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Argument!

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780073384023

ISBN10:
007338402X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/13/2012
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages

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What version or edition is this?
This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 1/13/2012.
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Summary

ARGUMENT!marries solid instruction in critical reading and analysis, argument, and research strategies with a visually engaging and dynamic design. ARGUMENT!teaches students how to read with a critical eye, how to think about and respond to the ideas of others, and ultimately how to craft their own effective, relevant, and engaging arguments.With ARGUMENT!students will learn how to acknowledge and respond to the complex arguments (both visual and textual) that exist all around them in addition to entering debates with their own strong and thoughtful voice.

Table of Contents

Argument

PART ONE
[Understanding Arguments]

1 The Basics of Argument

2 Responding Critically to the Arguments of Others

PART TWO
[Writing Arguments]

3 Writing Effective Arguments

4 More about Arguments: Induction, Deduction, Analogy, and Logical Fallacy

5 Refuting an Argument

6 Taking a Position

7 Writing a Casual Analysis

8 Writing the Problem/Solution Essay

9 Writing a Rhetorical Analysis

10 Reading, Analyzing, and Using Visuals and Statistics in Argument

PART THREE
[Writing A Researched Argument]

11 Planning the Researched Argument

12 Evaluating and Utilizing Sources

13 Drafting and Revising the Researched Argument

14 Documenting Sources (MLA, APA, and More)

PART FOUR
[An Anthology of Contemporary Arguments]

15 The Myth and Reality of the Image in American Consumer Culture

16 The Challenges of Living in a High-Tech, Multimedia World

17 Violent Media or Violent Society?

18 Arguing About Politics: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly

19 Students, Teachers, and Schools in the 21st Century

20 Freedom of Expression in the 21st Century

21 Enduring Controversies in a New Age: Abortion, Animal Rights, Capital Punishment, and Health Care

22 Marriage and Gender Roles: Changing Attitudes vs. Traditional Values

23 Arguing About Science: Policy, Politics, and Culture

24 Competing Perspectives on the American Economic and Financial Crisis

c h a p t e r 1

The Basics of Argument

What Does an Argument Look Like?

Recognizing Purpose in Everyday Arguments

Understanding Audience in Everyday Arguments

Why You Need to Learn to Read and

Write Arguments. Right Now.

PHYLLIS KORKKI“Young Workers: U Nd 2 Improve Ur Writing Skills”

What You Can Expect from Your Writing Assignments

Why Read and Respond to the Work of Others?

Critical Reading and the Contexts of Argument

Active Reading: Use Your Mind!

Understanding the Arguments of Others

LEHIGHVALLEYLIVE.COM “Find the Right Punishment for Teen-Age ‘Sexting’”

Characteristics of Argument

Argument is Conversation with a Goal

Argument Takes a Stand on an Arguable Issue

Argument Uses Reasons and Evidence

Argument Incorporates Values

Argument Recognizes the Topic’s Complexity

The Shape of Argument

The Aristotelian Model

The Toulmin Model

The Language of Claims and Support

Types of Claims

Support for Claims

RICHARD MORIN “Paradise Lost”

Using Toulmin’s Terms to Analyze Arguments

LES SCHOBERT “Let the Zoo’s Elephants Go”

c h a p t e r 2

Responding Critically to the Arguments of Others

Responding to Arguments

Responding to Content: What Does It Say?

Writing Summaries

ABRAHAM LINCOLN “The Gettysburg Address”

Writing Paraphrases

BERTRAND RUSSELL From “A Free Man’s Worship”

The Analytic Response: How Is It Written?

Understanding Purpose and Audience in a Style Analysis

Planning a Style Analysis

Drafting a Style Analysis

ELLEN GOODMAN “Choosing Our Families”
Student Essay: “Goodman’s Feast of Style”

The Evaluation Response: Does It Achieve Its Purpose? Combining Summary, Analysis, and Evaluation: The Critique or Review

Knowing Your Audience

Understanding Your Purpose

Establishing a General Plan Drafting the Critique or Review

The Research Response: How Does It Help Me Understand Other Works, Ideas, and Events?

MEDICAL NEWS TODAY “Grim Warning for America’s Fast Food Consumers Offered by ‘Supersize Me’ Mice Research”
HANY RASHWAN “Communication Key to Egypt’s Uprising”

PART TWO
[Writing Arguments]

c h a p t e r 3

Writing Effective Arguments

HILARY RODHAM CLINTON “Remarks on Internet Freedom”

Understand Your Writing Purpose

Know Your Audience

Who Is My Audience?

