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The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought,9780321076373

The Art of Thinking: A Guide to Critical and Creative Thought

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780321076373

ISBN10:
0321076370
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Addison-Wesley
List Price: $47.00
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Summary

Accessible and engaging, this unique book offers strategies for critical and creative thinking and includes many opportunities for practicing these fundamental skills."This book introduces readers to the principles and techniques of critical thinking, taking them step by step through the problem solving process. Emphasizing creative and active thought processes, the author asserts that good thinking isn't merely knowing what "not" to do; it is knowing what "to" do. Discussions of how to evaluate ideas and how to question long held assumptions or biases help readers look at concepts critically. Brief guides to composing, speaking, and logic show readers how to apply the skills that enable them to become clear and creative thinkers. Individuals interested in sharpening their creative and critical thinking skills.

Table of Contents

To the Instructor xv
Developing Your Thinking: An Overview
1(20)
What Is Thinking?
2(1)
The Importance of Thinking
3(1)
Brain and Mind at Work
4(2)
The Production Phase
5(1)
The Judgment Phase
5(1)
Good Thinking Is a Habit
6(1)
The Structure of This Book
6(1)
Getting the Most from Your Efforts
7(1)
Using Feelings to Advantage
8(1)
Learning to Concentrate
9(1)
Coping with Frustration
10(1)
Preliminary Thinking Strategies
10(2)
Sample Exercises and Responses
12(9)
Warm-Up Exercises
14(1)
Applications
14(3)
Composition or Speech Exercise
17(4)
Part I Be Aware
Establish a Foundation
21(19)
Free Will versus Determinism
22(1)
What Is Truth?
23(1)
What Is Knowing?
24(2)
Ways of Knowing
26(2)
Experience
26(1)
Observation
27(1)
Report
27(1)
The Problem of Remembering
28(1)
What Are Opinions?
29(1)
Expressions of Taste
29(1)
Expressions of Judgment
30(1)
Debating Moral Questions
30(2)
The Basis of Moral Judgment
32(2)
Dealing with Dilemmas
34(6)
Warm-Up Exercises
35(1)
Applications
35(4)
Composition or Speech Exercise
39(1)
Broaden Your Perspective
40(15)
Becoming an Individual
42(2)
Habits That Hinder Thinking
44(7)
The Mine-Is-Better Habit
44(1)
Face Saving
45(1)
Resistance to Change
46(2)
Conformity
48(1)
Stereotyping
49(1)
Self-Deception
50(1)
Overcoming Bad Habits
51(4)
Warm-Up Exercises
52(1)
Applications
52(2)
Composition or Speech Exercise
54(1)
Be a Critical Reader
55(24)
Critical Reading Defined
56(1)
Making Important Distinctions
57(3)
The Distinction Between the Person and the Idea
57(1)
The Distinction Between Matters of Taste and Matters of Judgment
57(1)
The Distinction Between Fact and Interpretation
58(1)
The Distinction Between Literal and Ironic Statements
58(1)
The Distinction Between an Idea's Validity and the Quality of Its Expression
59(1)
The Distinction Between Language and Reality
59(1)
A Strategy for Critical Reading
60(3)
Skim
61(1)
Reflect
62(1)
Read
62(1)
Evaluate
62(1)
Expressing Your Judgment
63(1)
A Sample Evaluation
64(15)
Warm-Up Exercises
66(1)
Applications
66(9)
Composition or Speech Exercise
75(4)
Part II Be Creative
The Creative Process
79(13)
Key Facts About Creativity
80(2)
Characteristics of Creative People
82(2)
Applying Creativity to Problems and Issues
84(3)
Taking a Novel Approach
84(1)
Devising or Modifying a Process or System
84(1)
Inventing a New Product or Service
85(1)
Finding New Uses for Existing Things
85(1)
Improving Things
86(1)
Inventing or Redefining a Concept
86(1)
Stages in the Creative Process
87(5)
The First Stage: Searching for Challenges
87(1)
The Second Stage: Expressing the Problem or Issue
87(1)
The Third Stage: Investigating the Problem or Issue
88(1)
The Fourth Stage: Producing Ideas
88(1)
Warm-Up Exercises
89(1)
Applications
89(1)
Composition or Speech Exercise
90(2)
Search for Challenges
92(13)
The Importance of Curiosity
93(1)
How Curiosity Is Lost
94(1)
Regaining Your Curiosity
95(1)
Six Helpful Techniques
96(9)
Be Observant
96(1)
Look for Imperfections
97(1)
Note Your Own and Others' Dissatisfactions
98(1)
Search for Causes
98(1)
Be Sensitive to Implications
99(1)
Recognize the Opportunity in Controversy
100(1)
Warm-Up Exercises
100(1)
Applications
101(3)
Composition or Speech Exercise
104(1)
Express the Problem or Issue
105(11)
Distinguishing Problems from Issues
106(1)
Expressing Problems
106(1)
Expressing Issues
107(1)
When Problems Become Issues
108(1)
Guidelines for Expressing Problems and Issues
109(1)
Benefits of Careful Expression
109(2)
It Helps You Move Beyond the Familiar and Habitual
109(1)
It Keeps Your Thinking Flexible
109(1)
It Opens Many Lines of Thought
