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  • Art Past Art Present
    Art Past Art Present
  • Art Past, Art Present
    Art Past, Art Present
  • Art Past, Art Present (with MyArtKit Student Access Code Card)
    Art Past, Art Present (with MyArtKit Student Access Code Card)
  • Art Past, Art Present
    Art Past, Art Present
  • Art Past, Art Present
    Art Past, Art Present
  • Art Past Art Present
    Art Past Art Present
  • Art Past and Art Present
    Art Past and Art Present


Authoritative and substantive-yetaccessible-Art Past, Art Present, 6 th editionlooks at the historical and cultural contexts of art works and architecture around the world from prehistoric times to the 20th century. The authors recognized the need for an easy-to-use format that is accessible for both teachers and students. Each topic inArt Past, Art Presentis organized into two- and four-page units and provides a clear and concise treatment of a select number of artworks, making it easier for instructors to focus on what is important and for students to learn.

Table of Contents

Getting Started  xii



1. Experiencing Art  1


Experiencing Art  2

            How to Experience Art  3

Viewing Art  4

            Understanding Style  4

            Art, Time, and the Cycles of Life  4

            Analyzing Three Works  6

Analyzing Art  8

            Analyzing Architecture  8

            Analyzing Sculpture  12

            Analyzing Ritual Art  14

            Analyzing Installation Art  14

            Analyzing Painting and Related Media  15

The Artist in History  18



2. prehistoric Art  21


Introduction to Prehistoric Art  22

            The Paleolithic Period  22

            The Discovery of Paleolithic Painting  23

            Paleolithic Art  23

            The Neolithic Period  25

            Neolithic Art and Architecture  25

            Prehistoric Art and the Prehistoric Artist  28

            points of contact  Prehistoric Figurines

                        of Women  29

            theme  Ritual and Art  30

3. ancient Art 33


Introduction to Ancient Art  34

            History  35

            Art of Ancient Societies  36

            art past/art present  The Concept of the

            The Ancient Artist  37

                        Classical in the West  36

            points of contact  Greek Artists/Scythian

                         Patrons  37

            theme  The Presence of the Artist  38

Sumerian Art  40

Ancient Egyptian Art  44

            History  44

            Religion  46

            Art of Ancient Egypt  46

            The Egyptian Artist  47

Ancient Egyptian Art:  The Palette of

            Narmer  48

The Egyptian Pyramids  50

The Egyptian Temple  52

            technique  Post-and-Lintel Construction  54

            technique  How to Read Architectural

                        Diagrams  55

Egyptian Tomb Paintings and Painted

            Reliefs  56

            technique  Figure–Ground Relationships  57

The Indus Valley Civilization  58

Aegean Art: Minoan and Mycenaean  60

Ancient China:  The Shang Dynasty  64

            technique  Chinese Piece-Mold

                        Bronze Casting  65

Assyrian and Early Persian Art  66

Mesoamerica:  The Olmec  68

Etruscan Art  70

Ancient Greek Art  72

            History  72

            Intellectual and Scientific Activities  74

            Religion  75

            Ancient Greek Art  75

            The Ancient Greek Artist  75

Greek Vase Painting  76

The Development of Greek Sculpture  78

            technique  Greek Lost-Wax

                        Bronze Casting  81

            technique  Contrapposto in Sculpture  83

            technique  The Classical Orders  84

            art past/art present  The Impact of the

                        Ancient Greek Orders  85

Greek Doric Architecture  86

            technique  Greek Temple Construction  87

The Parthenon,  Athens  88



4. later ancient Art,      

                        400 bce to 200 ce  93


Introduction to Later Ancient Art  94

            points of contact  The Silk Road  95

            theme  Engineering  96

Nomadic Art in Siberia: Pazyryk  98

The Qin Empire in China  102

Hellenistic Art  104

            History  104

            Art of the Hellenistic Period  104

            Hellenistic Painting 104

            Hellenistic Sculpture in Pergamon  106

The Han Dynasty in China  108

