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The Art of Being Human,9780321277633

The Art of Being Human

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780321277633

ISBN10:
0321277635
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Longman
List Price: $124.80

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Summary

The Art of Being Human, Eighth Edition,introduces students to the ways in which the humanities can broaden their perspectives, enhance their ability to think critically, and enrich their lives.Ideal for the one-semester humanities course, this well-respected book has been lauded for its scope, accessibility, and writing style. Featuring a unique topical organization, Part I examines ways of responding to the humanities, their mythic origins, and important struggles in the arts. Part II explores the individual genres of literature, art, music, theater, song and dance, and cinema. Part III looks at provocative themes in the humanities: religion, morality, happiness, love, life and death, and freedom.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
PART I Exploring the Humanities
1(98)
You and the Humanities
2(28)
Overview
3(1)
Gifts of the Humanities
4(9)
Love of the Beautiful
5(3)
Love of Movement
8(1)
Love of Language
9(2)
Love of Ideas
11(1)
Awareness of the Past
12(1)
Apollonian and Dionysian Responses to the Humanities
13(8)
The Pleasure of Responding Emotionally
14(2)
The Pleasure of Responding Critically
16(5)
A Guide to Critical Viewing: Professional and Personal
21(6)
How the Professional Critic Responds
21(4)
The Personal Critical Response
25(2)
Becoming an ``Infinite'' Person
27(1)
Key Terms
28(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
29(1)
Myth and the Origin of the Humanities
30(36)
Overview
31(2)
Archetypes in Mythology
33(14)
The Hero as World Myth
34(5)
Magic
39(1)
The Power of Words
40(1)
The Power of Numbers
40(1)
The Circle
41(1)
The Journey
42(1)
The Garden
43(2)
The Doomed Family
45(1)
Gods as Human Beings
46(1)
Myth as Explanation
47(7)
Creation
47(2)
The Natural World
49(3)
Human Suffering
52(2)
Myths of Childhood
54(3)
The Need for Reassurance
55(1)
The Importance of Being Attractive and Rich
55(1)
The Importance of Names
56(1)
The Dark Side
56(1)
Popular Mythology
57(4)
Common Sayings
57(4)
How Myths Influence the Humanities
61(3)
Key Terms
64(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
65(1)
Struggles of the Humanities
66(33)
Overview
67(2)
How Some Artists Fared in Their Lifetimes
69(3)
Belated Recognition
70(1)
Recognition in Life
71(1)
Reasons for Conflict
72(11)
Religious Content
72(2)
Political Views
74(3)
Sexual Themes
77(2)
The Artist's Behavior
79(2)
Unfamiliar Form
81(2)
Repressive Measures Taken Against Artists
83(5)
Suppression of ``Degenerate'' Art
84(1)
``Are You Now or Have You Ever Been a Member...?''
85(1)
Moral Censorship
86(2)
Stereotyping as a Form of Repression
88(3)
The Stages of Stereotyping
88(2)
The Persistence of Stereotypes
90(1)
Women and the Humanities
91(5)
Early Exceptions to the Rule
92(1)
The Quest for Equality
93(3)
Key Terms
96(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
97(2)
PART II Disciplines of the Humanities
99(296)
Literature
100(40)
Overview
101(1)
Literature as History
102(5)
The Basic Literary Impulse: Identity
103(1)
The First Epic: Gilgamesh
103(1)
Another Early Epic: Homer's Iliad
104(3)
Poetry
107(21)
Lyrical Poetry
108(1)
The Sonnet
109(7)
Haiku
116(1)
Simple Forms, Profound Meaning: William Blake
117(1)
Religious Poetry
118(3)
Modern Poetry
121(7)
The Novel
128(6)
Early Western Novels
129(1)
An American Classic: Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby
130(4)
The Short Story
134
Magazine Fiction
134(1)
A Short Story Masterpiece: Shirley Jackson's ``The Lottery''
135
Chronology
115(8)
Archetypes
123(15)
Key Terms
138(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
139(1)
Art
140(60)
Overview
141(2)
The Need to Imitate
143(4)
Let Me See!
145(2)
Styles and Media
147(1)
Creating Likeness in Different Styles
147(18)
