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Articulation and Phonological Impairments : A Clinical Focus,9780205280643
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Articulation and Phonological Impairments : A Clinical Focus

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780205280643

ISBN10:
0205280641
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
11/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $75.00
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Summary

Articulatory and Phonological Impairments provides students with a clinical framework that encompasses basic terms and concepts, phonetic transcription, and several theoretical perspectives that are extensively applied to clinical examples. In addition, this text demonstrates to students a systematic transition from this knowledge base to the diagnosis and treatment of individuals with articulatory/ phonological disorders. While this text offers a thorough discussion of phonetic principles (also known as the traditional or motor approach) applied to the diagnosis and treatment of motor-based disorders, emphasis is placed on phonemic approaches. Contemporary issues such as features of a phonological assessment, various phonemic-based therapies, and newer nonlinear/ multilinear phonologies and their role in the assessment and intervention process are treated in detail.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Clinical Framework: Basic Terms and Concepts
1(10)
Articulation and Articulation Disorders
1(1)
Phonetics and Its Relationship to Articulation Disorders
2(2)
Speech Sounds versus Phonemes: Clinical Application
4(1)
Phonology and Phonological Disorders
5(1)
Phonetics versus Phonology: Form and Function
6(1)
Articulation Disorders versus Phonological Disorders
7(3)
Summary
10(1)
Articulatory Phonetics: Speech Sound from
11(19)
Vowels versus Consonants
12(12)
American English Vowels
14(4)
American English Consonants
18(6)
Sounds in Context: Coarticulation and Assimilation
24(3)
Syllable Structure
27(2)
Syllable Structure: Clinical Implications
28(1)
Summary
29(1)
Phonetic Transcription and Diacritics
30(18)
Phonetic Transcription as a Notational System
31(2)
Why Use Phonetic Transcription?
33(1)
Diacritics
34(10)
Diacritics Used with Consonants
35(4)
Diacritics Used with Vowels
39(2)
Diacritics for the Suprasegmentals: Stress, Duration, and Juncture
41(3)
Clinical Implications
44(3)
Summary
47(1)
Theoretical Considerations
48(40)
Phonology
49(4)
What Is Phonology?
49(1)
How Does Phonology Work?
50(1)
How Did the Concept of the Phoneme Develop?
50(1)
Speech Sound versus Phoneme: Clinical Implications
51(2)
Distinctive Feature Theories
53(5)
What Are Distinctive Features?
53(1)
How Do Distinctive Features Work?
53(2)
How Did Distinctive Feature Theories Develop?
55(1)
Distinctive Feature Theories: Clinical Implications
56(2)
Generative Phonology
58(8)
What Is Generative Phonology?
58(1)
How Does Generative Phonology Work?
59(5)
How Did Generative Phonology Develop?
64(1)
Generative Phonology: Clinical Implications
64(2)
Natural Phonology
66(8)
What Is Natural Phonology
66(1)
How Does Natural Phonology Work?
67(1)
Phonological Processes
68(2)
How Did Natural Phonology Develop?
70(1)
Natural Phonology: Clinical Implications
71(3)
Linear versus Nonlinear Phonologies
74(12)
What Are Linear and Nonlinear Phonologies?
74(1)
How Do Nonlinear Phonologies Work?
75(8)
How Did Nonlinear Phonology Develop?
83(2)
Nonlinear Phonologies: Clinical Implications
85(1)
Summary
86(2)
Normal Phonological Development
88(36)
Aspects of Structural and Functional Development
89(3)
Aspects of Perceptual Development
92(2)
Prelinguistic Stages: Before the First Words
94(5)
Vocoids
96(1)
Contoids
96(1)
Syllable Shapes
97(1)
Babbling and Its Relationship to Later Language Development
97(1)
Prosodic Feature Development
98(1)
Transition from Babbling to First Words
99(1)
The First Fifty Words
100(7)
Segmental Form Development
101(5)
Prosodic Feature Development
106(1)
The Preschool Child
107(11)
Segmental Form Development: Vowels
107(1)
Segmental Form Development: Consonants
108(5)
Phonological Processes
113(3)
Developmental Issues: Natural Phonology versus Nonlinear Phonology
116(1)
Prosodic Feature Development
117(1)
The School-Age Child
118(4)
Segmental Form Development