What Will My Audience Already Know about My Topic?

Where Does My Audience Stand on the Issue?

How Should I Speak to My Audience?

Move from Topic to Claim to Possible Support

Selecting a Topic

Drafting a Claim or Thesis

Listing Possible Grounds

Listing Grounds for the Other Side or Another Perspective

Considering the Rogerian or Conciliatory Argument

Planning Your Approach

Organizing and Drafting Your Argument

Writing the Introduction and the Conclusion

Revising Your Draft

Editing

Word Choice and Tone

Proofreading

A Checklist for Revision/Editing/Proofreading

DEBORAH TANNEN“We Need Higher Quality Outrage”

c h a p t e r 4

More About Argument: Induction, Deduction, Analogy, and Logical Fallacies

Induction

Deduction

Analogy

Arguments That Do Not Work: Logical Fallacies

Causes of Illogic

Fallacies That Result from Oversimplifying

LIVESCIENCE STAFF “Why Teens Are Lousy at Chores”

The Aristotelian Model

Fallacies That Result from Ignoring the Issue

GREGORY KANE “To Murder Victims’ Families, Executing Killers is Justice”
DAVE BARRY “How to Argue Effectively”
Letter: Better Things to Worry about Than Smoking

c h a p t e r 5

Refuting an Argument

What Is a Refutation Essay?

Guidelines for Writing a Refutation Essay

DAVID SADKER “Gender Games”
MIKE ALLEYWAY “A refutation piece defending punk culture”

Using Research in Refutation Arguments

BOB HERBERT “Flailing after Muslims”
COLBERT I. KING “You Can’t Fight Terrorism with Racism”

c h a p t e r 6

Taking a Position

Characteristics of a Position Argument

Writing a Position Essay

Planning and Organizing the Position Essay

Counterarguments and Finding Common Ground

Editorial: “Ultimately We Control Our Own Privacy Levels on Facebook”

Drafting the Position Essay

BRANDON KEIM “Brain-Enhancing Drugs: Legalize ’Em, Scientists Say”

c h a p t e r 7

Writing a Casual Analysis

What Is a Causal Essay?

Characteristics of Causal Arguments

Recognizing Relationships in Causal Arguments

Mill’s Methods for Investigating Causes

Planning and Drafting a Causal Argument

Planning the Causal Argument

Using Visuals in the Causal Essay

Drafting the Causal Argument

Counterarguments in Causal Essays

A Checklist for Revision

GREGG EASTERBROOK “TV Really Might Cause Autism”

Guidelines for Analyzing Causal Arguments

EUGENE ROBINSON “A Specious ‘Experiment’”

c h a p t e r 8

Writing the Problem/Solution Essay

Characteristics of Problem/Solution Arguments

Planning and Writing a Problem/Solution Argument

Drafting

A Checklist for Revision

Editorial:“Reviewing Criminal Justice”

Guidelines for Analyzing Problem/Solution Arguments

PETER MOSKOS AND “NEILL” FRANKLIN “It’s Time to Legalize Drugs”

c h a p t e r 9

Writing a Rhetorical Analysis

What is a Rhetorical Analysis?

Examining the Context of an Argument

Who is the Author?

Who is the Audience?

What is the Author’s Purpose?

What Are the Writer’s Sources of Information?

Understanding an Author’s Attitude and Tone

Denotative and Connotative Word Choice

Recognizing Tone

Analyzing an Author’s Tone

Analyzing for Tone: Word Choice

Analyzing for Tone: Sentence Structure

Analyzing for Tone: Metaphors

Analyzing for Tone: Organization and Examples

Analyzing for Tone: Repetition

Analyzing for Tone: Hyperbole, Understatement, and Irony

Analyzing for Tone: Visuals

Analyzing for Persuasive Appeals

Analyzing for Persuasive Appeals: Logos

Analyzing for Persuasive Appeals: Ethos

Analyzing for Persuasive Appeals: Pathos

Some Final Thoughts on Writing a Rhetorical Analysis

PART THREE
[Writing A Researched Argument]

c h a p t e r 10

Reading, Analyzing, and Using Visuals in Argument

Responding to Visual Arguments

Reading Graphics

Understanding How Graphics Differ

Techniques for Interpreting Graphics

The Uses of Authority and Statistics

Judging Authorities

Understanding and Evaluating Statistics

Sample Student Essay with Graphics

JOE NAVARRO “Every Body’s Talking”

c h a p t e r 11

Planning the Researched Argument

Finding a Workable and Manageable Topic

Who is My Audience?

