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Archetypes of Wisdom : An Introduction to Philosophy

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780534566593

ISBN10:
0534566596
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/11/2000
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $62.33
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Summary

Philosophy doesn't need to be set in stone. ARCHETYPES OF WISDOM: AN INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY brings philosophy to life and sets you on a course to search for your own wisdom. With this philosophy textbook, you'll get the best readings from the best philosophers and the explanation you need to understand them. Plus with End-Of-Chapter self-testing questions and other review study tools, ARCHETYPES OF WISDOM: AN INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY is the one you need for the test, too.

Table of Contents

Philosophy and the Search for Wisdom
1(24)
What to Expect from This Book
3(1)
Areas of Philosophy
4(1)
Philosophical Archetypes
5(2)
Are Philosophers Always Men?
7(1)
Philosophy and the Search for Truth
8(2)
``Isn't All This Just a Matter of Opinion?''
10(2)
Wisdom, Knowledge, and Belief
12(2)
Knowledge
12(1)
Belief
13(1)
Willed Ignorance
14(1)
A Note about the Spirit of Philosophy
14(7)
Summary of Main Points
17(1)
Reflections
18(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
18(1)
Overview of Classical Themes
19(2)
Nature and Convention
21(1)
Contemporary Lessons from the Past
22(1)
The Search for Excellence
23(1)
The Search for Happiness
24(1)
The Asian Sage: Lao-tzu and Buddha
25(36)
The Taoist Sage: Lao-tzu
27(3)
The Way
30(2)
People Cannot Stop Talking About It
31(1)
The Way of Reversal
32(2)
Prefer Yin to Yang
34(2)
The Union of Relative Opposites
35(1)
The Doctrine of Inaction
36(4)
Doing Nothing
37(3)
The Buddha
40(2)
Siddhartha the Seeker
40(1)
The Long Search
41(1)
The Bodhisattva
42(4)
The Death of the Buddha
44(2)
Buddha's Philosophy Lab
46(1)
Unsatisfactoriness
46(2)
Karma
48(1)
The Four Noble Truths
48(1)
The Eightfold Path
49(2)
Buddha Now
51(1)
Buddha's Dharma Family
52(1)
The Buddha's Legacy
52(3)
Five Precepts
54(1)
What The Buddha Did Not Explain
55(1)
Commentary
56(5)
Summary of Main Points
59(1)
Reflections
59(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
60(1)
The Presocratic Sophos
61(21)
From Sophos to Philosopher
64(1)
The Search for a Common Principle
64(1)
Thales
65(1)
Rational Discourse
65(1)
The Problem of Change
66(1)
Quality and Quantity
67(1)
The One
67(3)
Being and Change
69(1)
The Many
70(2)
Mind
71(1)
Atoms and the Void
72(3)
Reason and Necessity
74(1)
Nature and Convention
75(1)
The Logos
75(2)
Appearance and Reality
77(2)
War and Strife
78(1)
Commentary
79(3)
Summary of Main Points
80(1)
Reflections
81(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
81(1)
The Sophist: Protagoras
82(20)
The Advent of Professional Educators
85(1)
The Sophists
86(3)
Power and Education
88(1)
Relativism
89(1)
Protagoras the Pragmatist
90(4)
Moral Realism: Might Makes Right
94(2)
The Doctrine of the Superior Individual
96(1)
Commentary
97(5)
Summary of Main Points
100(1)
Reflections
100(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
101(1)
The Wise Man: Socrates
102(35)
The General Character of Socrates
104(8)
The Ugliest Man in Athens
105(2)
Barefoot in Athens
107(1)
A Most Unusual Father and Husband
108(1)
The Archetypal Individual
109(3)
The Teacher and His Teachings
112(1)
The Dialectic
113(1)
Socratic Irony
113(1)
Socrates at Work
114(5)
Sophos versus Sophist
116(3)
The Unexamined Life
119(5)
Socratic Ignorance
120(2)
The Power of Human Wisdom
122(2)
The Physician of the Soul
124(4)
No One Knowingly Does Evil
125(1)
Virtue Is Wisdom
126(2)
The Trial and Death of Socrates
128(5)
The Death of Socrates
130(3)
Commentary
133(4)
Summary of Main Points
135(1)
Reflections
135(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
136(1)
The Philosopher-King: Plato
137(35)
Plato's Life and Work
139(5)
The Decline of the Aristocracy
140(2)
Plato's Disillusionment
142(1)
The Academy
143(1)
Plato's Epistemology
144(1)
Plato's Dualistic Solution
145(1)
Knowledge and Being
145(1)
The Theory of Forms
146(5)
What Are Forms?
