9780415269650

Arctic Ecological Research from Microwave Satellite Observations

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780415269650

  • ISBN10:

    0415269652

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-03-29
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

Active (imaging radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave systems are increasingly used for Arctic ecological research. Unfortunately, until now ecologists interested in remote sensing often lacked access to the full suite of physical and analytical techniques of microwave systems, data processing, and ecological applications because a suitable reference book did not exist.Arctic Ecological Research from Microwave Satellite Observations answers this demand by summarizing the main microwave satellite applications for Arctic ecological research. This book is invaluable to specialists with a background in microwave techniques, as well as to other ecologists interested in applications of microwave active and passive remote sensing for tundra, boreal forest, and Arctic sea-ice habitat and marine mammal studies.It presents a brief introduction to Arctic ecological problems, the role of satellite sensing for monitoring Arctic ecosystems, and related data processing applications. The volume then examines results of Arctic sea-ice habitat studies using OKEAN-01 satellite data, then provides a comparative analysis of multisensor satellite monitoring of habitat using OKEAN-01, SSM/I and AVHRR satellite instruments. It also describes the evaluation of relative information content of ALMAZ-1, ERS-1, JERS-1 SAR, and Landsat-TM data for identifying wet tundra habitats. The book concludes with results of sensitive boreal forest type detection to monitor potential impacts of climate change on boreal forest structure.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Arctic Ecological Research and Microwave Remote Sensing
1(22)
Arctic Ecological Problems and Remote Sensing
1(2)
Elements of Microwave Remote Sensing
3(3)
Elements of Imaging Radar Satellite Systems
6(6)
Elements of Passive Microwave Satellite Systems
12(4)
Elements of Microwave Data Inversion, Classification and Applications
16(3)
Conclusion
19(4)
References
20(3)
Russian Microwave Satellites: Main Missions, Characteristics and Applications
23(42)
A Brief Review of the Main National and International Microwave Satellite Systems
23(6)
Evolution of Russian Microwave Satellites
29(3)
Kosmos--Okean Satellite Series
32(20)
Orbit Characteristics
32(1)
Sensors
32(2)
Scanning Configuration
34(1)
Radiometric Calibration
35(10)
Geometric Calibration and Registration
45(1)
Structure of the Satellite Data
46(1)
Data Acquisition, Processing and Distribution
47(5)
Main Applications
52(1)
ALMAZ Satellite Series
52(6)
ALMAZ SAR (KOSMOS-1870) Satellite
52(3)
ALMAZ-1 SAR Satellite
55(1)
ALMAZ-1B and ALMAZ-2 SAR Satellites
55(3)
Conclusion
58(7)
References
61(4)
Arctic Marine Mammal Sea Ice Habitat Studies Using Active and Passive Microwave Satellite Data
65(22)
Introduction
65(1)
Study Area
66(1)
Data
66(3)
Structure of Data Processing System
69(1)
Estimating Sea Ice Habitat Parameters
69(8)
Estimating the Area Fractions of Open Water (OW), Consolidated Young/First-year Sea Ice (Y/FY) and Consolidated Multiyear Sea Ice (MY)
70(1)
Estimating the Sea Ice Surface Physical Temperature
71(1)
Algorithm for Estimating Parameters of Sea Ice Habitat
72(5)
Estimating the Sea Ice Habitat's Integrated Information Content
77(2)
The Shannon's (Entropy) Analysis of Raw Satellite Data
77(1)
The Shannon's (Entropy) Analysis of Satellite Data Classification Results
77(2)
Scheduling of Satellite Image Acquiring
79(1)