What Are the Assignment’s Time and Length Constraints?

What Kinds of Topics Should I Avoid?

How Can I Select a Good Topic?

Writing a Tentative Claim or Research Proposal

Locating Effective Print and Online Sources

Preparing a Working Bibliography

Basic Form for Books

Basic Form for Articles

Knowing Your Library

Locating Books

Using the Reference Collection

Basic Reference Tools

Using Indexes to Periodicals: In Print and Online

Using Indexes to Academic Journals: In Print and Online

Searching the Internet

Conducting Field Research

Federal, State, and Local Government Documents

Correspondence

Interviews

Lectures

Films, Tapes, Television, Online Multimedia Sources

Surveys, Questionnaires, and Original Research

c h a p t e r 12

Evaluating and Utilizing Sources

Finding Sources

Evaluating Sources and Maintaining Credibility

Documenting Sources to Avoid Plagiarism

What Is Common Knowledge?

Taking Notes on Sources

Using “Tags” or “Signal Phrases” to Avoid Misleading Documentation

c h a p t e r 13

Drafting and Revising the Researched Argument

Organizing the Paper

The Format Outline

Drafting the Paper

Plan Your Time

Handle Documentation As You Draft

Choose and Maintain an Appropriate Writing Style

Avoid Ineffective Openings

Compose Solid, Unified Paragraphs

Provide Unity and Coherence

Guide Readers through Source Material

Synthesize Source Material and Your Own Ideas

Avoid Ineffective Conclusions

Write Effective Conclusions

Choose an Effective Title

The Completed Paper

Revising the Paper: A Checklist

Revising

Editing

Proofreading

c h a p t e r 14

Documenting Sources (MLA, APA, and More)

MLA Style

MLA In-Text (Parenthetical) Documentation

Nonprint or Internet Sources

Preparing MLA Citations for a “Works Cited” Page

Sample Student Essay in MLA Style

APA Style

APA Style: In-Text Citations

APA Style: Preparing a List of References

Sample Student Essay in APA Style

Footnote or Endnote Style

In-Text Citations

Footnote/Endnote Form: First (Primary) Reference

Sample Footnotes/Endnotes

Footnote/Endnote Form: Short Forms

Sample Bibliography

PART FOUR
[An Anthology of Contemporary Arguments]

c h a p t e r 15

The Myth and Reality of the Image in American Consumer Culture

HUGH GRAHAM “The End of Consumer Culture?”
NINA POWER “Capitalism, Consumerism and Feminism”
Kia Advertisements
ANDY COGHLAN1“Consumerism Is ‘Eating the Future’”
CARLA FRIED“McDonald’s Hit by Happy Meal Toy Ban”
JEFF HOWE“Why The Music Industry Hates Guitar Hero”

c h a p t e r 16

The Challenges of Living in a High-Tech, Multimedia World

Maps of Facebook, Internet, and Cell Penetration in North Africa and Middle East

HENRY BLODGET“Five Years Later, The Huffington Post (And Online Media) Are Coming of Age

Save the Internet Website

ECONOMIST.COM“Defending video games Breeding evil?”
DAVID THEO GOLDBERG “If Technology Is Making Us Stupid, It’s Not Technology’s Fault”
JACQUIELYNN FLOYD “On Facebook, Biggest Threat to Your Private Data May Be You”
RICHARD BRAUTIGAN “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace”

c h a p t e r 17

Violent Media or Violent Society?

AMERICA’S VOICE “Arizona Immigration Law Could Lead to Surge in Violent Crime”
Parents Television Council Website
Table of Data on Video Game Violence
PUNEET NARANG, MD; ANUBHA PALADUGU, MD; SAINATH REDDY MANDA, MD; WILLIAM SMOCK, MD; CYNTHIA GOSNAY, RN; STEVEN LIPPMANN, MD “Do Guns Provide Safety? At What Cost?
AARON MCGRUDER The Boondocks
SETH SANDRONSKY “Mall Riots: Why Are Some Americans Becoming Violent Shoppers?”