146(2)
Why Plato Needed the Forms
148(1)
Knowledge and Opinion
149(1)
What Happens When We Disagree?
150(1)
The Divided Line
151(3)
Levels of Awareness
152(2)
The Simile of the Sun
154(1)
The Allegory of the Cave
155(3)
The Rule of the Wise
158(1)
The Republic
159(5)
The Search for Justice
160(1)
Function and Happiness
161(1)
The Ideal State
161(1)
The Parts of the Soul
162(1)
The Cardinal Virtues
163(1)
Societies and Individuals
164(4)
The Origin of Democracy
164(2)
The Pendulum of Imbalance
166(2)
The Tyranny of Excess
168(1)
Commentary
168(4)
Summary of Main Points
170(1)
Reflections
171(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
171(1)
The Naturalist: Aristotle
172(30)
Works
174(1)
Aristotle's Life
174(1)
The Lyceum
175(2)
The Naturalist
177(1)
Natural Changes
178(3)
Form
178(1)
Matter
179(1)
Change
180(1)
Aristotle's Hierarchy of Explanations
181(1)
The Four Causes
182(3)
Material Cause
182(1)
Formal Cause
183(1)
Efficient Cause
184(1)
Final Cause
184(1)
Entelechy
185(1)
Psyche as Entelechy
185(2)
The Hierarchy of Souls
186(1)
Natural Happiness
187(6)
The Good
188(1)
Teleological Thinking
188(2)
The Science of the Good
190(1)
Eudaimonia
191(1)
The Good Life Is a Process
192(1)
Hitting the Mark
193(5)
The Principle of the Mean
194(1)
Character and Habit
195(1)
Application of the Mean
196(2)
Commentary
198(4)
Summary of Main Points
200(1)
Reflections
200(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
201(1)
The Stoic: Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius
202(31)
The Cynical Origins of Stoicism
205(2)
The Slave and the Emperor
207(2)
Epictetus: From Slave to Sage
208(1)
Marcus Aurelius: Philosopher-King
209(1)
The Fated Life
210(5)
The Stoic Logos
211(2)
The Disinterested Rational Will
213(2)
Stoic Wisdom
215(9)
Control versus Influence
216(1)
Some Things Are Not in Our Control
217(1)
Some Things Are in Our Control
218(1)
Relationships
219(3)
Everything Has a Price
222(1)
Suffering and Courage
222(2)
Stoicism Today
224(5)
Reality Therapy: William Glasser
225(1)
Rational-Emotive Therapy: Albert Ellis
225(1)
Logotherapy: Viktor E. Frankl
226(1)
Epictetus in Vietnam
227(2)
Commentary
229(4)
Summary of Main Points
231(1)
Reflections
232(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
232(1)
The Scholar: Thomas Aquinas
233(34)
The God-Centered Universe
235(3)
The Seeds of Change
236(1)
The Need to Reconcile Faith and Reason
237(1)
The Life of Thomas Aquinas
238(4)
The Dominican
239(1)
The University of Paris
239(1)
Albertus Magnus: The Universal Teacher
240(2)
The Task of the Scholar
242(1)
The Wisdom of the Scholar
242(2)
Why Do People Argue About Spiritual Matters?
244(1)
God and Natural Reason
244(1)
Proving the Existence of God
245(6)
The First Way: Motion
246(1)
The Second Way: Cause
246(1)
The Third Way: Necessity
247(2)
The Fourth Way: Degree
249(1)
The Fifth Way: Design
250(1)
Commentary on the Five Ways
251(3)
Complications for Natural Theology
254(3)
The Problem of Evil
254(3)
Commentary
257(4)
Summary of Main Points
258(1)
Reflections
259(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
259(1)
Overview of Modern Themes
260(1)
Reason, Reformation, and Revolution
261(6)
The Reformation
261(2)
The Copernican Revolution
263(3)
Where Are We, Then?
