits of Reason
308(2)
The Limits of Science
310(1)
The Limits of Theology
311(2)
The Limits of Ethics
313(5)
The Facts, Just the Facts
314(2)
Moral Sentiments
316(1)
Rejection of Egoism
316(2)
Commentary
318(1)
Summary of Main Points
319(1)
Reflections
320(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
321(2)
The Universalist: Immanuel Kant
323(30)
The Professor
325(1)
The Solitary Writer
326(1)
A Scandal in Philosophy
327(2)
Kant's Copernican Revolution
329(7)
Critical Philosophy
331(1)
Phenomena and Noumena
332(1)
Transcendental Ideas
333(2)
The Objectivity of Experience
335(1)
The Metaphysics of Morals
336(4)
The Moral Law Within
337(1)
The Good Will
338(1)
Inclinations, Wishes, Acts of Will
339(1)
Moral Duty
340(5)
Hypothetical Imperatives
341(1)
The Categorical Imperative
342(1)
The Kingdom of Ends
343(2)
A Kantian Theory of Justice
345(3)
What About Family Justice?
347(1)
Commentary
348(2)
Summary of Main Points
350(1)
Reflections
351(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
351(2)
The Utilitarian: John Stuart Mill
353(26)
Social Hedonism
355(1)
Philosophy and Social Reform
356(1)
The Principle of Utility
357(4)
The Hedonic Calculus
358(1)
The Egoistic Foundation of Social Concern
359(1)
The Question Is, Can They Suffer?
360(1)
John Stuart Mill
361(3)
Mill's Crisis
362(1)
Redemption and Balance
363(1)
Refined Utilitarianism
364(4)
Higher Pleasures
367(1)
Lower Pleasures
368(1)
Altruism and Happiness
368(4)
Utilitarian Social Logic
370(1)
Happiness and Mere Contentment
371(1)
Mill's Persistent Optimism
372(2)
Commentary
374(2)
Summary of Main Points
376(1)
Reflections
376(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
377(2)
The Materialist: Karl Marx
379(24)
The Prophet
380(6)
Marx's Hegelian Roots
381(1)
Other Influences
382(1)
The Wanderer
383(1)
Friedrich Engels
384(1)
Vindication
385(1)
Dialectical Materialism
386(4)
Economic Determinism
387(3)
Critique of Capitalism
390(6)
The Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat
391(2)
Co-Option and Class Struggle
393(3)
Alienation
396(3)
Species-Life
397(2)
Commentary
399(1)
Summary of Main Points
400(1)
Reflections
401(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
401(2)
The Existentialist: Soren Kierkegaard
403(30)
Soren Kierkegaard
405(7)
The Family Curse
406(1)
The Universal Formula
407(1)
Kierkegaard's? Works
408(2)
The Christian
410(1)
That Individual
410(2)
Truth as Subjectivity
412(6)
Objectivity as Untruth
414(1)
The Present Age
415(1)
An Age of Virtual Equality
416(2)
Becoming A Subject
418(4)
Stages On Life's Way
422(7)
The Aesthetic Stage
424(1)
The Ethical Stage
425(1)
The Religious Stage
426(3)
Dangerous Stuff
429(1)
Commentary
430(1)
Summary of Main Points
431(1)
Reflections
432(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
432(1)
The Pragmatist: William James
433(28)
An American Original
434(3)
The Education of a Philosopher
435(2)
The Philosopher as Hero
437(1)
The Philosopher as Advocate
438(1)
Charles Sanders Peirce
439(1)
Peirce's ``Pragmaticism''
439(1)
Pragmatic Theory of Meaning
440(1)
Pragmatism
440(13)
Pragmatic Method and Philosophy
441(2)
The Temper of Belief
443(2)
The Will to Believe
445(1)
Truth Happens to an Idea
445(2)
The Dilemma of Determinism
447(2)
The Inner Sense of Freedom
449(1)
Morality and the Good
450(1)
The Heroic Life
451(2)
Pragmatic Religion
453(2)
A Religious Dilemma
454(1)
Truth Is Always Personal
455(2)
Danger Signs
456(1)
Commentary
457(2)
Summary of Main Points
459(1)
Reflections
459(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
460(1)
The Anti-Philosopher: Friedrich Nietzsche
461(28)
The Outsider
464(6)
Beyond the Academy
465(1)
Tragic Optimism
465(1)
Zarathustra Speaks
466(3)
The Last Philosopher
469(1)
Truth Is a Matter of Perspective
470(1)
Attack on Objectivity
471(2)
The Will to Power
473(1)
The Diseases of Modernity
473(4)
The Problem of Morality
474(2)
The Problem of Generalized Accounts
476(1)
God Is Dead
477(3)
Overman
480(1)
Slave Morality
481(3)
Ressentiment
483(1)
Master Morality
484(2)
Amor Fati
486(1)
Commentary
486(1)
Summary of Main Points
487(1)
Reflections
488(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
488(1)
The Twentieth Century: Ludwig Wittgenstein and Martin Heidegger
489(40)
Two Approaches to Philosophy
492(1)
Ludwig Wittgenstein
492(4)
Cambridge and the Tractatus
493(2)
The Philosophical Investigator
495(1)
What Are You Talking About?
496(4)
The Tractatus
497(3)
Wittgenstein's Turn
500(1)
Martin Heidegger
501(8)
Roots and Ground
504(1)
Thinking Has Come to Life Again
505(2)
Heidegger's Children
507(2)
Phenomenology: The Science of Beings
509(2)
Dasein
511(2)
What Is the Meaning of Being?
513(1)
Being With an Attitude
514(4)
Existence
515(1)
Ready-to-Hand
516(1)
Moody Attunement
517(1)
The Burden of Being Human
518(4)
Anxiety
518(2)
The ``They''
520(1)
Idle Talk
521(1)
Authenticity
522(1)
We Are A Conversation
523(2)
Wither Philosophy? (A Pun)
525(1)
Summary of Main Points
526(2)
Reflections
528(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
528(1)
Notes 529(14)
Glossary 543(10)
Bibliography of Interesting Sources 553(8)
Index of margin Quotes 561(4)
Index 565


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