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This best-selling exploration of traditional and contemporary art and artistic media focuses on art as seen from the artist's point of view, and presents readersand viewerswith an exciting gallery of work. Art comes to life through down-to-earth language, and numerous quotations from the artists themselves help explain, in their own words, what they were trying to do. The book contains a four-part organization: Part I lays the foundation for seeing; Parts II and III views two-and three-dimensional art; and Part IV approaches art as it exists in time. An emphasis on aesthetics and art techniques explains in detail the philosophical foundations, elements, and principles of design, and technical considerations of each medium. Broad coverage of all media and traditional and contemporary art includes a section on outsider art and illustrates and discusses multicultural and non-Western art and art by women. Also covered are traditional and contemporary topics such as encaustic; fresco; wood engraving; computer art, graphic design, photography, Xerox and FAX art, video art; conceptual art, performance art, earthworks, installation pieces, and folk art. For anyone who appreciatesand wants to deepen that appreciation ofart.
Table of Contents
I. LEARNING TO SEE.
1. Understanding Art.
The Creative Impulse. BOX: Maria Lewis on Suffering and Creativity. Content. Political Content. Power and Propaganda. Spiritual Purposes. Inner Experiences. BOX: Vincent van Gogh on Emotion and Intellect. Beauty in Form. Forms of Art. Two-and Three dimensional Art. Degrees of Realism. Fine and Applied Arts. BOX: Georgia O'Keefe on “Saying What I Want To.” Public and Private Art. Art Issues: Censorship of Offensive Art. Critical Opinion. Art Issues: Race and Gender Criticism. Greatness in Art.
2. Visual Elements.
Line. Seeing Lines. The World Seen: Islamic Calligraphy. Implied Line. Descriptive Line. Expressive Qualities of Line. Directional Line. Shape and Form. Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Form. BOX: Henry Moore on Form and Space. Two-Dimensional Illusion of Form. Shapes. BOX: Arshile Gorky on the Intensity of Art. Space. Three-Dimensional Art in Space. Two-Dimensional Space. Scale. Spatial Illusion. Texture. Actual Texture. Simulated Texture. Value and Light. Local and Interpretive Values. Lighting. Reflections. Light as a Medium. Color. A Vocabulary of Color. Natural and Applied Color. Local, Atmospheric, and Interpretive Color. Emotional Effects of Color. Warm and Cool Colors. Advancing and Receding Colors. Color Combinations. Interaction of Color. Limited and Open Palette. BOX: Josef Albers on the Complexity of Color. Time. Actual Movement. Illusion of Movement. BOX: Auguste Rodin on the Illusion of Movement. The Captured Moment. Change Through Time.
3. Organizing Principles of Design.
Repetition. Variety. Rhythm. Balance. Compositional Unity. Emphasis. Economy. Proportion. BOX: Wassily Kandinsky on Underlying Harmony. Relationship to the Environment.
II. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MEDIA AND METHODS.
Approaches to Drawing. Dry Media. Graphite Pencil. Silverpoint. Charcoal. Chalk. Pastel Crayon. Liquid Media. Pen and Ink. BOX: The World Seen: Chinese Landscape Paintings. Brush and Ink.
Approaches to Painting. Paint Media. Encaustic. Leonardo da Vinci on Chiaroscuro. Fresco. Tempera. Art Issues: Are there Limits to the Restorer's Art? Oil. Art Issues: Cleaning and Restoring Paintings. Watercolor. Gouache. Synthetics. Collage. The Word Seen: Tibetan Sand Paintings. Mosaic. Mixed Media.
Printmaking Processes. Relief. BOX: Stephen Alcorn on the Challenge of Linocuts. Intaglio. Planographic. Stencil. Mixed Print Media.
7. Graphic Design.
The Graphic Designer and Visual Ideas. BOX: Peter Good on the Art of Graphic Design. Typography. Illustration.
8. Photography, Photocopy, and Film-Making.
Photography. BOX: Edward Weston on Photography as a Way of Seeing. Photocopy and Fax Art. Film. Television and Video. Art Issues: Mixing Art and Politics: The Films of Leni Riefenstahl.
9. Computer Graphics.
The Computer as a Drawing Medium. The Computer as a Painting Medium. The Computer in Three-Dimensional Art. Video Graphics. Virtual Reality. The Computer as a Unique Art Medium. Art in Cyberspace.
III. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MEDIA AND METHODS.
Carving. BOX: Michelangelo Buonarroti on Marble-Quarrying. Modeling. The World Seen: Benin Ivory Carvings. Casting. BOX: Benvenuto Cellini on A Near-Disastrous Casting. Assembling. Earthworks. BOX: David Smalley on Virtual Sculpture.
Clay. The World Seen: Chinese Porcelains. BOX: Paula Winokur on Working in Clay. Metal. The World Seen: Precious Metal Work from Tsarist Russia. Wood. BOX: George Nakashima on A Feeling for Wood. Glass. Fibers. The World Seen: Persian Carpets. BOX: Norma Minkowitz on the Interface Between Art and Craft.
12. Product and Clothing Design.
Industrial Design. Clothing Design. The World Seen: Saris of India.
Function. Structure. The World Seen: Moorish Arches and Domes. BOX: Hassan Fathy on Indigenous Architectural Ingenuity. BOX: Alvar Aalto on Humanizing Architecture.
14. Designed Settings.
Interior Design. Environmental Design. The World Seen: Japanese Stone Gardens. BOX: John Lyle on Sustainable Environmental Design. Visual Aspects of the Performing Arts.
IV. ART IN TIME.
15. Historical Styles in Western Art.
The Beginnings of Western Art. Prehistoric. Aegean. Near Eastern. Egyptian. Art of Ancient Cultures. Greek. Roman. Early Christian and Byzantine. Medieval Art. Early Medieval. Romanesque. Gothic. Late Gothic. Renaissance Art. Early Renaissance in Italy. High Renaissance in Italy. Mannerism. Northern Renaissance. Art Issues: Protecting Famous Artworks. Baroque Art. Southern Baroque. Rococo. Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century Art. Neoclassicism. Romanticism. Later Nineteenth-Century Art. Realism. Impressionism. Post-Impressionism. BOX: Paul Gauguin on Cross-Cultural Borrowings. Twentieth-Century Art. Expressionism. Fauvism. Cubism. Futurism. Abstract and Nonobjective Art. Dada. Surrealism. Traditional Realism. Abstract Expressionism. Post-Painterly Abstraction. Pop Art. Minimalism. Technological Art. Conceptual Art. Earthworks. Performance Art. Installations. New Realism. The Craft Object. Neoexpressionism. Post Modernism. Recognition of Women's Art. BOX: Deborah Muirhead on Art as Ancestral Exploration. Recognition of Multi-Cultural Art. Recognition of Outsider Art. Art Issues: Art as Investment.
16. Understanding Art on All Levels.
Picasso's Guernica. Rodin's Gates of Hell. Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel Ceiling. Moshe Safdie's Vancouver Library Square.
30,000 BC-AD 500 Prehistoric to Roman. 500-1500 Early Christian to Gothic. 1425-1640 Early Renaissance to Southern Baroque. 1500-1800 Northern Renaissance to Rococo. 1750-1950 Neoclassicism to Surrealism. 1945-2000 At the Turn of the Twenty-First Century.
The Prehistoric and Ancient World. Europe in the Early Twelfth Century. Renaissance Italy. Northern Europe in the mid-Nineteenth Century. The World in the Late Twentieth Century.