266(1)
The Rationalist: Rene Descartes
267(27)
The Problem of Authority
268(1)
Rene Descartes: The Solitary Intellect
269(2)
Rationalism
271(2)
Against Disorganized Thinking
271(2)
The Method of Doubt
273(5)
The Cartesian ``I'' and Methodic Doubt
275(1)
Standard of Truth
276(1)
Innate Ideas
277(1)
The Cartesian Genesis
278(5)
The Doubting Self
278(1)
Maybe It's All a Dream?
279(1)
The Evil Genius
280(1)
Cogito, ergo sum
281(2)
The Innate Idea of God
283(5)
The Perfect Idea of Perfection
283(2)
Descartes' Ontological Argument
285(2)
Reconstructing the World
287(1)
The Cartesian Bridge
288(3)
Cartesian Dualism
288(1)
The Mind-Body Problem
289(2)
Commentary
291(3)
Summary of Main Points
292(1)
Reflections
293(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
293(1)
The Skeptic: David Hume
294(36)
John Locke
297(6)
Experience Is the Origin of All Ideas
298(1)
Locke's Rejection of Innate Ideas
299(1)
Locke's Dualism
300(1)
Primary and Secondary Qualities
301(1)
Locke's Egocentric Predicament
302(1)
George Berkeley
303(3)
David Hume: The Scottish Skeptic
306(4)
The Skeptical Masterpiece
307(1)
An Honest Man
308(2)
Hume's Skeptical Empiricism
310(5)
Impressions and Ideas
311(1)
The Empirical Criterion of Meaning
311(1)
The Self
312(2)
Personal Immortality
314(1)
The Limits of Reason
315(1)
The Limits of Science
316(2)
The Limits of Theology
318(2)
The Limits of Ethics
320(5)
The Facts, Just the Facts
322(1)
Moral Sentiments
323(1)
Rejection of Egoism
324(1)
Commentary
325(5)
Summary of Main Points
328(1)
Reflections
329(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
329(1)
The Universalist: Immanuel Kant
330(29)
The Professor
332(3)
The Solitary Writer
333(2)
A Scandal in Philosophy
335(2)
Kant's Copernican Revolution
337(7)
Critical Philosophy
339(1)
Phenomena and Noumena
340(1)
Transcendental Ideas
340(2)
The Objectivity of Experience
342(2)
The Metaphysics of Morals
344(4)
Practical Reason
344(1)
The Moral Law Within
345(1)
The Good Will
346(1)
Inclinations, Wishes, Acts of Will
347(1)
Moral Duty
348(7)
Hypothetical Imperatives
349(1)
The Categorical Imperative
350(3)
The Kingdom of Ends
353(2)
Commentary
355(4)
Summary of Main Points
357(1)
Reflections
358(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
358(1)
The Utilitarian: John Stuart Mill
359(30)
Unrefined Hedonism
361(2)
The Meaning of Life Is Pleasure
361(1)
Knowledge and Pleasure
362(1)
Epicurean Hedonism
363(2)
The Garden of Epicurus
364(1)
Quality versus Quantity
364(1)
Social Hedonism
365(2)
Philosophy and Social Reform
367(1)
The Principle of Utility
368(3)
The Hedonic Calculus
369(1)
The Egoistic Foundation of Social Concern
370(1)
John Stuart Mill
371(4)
Mill's Crisis
372(1)
Redemption and Balance
373(2)
Refined Utilitarianism
375(4)
Higher Pleasures
377(1)
Lower Pleasures
377(2)
Altruism and Happiness
379(3)
Utilitarian Social Logic
381(1)
Happiness and Mere Contentment
382(1)
Mill's Persistent Optimism
382(2)
Commentary
384(5)
Summary of Main Points
387(1)
Reflections
387(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
388(1)
The Materialist: Karl Marx
389(33)
The Prophet
391(5)
Marx's Hegelian Roots
391(1)
Other Influences
392(1)
The Wanderer
393(2)
Friedrich Engels
395(1)
Vindication
395(1)
Dialectical Materialism
396(6)
Mystification and Materialism
398(2)
Economic Determinism
400(2)
Critique of Capitalism
402(6)
The Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat
402(3)
Co-Option
405(1)
Class Struggle
406(1)
Seeds of Destruction
407(1)
Alienation
408(4)
Psychic Alienation
410(1)
Species-Life
411(1)
Commentary
412(5)
Summary of Main Points
414(1)
Reflections
415(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
415(1)
Overview of Postmodern Themes
416(1)
What Is Philosophy (continued)?