Classical Art
148(5)
Medieval Art
153(2)
Giotto
155(1)
Renaissance Art
156(1)
Leonardo
157(3)
Michelangelo
160(2)
Raphael
162(2)
Two Women of the Post-Renaissance
164(1)
Rembrandt: The Perfection of Likeness
164(1)
A Rebellion Against Perfect Likeness
165(7)
Goya
166(2)
Impressionism
168(1)
American Impressionism
169(1)
Post-Impressionism
170(2)
Art as Alteration
172(19)
The Sixty-ninth Regiment Armory Show, 1913
174(3)
Cubism: Picasso and Braque
177(4)
Unreal Realism
181(4)
Superrealism
185(2)
Camera and Computer Art
187(2)
Pop Art
189(1)
Performance Art
190(1)
Architecture as Art
191
Religious Architecture
192(1)
Secular Architecture
193
Chronology
172(4)
Archetypes
176(21)
Key Terms
197(1)
Art Movements and Styles
198(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
199(1)
Music
200(42)
Overview
201(2)
The Basic Elements of Music
203(9)
Tone
203(1)
Scale
203(2)
Rhythm
205(2)
Melody
207(2)
Harmony and the Orchestra
209(2)
Silence
211(1)
The Varieties of Musical Experience
212(8)
A Bach Fugue
212(2)
A Beethoven Symphony
214(4)
Art Songs
218(1)
Folk Songs
219(6)
The Spiritual
225(1)
Ragtime
226(1)
Jazz
227(2)
Blues
229(1)
Popular Songs
230(2)
Rock
232(4)
Hip-Hop
236(1)
World Music
237(1)
Avant-garde Music
238
Chronology
220(11)
Archetypes
231(9)
Key Terms
240(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
241(1)
Theater
242(54)
Overview
243(1)
Conventions of Theater
243(16)
Conventions of Classical Theater
244(2)
Elizabethan Conventions
246(5)
Neoclassical Conventions
251(2)
Victorian Conventions
253(4)
Modern Conventions
257(2)
Tragedy
259(10)
Greek Tragedy
260(4)
Shakespearean Tragedy
264(2)
Neoclassical Tragedy
266(1)
Modern Tragedy
266(2)
Melodrama and Tragedy: A Contrast
268(1)
Comedy
269(7)
Farce
269(3)
Satire and Parody
272(2)
The Comedy of Character
274(2)
Theater of Ideas
276(3)
Ibsen
276(3)
Shaw
279(1)
Naturalism
279(4)
Chekhov
279(2)
The Family Theme
281(2)
A Theatrical Century of Dynamic Change
283(7)
The Modern Theater of Ideas
283(2)
Racial Themes
285(2)
Gay Rights
287(2)
Eastern Theater and Its Influences
289(1)
Behind the Scenes
290
Chronology
278(4)
Archetypes
282(11)
Key Terms
293(2)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
295(1)
Song and Dance
296(42)
Overview
297(1)
Opera and Operetta
298(16)
Monteverdi
298(2)
Classical Opera
300(1)
Mozart
300(4)
Romantic Opera
304(2)
Wagner
306(2)
Modern American Opera
308(1)
Treemonisha
309(1)
Showboat: An Operetta
309(1)
Porgy and Bess
310(1)
Nixon in China
311(2)
The Peking Opera
313(1)
The Broadway Musical
314(10)
Of Thee I Sing
314(3)
Pal Joey
317(2)
Oklahoma!
319(1)
West Side Story
320(1)
Sweeney Todd, the Demon Barber of Fleet Street
321(1)
The Lion King
322(2)
Dance
324
Ballet
326(2)
Modern Dance
328(5)
Folkloric Tradition
333
Chronology
316(10)
Archetypes
326(10)
Key Terms
336(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
337(1)
Cinema
338(57)
Overview
339(1)
Conventions of Film
340(4)
Some Early Milestones
344(4)
Art and Propaganda I:D.W. Griffith
345(1)
Art and Propaganda II: Sergei Eisenstein
345(2)
Slapstick Comedy and More
347(1)
Major Film Genres
348(24)
Film Noir
349(2)
Romantic Comedy
351(3)
Bittersweet Compromises
354(1)
The Comedy of Manners
355(2)
Musical Comedy: Singing and Dancing with Fred, Ginger, and Gene
357(2)
The Western
359(3)
Slice of Life
362(1)
Social Realism
362(3)
Documentaries and Docudramas
365(2)
Fictionalized Biography
367(2)
Loosely Based on the Original
369(3)
The Top Two American Films of the Twentieth Century
372(5)
Citizen Kane
372(2)
Casablanca
374(3)
The Film Auteur
377(13)
Ingmar Bergman
378(2)
Federico Fellini
380(2)
Alfred Hitchcock
382(1)
Akira Kurosawa
383(2)
Stanley Kubrick
385(2)
Francis Ford Coppola
387(1)
Martin Scorsese
387(3)
Pedro Almodovar
390(1)
A Word on Critical Viewing
390
Chronology
370(8)
Archetypes
378(14)
Key Terms
392(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
393(2)
PART III Themes in the Humanities
395(224)
Religion
396(44)
Overview
397(1)
The Belief in Many Gods
398(6)
Egypt
398(1)
Hinduism
399(3)
Greek and Roman Polytheism