Results
79(3)
Discussion
82(5)
References
84(3)
Investigating Variability in Arctic Sea Ice Distribution Using Okean and Almaz Sar Satellite Data
87(26)
Introduction
87(1)
Study Area
88(1)
Data
88(5)
Methods
93(7)
Results
100(6)
Some Results of Okean and Almaz Sar Data Analysis
104(2)
Conclusion
106(7)
References
110(3)
Comparative Analysis of Okean-01, SSM/I and A VHRR Satellite Data for Monitoring of Arctic Sea Ice Habitat
113(26)
Introduction
113(1)
Study Area
114(1)
Data Description
114(3)
Satellite Data Processing
117(7)
General Description of Okean-01 Data Processing
117(1)
Brightness Temperature and Radar Backscatter Coefficient Algorithms for Okean-01 Passive Microwave and Radar Data
117(2)
RM-0.8 Calibration Wedge Correction Algorithms for Okean-01 and SSM/I Microwave Data
119(1)
Sea Ice Concentration Algorithms for Okean-01 Active and Passive Microwave Data
120(1)
Sea Ice Concentration Algorithms for AVHRR/2 Data
121(3)
Results
124(9)
Comparative Analysis of the 36.62 H RM-0.8 and 37 H SSM/I Channel Brightness Temperatures, and Correction of the RM-08 Calibration Wedge
124(3)
Sea Ice Mapping Using Okean-01 Active and Passive Microwave Data
127(1)
Comparisons between Okean-01, SSM/I and AVHRR Derived Sea Ice Concentration
127(6)
Conclusion
133(6)
References
136(3)
Boreal Forest Habitat Studies Using Okean-01 Satellite Data
139(14)
Introduction
139(1)
Study Area
140(1)
Data
140(3)
Mapping Boreal Forest Vegetation
143(1)
Some Results
143(2)
Improvement of Boreal Forest Classification Using a Minimum Loss Function Criteria
145(6)
General Description of the Classification Goal
145(2)
The Structural Scheme of Data Processing and Classification System
147(2)
Classification of Boreal Forest Vegetation Using Okean-01 Satellite Data
149(2)
Conclusion
151(2)
References
152(1)
Comparative Assessment of Almaz-1, Sar, Ers-1 Sar, Jers-1 Sar and Landsat-TM Satellite Data for Tundra Habitat Studies
153(24)
Introduction
153(1)
Study Area
154(1)
Satellite Data
154(1)
Ground Data
154(4)
Satellite-derived Map
158(8)
Results
166(8)
Conclusion
174(3)
References
174(3)
Dependence Between SAR Data Focusing Parameters and Efficiency of Discriminating Tundra Habitat
177(18)
Introduction
177(1)
Basic Focusing Algorithm
178(3)
Focusing Algorithm for Almaz-1 Sar Data
181(1)
Focusing Algorithm for Ers-1, Jers-1, Radarsat Sar Data
181(1)
Structure of Focusing Software
182(1)
Assessment of Dependence Between Sar Data Focusing Parameters and Tundra Habitat Classification
183(6)
PC/AT Sar Processor
183(1)
Study Area
184(1)
Data Processing
184(5)
Results
189(1)
Conclusion
190(5)
References
193(2)
Studying Regional Aspects of Polar Bear (Ursus Maritimus) Ecology in the Russian Arctic Using Satellite Data
195(20)
Introduction
195(1)
Methodology
196(5)
Study Area
196(1)
Data Description
196(5)
Analysis of the Results
201(8)
Radio-collared Bear Registration
201(1)
Definition of the Major Periods of Sea Ice Activity
201(3)
Comparative Analysis of Movement Rates and Patterns of Different Population Groups
204(3)
Determination of Individual/Group Complimentary Movement Patterns of Different Population Groups
207(1)
Analysis of Polar Bear Habitat Preference
208(1)
Conclusion
209(6)
References
212(3)
Detection of Sensitive Boreal Forest Types to Monitor and Assess Potential Impact of Climate Change
215(14)
Introduction
215(1)
Study Area
216(1)
Field Data
216(1)
Forest Community Classification
216(4)
Computer Programs and Databases
220(1)
Comparative Floristic and Micro-climate Analysis to Identify Sensitive Forest Types
220(6)
Global Change and Boreal Forest Community Dynamics
226(3)
References
227(2)
Subject Index 229

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