Early Buddhist Art  110

Dongson Culture in Vietnam  112

The Art of the Roman Republic  114

            History  115

            Republican Architectural Developments  115

            The Roman House and Villa  116

The Art of the Roman Empire  118

            History  118

            The City of Rome  119

            Roman Imperial Art  121

            Technology, Organization, and Engineering  122

            Roman Religion and the Mystery Religions  123

            The End of Rome’s Empire  124

            The Roman Artist  124

Roman Frescoes and Illusionism  126

            technique  Fresco Painting  128

            technique  Illusionism  129

Roman Architecture: 

            The Flavian Amphitheater  130

            technique  Roman Engineering: The Arch, The

                        Vault, and Concrete  132

Roman Architecture:  The Pantheon,

            Rome  136

Mesoamerican Art:  Teotihuacán  138



5. Art From 200 to 1000  143


Introduction to Art from 200 to 1400  144

            art past/art present  Naming the Middle

                        Ages in Europe  144

            History  146

            Art and the Christian Church  147

            A Denial of Naturalism  147

            The Scroll and Book  147

            The Artist  148

            points of contact  Muslims in China  149

            theme  Religious Architecture  150

Jewish Art:

            The Synagogue at Dura Europos  152

Early Christian Art  154

            History  154

            Art  155

Early Christian Architecture  156

Buddhist Architecture and Painting at

            Ajanta, India  158

The Shinto Shrine at Ise, Japan  160

Byzantine Art  162

            History  162

            The Icon and Iconoclasm  163

            The Byzantine Artist  163

Byzantine Architecture: Hagia Sophia  164

Byzantine Art: San Vitale, Ravenna  166

            technique  Mosaic  169

Anglo-Saxon Metalwork  and Hiberno-

            Saxon Illumination  170

The Chinese Imperial City of Chang’An  172

Buddhist Art at Horyuji  176

            technique  Dougong-style Bracketing  179

Hindu Art at Ellora  180

Islamic Art at Córdoba  182

Carolingian and Ottonian Art  186

The Monastery in the West  188

Buddhist Art in Indonesia  190

Chinese Art: Landscape Painting  192

            art past/art present  Chinese Aesthetic

                        Theory  195





6. Art from 1000 to 1400 197


Introduction to Art from 1000 to 1400  198

            History  199

            points of contact  Amber Necklaces in

                        Burials in Eastern Asia  201

            theme  Narrative Art  202

Romanesque Art in Europe  204

            History  205

            Art and the Pilgrim  205

            The Bayeux “Tapestry”  206

            The Romanesque Artist in Europe  206

Romanesque Architecture at Conques  208

Romanesque Sculpture  210

Moai Ancestor Figures, Polynesia  212

Angkor Wat: Cult of the God-King  214

The Japanese Narrative Scroll  216

Gothic Art  220

            Abbot Suger  221

            History  221

            Art  221

            The Franciscans  223

            The Gothic Artist  223

The Gothic Cathedral: Chartres  224

            technique  Proportions of Gothic Cathedrals,

                        1160–1230  224

            technique  Gothic Engineering  228

Gothic Sculpture  230

Gothic Stained Glass  232

            technique  Stained-Glass Technique  233

The Great Mosque at Jenne  234

The Chinese Capital City in Beijing:

            The Forbidden City  236

Early Italian Painting  238

Giotto, The Arena Chapel Frescoes  240

            technique  Tempera and Fresco  242

The Royal Art of African Kingdoms  244

7. Fifteenth-Century Art 247


Introduction to Fifteenth-Century Art  248

            Fifteenth-Century Worldwide Developments 


            The Idea of a Renaissance  252

            Naming the Styles  252

            European History  252

            Italian Renaissance Humanism and Art Theory 


            European Intellectual Activity  254

            Changing Patterns of Patronage in Europe  254

            The Fifteenth-Century Artist in Europe  257

            POINTS OF CONTACT  The Travels of

                        Marco Polo   257

            theme  Portraiture  258

Early Renaissance Sculpture

            in Florence  260

            technique  Carving in Wood  261

Flemish Painting:

            The Limbourg Brothers   262

Flemish Painting: Robert Campin  264

Italian Renaissance Painting: Masaccio  266

Scientific Perspective  268

Flemish Painting:

            Hubert and Jan van Eyck  270

Flemish Painting: Jan van Eyck 272

            technique  The Development of Oil Painting in

                        Flanders  274

Italian Renaissance Architecture:

            Filippo Brunelleschi  276

Machu Picchu:

            The Peruvian Mountain Retreat  278

The Italian Renaissance Palace  280

Portraiture  282

Italian Renaissance Painting:

            Andrea Mantegna  286

            technique  Foreshortening  287

Italian Renaissance Painting: Sandro

            Botticelli  288

Italian Renaissance Painting:

            Leonardo da Vinci  290

Italian Renaissance Painting: Leonardo’s

            Last Supper  292

Italian Renaissance Sculpture:

            Michelangelo’s Pietà in St. Peter’s 294



8. Sixteenth-Century Art  297


Introduction to Sixteenth-Century Art  298

            History  299

            Intellectual and Scientific Developments  300

            Religious Reform and Art during the Sixteenth

                        Century  301

            The Sixteenth-Century Artist  304

            points of contact  Chinese Porcelain

                        in Europe  305

            Theme  The Nude/The Body  306

Italian Renaissance Sculpture:

            Michelangelo  308

            technique  Stone Sculpture  309

Italian High Renaissance Portraiture  310

German Printmaking:  Albrecht Dürer  312

            technique  Printmaking: Engraving

                        and Woodcut  314

New St. Peter’s, Rome  316

Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling  318

            art past/art present  Vasari and Modern

                        Scholarship  321

Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura  322

High Renaissance Painting in Venice  324

Hieronymus Bosch, “Garden of Earthly

            Delights” Triptych  326

German Painting: Matthias Grünewald,

            Isenheim Altarpiece  328

Titian’s Altarpieces  330

            technique  Venetian Painting  332

Later Michelangelo and the Development

            of Mannerism  334

Early European Landscape Painting  336

Sixteenth-Century Painting  338

Islamic Art of the Ottomans  340

Veronese and the Impact of the

            Counter-Reformation  342

The Art of Zen Buddhism in Japan  344



9. Seventeenth-Century Art  347


Introduction to Seventeenth-Century Art  348

            History  348

            Intellectual and Scientific Activity  350

            The Styles of Seventeenth-Century European

                        Art  351

            Seventeenth-Century European Art  351

            The Seventeenth-Century Artist in Europe  352

            points of contact  “Seeing” the New

                        World  355

            theme  Relating to Nature 356

Seventeenth-Century Architecture in

            Japan 358

Caravaggio and His Influence  360

Baroque Genre Painting  362

Peter Paul Rubens  364

Bernini’s Works for St. Peter’s  366

The Dutch Baroque Group Portrait  368

Mughal Art of India: The Taj Mahal  370

Baroque Architecture:

            Francesco Borromini  372

Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa  374

            technique  The Art of Drawing:

                        Rembrandt  376

            technique  Printmaking: Etching and

                        Drypoint  378

Spanish Painting: Diego Velázquez  380

Baroque Classicism: Nicolas Poussin  382

Rembrandt: Late Paintings  384

Dutch Still-Life Painting  386

The Palace at Versailles  388

Japanese Screens and Architecture  390

European Landscape Painting  392



10. Eighteenth-Century Art 395


Introduction to Eighteenth-Century Art  396

            History  397

            Intellectual and Scientific Activity  399

            Eighteenth-Century Art  400

            The Eighteenth-Century Artist  401

            points of contact  Chinoiserie  405

            theme  Representing Women  406

Eighteenth-Century Painting in Europe  408

Eighteenth-Century Art in Korea  412

Rococo Architecture and Sculpture  414

Eighteenth-Century Portraiture  416

Neoclassical Architecture  418

Neoclassical Painting and Sculpture  420


11. Nineteenth-Century Art 425


Introduction to Nineteenth-Century Art  426

            History  427

            The Industrial Revolution around the World  429

            European Intellectual and Scientific Activities  430

            Art  431

            art past/art present  Looking Beyond the

                        Art: Romanticism  431

            The Impact of French Painting on World Art  433

            The Styles of Nineteenth-Century Art in

                         the West  434

            The Nineteenth-Century Artist  436

            points of contact  British Architects in

                        India  437

            theme  The Artist as a Revolutionary 438

The Continuation of Neoclassicism  440

Francisco Goya  442

Romanticism  444

Romantic Landscape Painting  446

Japanese Woodblock Prints  448

            technique  Japanese Woodblock

                        Technique  449

Honoré Daumier and the Political Print  452

            technique  Lithography  453

Romantic Revival Architecture  454

American Romantic Painting  456

Revolutionary Art vs. Academic Art  458

New Materials and Engineering in

            Architecture  460

            technique  New Materials in Architecture  463

Late Nineteenth-Century Revival

            Architecture  464

Édouard Manet  466

Early Photography and Photographic

            Technique  468

Late Nineteenth-Century Sculpture  470

Impressionism  472

            technique  Impressionism  474

            Edgar Degas, Berthe Morisot, and

                        Mary Cassatt  476

            American Realism: Thomas Eakins and

                        Henry Tanner  478

            Auguste Rodin and Camille Claudel  480

            Winslow Homer  482

            technique  Watercolor and Gouache  483

            Post-Impressionism: Gauguin and Seurat  484

            Post-Impressionism: Vincent Van Gogh  486

            art past/art present  The Value of Art:

                        Van Gogh  488

Post-Impressionism: Paul Cézanne  490

The Beginnings of the Skyscraper  492

Edvard Munch  494



12. Art from 1900 to 1949  497


Introduction to Art from 1900 to 1949  498

            History  498

            Intellectual and Scientific Activity  500

            Art from 1900 to 1949  501

            The Artist  504

            theme  The Home and the Palace  506

Fauvism  508

African Art and Ritual  510

Photography  512

Cubism and its Influence  514

            technique  Collage and Assemblage  519

Native American Art  520

            art past/art present  Women in

                        Pueblo Society  523

Frank Lloyd Wright, Robie House  524

            technique  The Cantilever  525

Native American Ceremonial Art from the

            Northwest Coast  526

Abstraction in Sculpture  528

Malevich and the Russian Avant-Garde  530

German Expressionism: Die Brücke and

            Der Blaue Reiter  532

Fantasy  534

Dada  536

De Stijl and the Bauhaus  540

Diego Rivera and Mexican Mural Painting  544

Surrealism  548

Modernism in American Painting  552

Pablo Picasso, Guernica  556

Sculpture of the 1930s and 1940s  558

International Style Architecture  562


13. Art from 1950 to 1999 565


The 1950s  566

The 1960s  576

The 1970s  580

The 1980s  586

The 1990s  596


14. Art in the New Millennium  607


Art in the New Millennium  608


World Map  622

Glossary  623

Bibliography  631

Index  634

Picture Credits  651

Text Credits  655

Acknowledgements  655





Prehistoric Europe and Africa  24

The Ancient Near East  41

Ancient Egypt  44

Ancient Greece  73

Ancient Asia  111

Ancient Italy  114

Mesoamerica  138

The Near East  153

Asia  161

Medieval Europe  163

Japan  219

14th-century Europe  223

Africa  245

15th-century Europe  253

16th-century Europe  300

17th-century Europe  349

18th-century Europe  397

19th-century Europe  428

19th-century United States and Canada  454

20th-century Europe  499

20th-century United States  501

Sub-Saharan West Africa  511

World  622

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