417(1)
Of Metaphors and Margins
418(1)
Is Objectivity Possible?
419(1)
Is Objectivity Desirable?
420(2)
The Existentialists: Søren Kierkegaard and Jean-Paul Sartre
422(33)
Existentialism Was Bound to Happen
424(1)
Søren Kierkegaard
425(4)
The Family Curse
425(1)
The Universal Formula
426(2)
The Christian
428(1)
That Individual
429(1)
Truth as Subjectivity
429(8)
Objectivity as Untruth
432(1)
The Present Age
433(1)
An Age of Virtual Equality
434(3)
Sartre and the Age of Forlornness
437(1)
Jean-Paul Sartre
438(3)
Nausea
439(1)
Existence Is Absurd
440(1)
The Celebrity Philosopher
440(1)
Freedom and Anguish
441(10)
Forlornness
442(2)
Condemned to Be Free
444(2)
Anguish
446(2)
Despair
448(2)
Optimistic Toughness
450(1)
Commentary
451(4)
Summary of Main Points
453(1)
Reflections
454(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
454(1)
The Anti-Philosopher: Friedrich Nietzsche
455(33)
The Outsider
458(6)
Beyond the Academy
459(1)
Tragic Optimism
460(1)
Zarathustra Speaks
460(3)
The Last Philosopher
463(1)
Truth Is a Matter of Perspective
464(1)
Attack on Objectivity
465(1)
The Will to Power
466(1)
The Diseases of Modernity
467(5)
The Problem of Morality
468(1)
The Problem of Being Moralistic
469(1)
The Problem of Utilitarianism
470(1)
The Problem of Altruism
470(1)
The Problem of Generalized Accounts
471(1)
God Is Dead
472(1)
Nihilism
473(1)
Overman
474(1)
Slave Morality
475(4)
Ressentiment
477(2)
Master Morality
479(3)
The Eternal Recurrence
482(2)
Amor Fati
484(1)
Commentary
484(4)
Summary of Main Points
486(1)
Reflections
487(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
487(1)
The Pragmatist: William James
488(31)
An American Original
490(4)
The Education of a Philosopher
490(2)
The Philosopher as Hero
492(1)
The Philosopher as Advocate
493(1)
Charles Sanders Peirce
494(2)
Peirce's ``Pragmaticism''
494(1)
Pragmatic Theory of Meaning
495(1)
Pragmatism
496(12)
Pragmatic Method and Philosophy
496(2)
The Temper of Belief
498(2)
The Will to Believe
500(1)
Truth Happens to an Idea
501(2)
The Dilemma of Determinism
503(1)
The Inner Sense of Freedom
504(2)
Morality and the Good
506(1)
The Heroic Life
507(1)
Pragmatic Religion
508(4)
A Religious Dilemma
509(1)
Ultramarginal Life
510(2)
Truth Is Always Personal
512(2)
Danger Signs
513(1)
Commentary
514(5)
Summary of Main Points
517(1)
Reflections
518(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
518(1)
Philosophy as a Way of Life
519(30)
Public and Private Philosophy
522(2)
Can Wisdom Be Generalized?
522(2)
The Masculinization of Thought
524(2)
From Cosmos To Machine
524(2)
A Masculine Theory of Justice
526(3)
What About Family Justice?
527(2)
The Reemergence of Other Voices
529(2)
Philosophizing in a Different Voice
529(2)
Public Philosophers
531(1)
Martha C. Nussbaum: ``Lawyer for Humanity''
532(1)
Martin Luther King, Jr.: Philosophic Activist
533(5)
Character Is Destiny
535(1)
The Value of Moral Tension
536(2)
Peter Singer: ``The Dangerous Philosopher''
538(3)
The Singer Solution to World Poverty
539(2)
A Vision for You
541(1)
Philosophy as a Way of Life
542(2)
Let Philosophy Touch Your Heart
544(1)
A Message From Epictetus
545(1)
Commentary
545(4)
Summary of Main Points
546(1)
Reflections
547(1)
Philosophy Internet Resources
547(2)
Notes 549(12)
Glossary 561(10)
Bibliography of Interesting Sources 571(6)
Credits 577(2)
Index of Margin Quotes 579(2)
Index 581


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