c h a p t e r 18

Arguing About Politics: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly

NATHAN THORNBURGH “Violent Rhetoric and Arizona Politics”
Three Stooges Visual Satire
SCOTT ERIC KAUFMAN “What Is ‘Violent Rhetoric’?”
Illustrations from blogs
Text of President Obama’s Tucson Memorial Speech
JESSE WALKER “The Politics of Superheroes”

c h a p t e r 19

Students, Teachers, and Schools in the 21st Century

NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION WEB SITE
DARYL CAGLE Political cartoon on standardized testing
GARY VARVEL Editorial cartoon about education
MICHAEL REAGAN “America’s Security Put In Peril by Our Failing Education System”
CYNTHIA KOPKOWSKI MCCABE “Education Funding: Follow the Money”
RONALD A. WOLK “Standards-Based Accountability’s High Stakes”
MATTHEW C. KLEIN “Educated, Unemployed and Frustrated”

c h a p t e r 20

Freedom of Expression in the 21st Century

JOHN W. WHITEHEAD “The Schools Are Destroying Freedom of Speech”
KEN DAUTRICH AND JOHN BARE “Why the First Amendment (and Journalism) Might Be in Trouble”
MATT WUERKER Editorial Cartoon about U.S. Supreme Court
MARK DAVIS “A Little Civility, Please”
ROBERT O’NEIL “What Limits Should Campus Networks Place on Pornography?”
RICK SANTORUM “A Perfect Storm: Privacy. Neutrality. Free Expression”
SECURITY GENERATION WEBSITE “The Power of Information: A Critique of Privacy, Wikileaks and Recent Events”
JOHN B. JUDIS “A Defense of Wikileaks: How It Could Actually Improve U.S. Foreign Policy”
DAVID GEWIRTZ “Special Report: Could Wikileaks Cause World War II or the End of the World?”
JESSICA PETERSON “Huckleberry Finn Revision:” Pro
WYATT KANYER “Huckleberry Finn Revision:” Con

c h a p t e r 21

Enduring Controversies in a New Age: Abortion, Animal Rights, Capital Punishment, and Health Care

ISSAC BREKKEN “Sharon Angle Reveals Conversation Abortion Views”
Photo of Animal Rights Protest
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Website
SCOTT STANTIS Political Cartoon About the Death Penalty
KHALIL BENDIB Political Cartoon About the Death Penalty
RICHARF A. VIGUERIE AND L. BRENT BOZELL II “Viguerie and Bozell: Support Is Waning on Death Penalty”
GAIL COLLINS “School of Glock”
KATHLEEN SEBELIUS “Everyone Prospers Under Health Law”
REP. DAN BOREN “Why I Voted to Repeal Health Reform” /h5>

c h a p t e r 22

Marriage and Gender Roles: Changing Attitudes vs. Traditional Values

NAN HUNTER “Top Medical Journal Publishes Study of Lesbian Families”
JONATHAN CAPEHART “Maryland Gay Marriage Debacle Reveals Cowards and Civil Rights Myopia”
Protect marriage: vote “yes” on proposition 8 website
MAX MUTCHNICK “My Daughters Have No Mother”
DARRIN BELL Political Cartoon on Gay Marriage
ROBERT P. GEORGE, RYAN T. ANDERSON AND SHERIF GIRGIS “The Argument Against Gay Marriage: And Why It Doesn’t Fail: A response to NYU Law Professor Kenji Yoshino”
KENJI YOSHINO “The Best Argument Against Gay Marriage and Why It Fails”

c h a p t e r 23

Arguing About Science: Policy, Politics, and Culture

WESLEY J. SMITH “Dear Francis Collins: Opposition to Therapeutic Cloning About Ethics, Not Religion”
Science and Religion Today Statistical Graphics
AMY SULLIVAN “Helping Christians Reconcile God with Science”
KEN HAM “Who Teaches This? You May Be Surprised!”
JEFF PARKER Political Cartoon
LAURA K. DONOHUE “Censoring Science Won’t Make Us Any Safer”
CHUCK SOLSON “Global Warming as Religion”

c h a p t e r 24

Competing Perspectives on the American Economic and Financial Crisis

PAUL KRUGMAN “Degrees and Dollars”
REED HASTINGS “Please Raise My Taxes”
GREG IP “Think This Economy Is Bad? Wait for 2012”
IRVING HOUSING AND LLOYD DANGLE Political Cartoons on the Financial Crisis and Bailout
TIMOTHY NOAH “The United States of Inequality: Introducing the Great Divergence”
YouTube Video of Glenn Beck on the Housing Market Crisis
ROBERT J. SAMUELSON “The Shadow of Depression”


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