110(1)
A Sample Problem
111(1)
A Sample Issue
112(4)
Warm-Up Exercises
113(1)
Applications
113(2)
Composition or Speech Exercise
115(1)
Investigate the Problem or Issue
116(16)
Three Sources of Information
117(3)
Yourself
118(1)
People Around You
119(1)
Authorities
120(1)
Maintaining a Questioning Perspective
120(1)
Managing an Interview
121(1)
Using the Library
122(2)
Conducting Your Own Research
124(2)
The Survey
124(1)
The Observational Study
125(1)
The Experiment
125(1)
Keeping Creativity Alive
126(6)
Warm-Up Exercises
126(1)
Applications
127(3)
Composition or Speech Exercise
130(2)
Produce Ideas
132(19)
Stimulating Your Imagination
133(4)
Force Uncommon Responses
134(1)
Use Free Association
134(1)
Use Analogy
134(1)
Look for Unusual Combinations
135(1)
Visualize the Solution
135(1)
Construct Pro and Con Arguments
135(1)
Construct Relevant Scenarios
136(1)
Aiming for Originality
137(1)
Withholding Judgment
138(1)
Overcoming Obstacles
138(2)
Thinker's Block
138(1)
Vagueness and Confusion
139(1)
Inflexibility
139(1)
How Insight Occurs
140(1)
A Sample Problem
141(2)
A Sample Issue
143(8)
Warm-Up Exercises
145(1)
Applications
145(2)
Composition or Speech Exercise
147(4)
Part III Be Critical
The Role of Criticism
151(11)
Why Criticism Is Necessary
152(1)
Focus on Your Ideas
152(1)
Overcoming Obstacles to Critical Thinking
153(1)
Applying Curiosity
153(1)
Avoiding Assumptions
154(1)
Refining Your Solutions to Problems
155(1)
A Sample Problem
155(1)
Refining Your Positions on Issues
156(1)
A Sample Issue
157(5)
Taking Action on the Issue
157(1)
Warm-Up Exercises
158(1)
Applications
159(2)
Composition or Speech Exercise
161(1)
Refine Your Solution to the Problem
162(11)
Three Steps in Refining
163(3)
Working Out the Details
163(1)
Finding Imperfections and Complications
164(1)
Making Improvements
165(1)
Two Sample Problems
166(7)
The First Problem
166(2)
The Second Problem
168(1)
Warm-Up Exercises
169(1)
Applications
170(1)
Composition or Speech Exercise
171(2)
Evaluate Your Argument on the Issue
173(16)
Errors Affecting Truth
173(4)
Either/Or Thinking
174(1)
Avoiding the Issue
174(1)
Overgeneralizing
175(1)
Oversimplifying
176(1)
Double Standard
176(1)
Shifting the Burden of Proof
176(1)
Irrational Appeal
177(1)
Errors Affecting Validity
177(2)
A Special Problem: The Hidden Premise
179(1)
Recognizing Complex Arguments
180(2)
Steps in Evaluating an Argument
182(1)
The Case of Parents Protesting TV Programs
182(1)
The Case of the Mentally Impaired Girls
183(6)
Warm-Up Exercises
184(1)
Applications
185(3)
Composition or Speech Exercise
188(1)
Refine Your Resolution of the Issue
189(10)
Deciding What Action Should Be Taken
190(1)
Recognizing and Overcoming Difficulties
190(1)
Should Children Pledge Allegiance?
191(1)
Should the Miranda Rule Be Abolished?
192(7)
Warm-Up Exercises
193(1)
Applications
194(2)
Composition or Speech Exercise
196(3)
Part IV Communicate Your Ideas
Anticipate Negative Reactions
199(11)
How Common Are Negative Reactions?
200(1)
Why People React Negatively
201(1)
Common Negative Reactions
202(1)
Anticipating Specific Reactions
203(7)
The Brainstorming Technique
203(1)
The Imaginary-Dialogue Technique
203(2)
Warm-Up Exercises
205(1)
Applications
205(3)
Composition or Speech Exercise
208(2)
Build a Persuasive Case
210(14)
How Persuasion Is Achieved
211(1)
Using Evidence Effectively
212(1)
Presenting Ideas Skillfully
213(1)
Respect Your Audience
213(1)
Begin with the Familiar
213(1)
Select the Most Appropriate Tone
214(1)
Answer All Significant Objections
214(1)
The Importance of Timing
214(1)
A Sample Situation
215(9)
Warm-Up Exercises
219(1)
Applications
220(3)
Composition or Speech Exercise
223(1)
Appendix A A Guide to Composition 224(11)
Four Important Characteristics
224(2)
A Strategy for Composing
226(4)
Prewriting
226(2)
Planning
228(1)
Drafting
229(1)
Revising
230(1)
Editing
230(1)
Developing a Readable Style
230(2)
A Sample Analytical Paper
232(3)
Appendix B A Guide to Formal Speaking, Conversation, and Group Discussion 235(10)
Formal Speaking
235(5)
Types of Speeches
235(1)
Organizing Your Material
236(1)
Sample Outline and Speech
237(2)
Practicing the Delivery
239(1)
Conversation
240(3)
Contributing to Conversation
240(1)
Listening Well
241(1)
Improving Your Listening Skills
241(2)
Group Discussion
243(2)
Appendix C The Fundamentals of Formal Logic 245(7)
Three Basic Principles
245(1)
Formal Argument
246(1)
Common Errors in Syllogisms
246(4)
The Undistributed Middle
247(1)
Illicit Process
247(1)
Affirming the Consequent
248(1)
Denying the Antecedent
248(1)
Converting a Conditional
248(1)
Negating Antecedent and Consequent
249(1)
Solutions to Sample Problems
250(2)
The Three Glasses Problem
250(1)
The Young Girl/Old Woman Problem
250(1)
The Vase and Faces Problem
251(1)
Notes 252(9)
Index 261


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