402(1)
Native American Religions
402(2)
The Belief in an Impersonal Divinity
404(11)
Buddhism
405(5)
Taoism
410(3)
Socrates and Plato
413(1)
Aristotle's Unmoved Mover
414(1)
The Belief in One God
415(16)
Judaism
416(4)
Christianity
420(3)
Good, Evil, and Augustine
423(3)
Logical Proof
426(1)
Islam
427(3)
The Protestant Reformation
430(1)
The Questioning of Belief
431(3)
Agnosticism
431(1)
Atheism
431(2)
Religion Versus...
433(1)
Religion and the Arts
434
Chronology
425(9)
Archetypes
434(4)
Key Terms
438(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
439(1)
Morality
440(42)
Overview
441(1)
How We Arrive at Moral Decisions
442(3)
Moral Systems
442(1)
Morality in the Arts
443(2)
The Morality of Self-Interest
445(13)
Glaucon versus Socrates
446(5)
Enlightened Self-Interest
451(1)
Economics and Self-Interest
452(3)
Transcending Self-Interest: Altruism
455(3)
Moral Authorities
458(16)
A Philosophical Defense of Altruism
458(1)
The Moral Mathematics of Jeremy Bentham
459(2)
Utilitarianism Modified: John Stuart Mill
461(3)
The Moral Imperative of Immanuel Kant
464(2)
Religion and Morality
466(4)
The Morality of Work
470(4)
Moral Relativism
474
The Global View
474(3)
Feminist Morality
477
Chronology
465(6)
Archetypes
471(9)
Key Terms
480(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
481(1)
Happiness
482(30)
Overview
483(1)
Hedonism: Happiness as Pleasure
484(5)
Hedonist Assumptions
487(1)
Hedonism Reconsidered
488(1)
Epicureanism: Happiness as Avoidance of Pain
489(4)
Epicurean Assumptions
489(3)
Epicureanism Reconsidered
492(1)
Stoicism: Happiness as a Strategy for Survival
493(4)
Working on the Mind
494(2)
Stoicism Reconsidered
496(1)
Aristotelianism: Happiness as the Quality of a Whole Lifetime
497(8)
Pleasure a Limited Goal; Happiness a Complete Goal
498(1)
Providing Happiness: A Government's Responsibility?
499(2)
Aristotle Reconsidered
501(4)
Eastern Philosophy and Happiness
505
Gandhi
505(1)
Buddhist Paths to Happiness: Hinayana and Mahayana
506(2)
The Dalai Lama
508
Chronology
500(7)
Archetypes
507(3)
Key Terms
510(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
511(1)
Love
512(36)
Overview
513(1)
Body and Soul
513(17)
Eros
514(6)
Agape
520(2)
Family Love
522(5)
Friendship
527(3)
Romantic Love
530(9)
Mariolatry
532(1)
Romance and Chivalry
533(3)
Courtly Love
536(1)
Love as a Game
537(2)
Love and Marriage
539
The Victorian Model
539(2)
New Versions and Continued Misgivings
541(2)
Love in a Time of Health Hazards
543(1)
Love and Older People
544(1)
Imagining a World in Which Only Sex Exists
544
Chronology
535(5)
Archetypes
540(6)
Key Terms
546(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
547(1)
Death and Life-Affirmation
548(36)
Overview
549(1)
Images of Death
550(16)
Death in the Popular Arts
551(2)
Humor
553(1)
Magnifying and Beautifying Death
554(1)
The Medicalization of Death
555(1)
Death in Literature
556(2)
Death in Music
558(2)
A Philosopher's Death
560(1)
Death and the Afterlife
561(3)
Death and Fate
564(2)
Symbolic Death
566(6)
Unworth
566(1)
Symbolic Suicide
567(4)
Symbolic Murder
571(1)
Models of Life-Affirmation
572
The Phoenix
572(2)
There Is Only Now
574(3)
Reinventing Ourselves
577(3)
The Forgiveness Ritual
580
Chronology
570(6)
Archetypes
576(6)
Key Terms
582(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
583(1)
Freedom
584(35)
Overview
585(1)
Determinism and the Limitation of Choice
586(14)
Past and Present Limitations
588(1)
Institutional Determinism
589(2)
Economic Determinism
591(1)
Character Consistency
591(4)
Behaviorism
595(1)
Genetics
596(3)
Sociobiology
599(1)
Possibilities for Freedom
600(7)
A Pessimist's Definition of the Will
601(1)
Regret and Relief
602(1)
Psychoanalysis: Freedom Through the Conscious Ego
603(4)
Existentialism
607(5)
Religious Existentialism
607(1)
Secular Existentialism
608(4)
Freedom Within Limitations
612
Chronology
600(12)
Archetypes
612(5)
Key Terms
617(1)
Topics for Writing and Discussion
617(2)
Endnotes 619(6)
Credits 625(2)
Index 627


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