118(2)
Learning to Speak and Learning to Read
120(1)
Prosodic Feature Development
121(1)
Summary
122(2)
Appraisal: Collection of Data
124(42)
Evaluation by the Clinician
125(1)
Initial Impression
126(1)
Articulation Tests
126(7)
Some Advantages and Disadvantages of Articulation Tests
126(2)
Factors to Consider When Selecting a Measure of Articulation
128(1)
Assessment Procedures to Supplement Articulation Tests
129(1)
Organizing Articulation Test Results: Describing the Error
130(2)
Stimulability Testing
132(1)
Spontaneous Speech Sample
133(3)
Organizing the Continuous Speech Sample
133(1)
Recording the Continuous Speech Sample
134(2)
Evaluation of the Speech Mechanism
136(3)
What to Look for When Evaluating the Speech Mechanism
137(2)
Selection of Additional Assessment Measures
139(7)
Hearing Screening
139(1)
Language Testing
140(1)
Specific Auditory Perceptual Testing
141(3)
Cognitive Appraisal
144(2)
Special Considerations
146(12)
The Child with Emerging Phonology
146(5)
The Unintelligible Child
151(1)
The Dialect Speaker
152(3)
The Speaker of English as a Second Language
155(3)
Summary of the Data
158(1)
Summary
158(8)
Diagnosis: Phonetic Versus Phonemic Emphasis
166(43)
Preliminary Analysis: Inventory and Distribution of Speech Sounds
167(6)
Using a Matrix to Examine the Inventory and Distribution of Speech Sounds
168(2)
Phonemic Contrasts: Differentiating Phonetic from Phonemic Disorders
170(3)
Decision Making: Primarily Phonetic Emphasis
173(6)
Additional Testing and Decisions
174(4)
Guidelines for Beginning Therapy
178(1)
Decision Making: Primarily Phonemic Emphasis
179(18)
Inventory and Distribution of Speech Sounds
179(1)
Syllable Shapes and Constraints
179(2)
Phonological Contrasts
181(1)
Phonological Error Patterns
181(16)
Measures of Intelligibility and Severity
197(1)
Measures of Intelligibility
197(1)
Measures of Severity
198(1)
Summary
198(11)
Therapy for Phonetic errors
209(61)
Decision Making: When to Use a Phonetic Approach
210(1)
Phonetic Errors
210(1)
Decision Making: A Phonetic Approach with Phonemic Disorders?
210(1)
Therapy Sequence
211(8)
General Overview of Therapy Progression
211(8)
Individual Sound Errors
219(1)
Misarticulations of [s] and [z]
219(15)
Phonetic Description
220(1)
Linguistic Function
221(2)
Initial Remarks
223(1)
Types of Misarticulation
224(3)
Therapeutic Suggestions
227(5)
Coarticulatory Conditions
232(2)
Misarticulations of [f] and [3]
234(5)
Phonetic Description
234(1)
Linguistic Function
234(1)
Initial Remarks
235(1)
Types of Misarticulation
235(2)
Therapeutic Suggestions
237(1)
Sound Modification Methods
237(1)
Coarticulatory Conditions
238(1)
Misarticulations of [k] and [g]
239(4)
Phonetic Description
239(1)
Linguistic Function
239(1)
Initial Remarks
240(1)
Types of Misarticulation
241(1)
Therapeutic Suggestions
241(1)
Coarticulatory Conditions
242(1)
Misarticulations of [1]
243(5)
Phonetic Description
243(1)
Linguistic Function
244(1)
Initial Remarks
245(1)
Types of Misarticulation
245(1)
Therapeutic Suggestions
246(1)
Coarticulatory Conditions
247(1)
Misarticulations of [r] and the Central Vowels with R-Coloring
248(8)
Phonetic Description
249(1)
Linguistic Function
250(1)
Initial Remarks
250(1)
Types of Misarticulation
251(1)
Therapeutic Suggestions
252(3)
Coarticulatory Conditions
255(1)
Misarticulations of [θ] and [ð]
256(3)
Phonetic Description
256(1)
Linguistic Function
256(1)
Types of Misarticulation
257(1)
Therapeutic Suggestions
257(2)
Coarticulatory Conditions
259(1)
Voicing Problems
259(3)
Therapeutic Suggestions
260(2)
Misarticulations of [f] and [v]
262(2)
Phonetic Description
262(1)
Types of Misarticulation
263(1)
Therapeutic Suggestions
263(1)
Coarticulatory Conditions
264(1)
Affricate Problems
264(2)
Phonetic Description
264(1)
Types of Misarticulation
265(1)
Therapeutic Suggestions
265(1)
Coarticulatory Conditions
266(1)
Consonant Cluster Problems
266(3)
Therapeutic Suggestions
267(1)
Coarticulatory Conditions
268(1)
Summary
269(1)
Treatment of Phonemic Errors
270(35)
Treatment Principles
271(1)
Minimal Pair Contrast Therapy
271(12)
Distinctive Feature Therapy
272(4)
Minimal Opposition Contrast Therapy
276(3)
Maximal Oppositions Approach
279(2)
Phonological Process Therapy
281(2)
Cycles Training
283(4)
When to Use Cycles Training
285(2)
Metaphon Therapy
287(6)
What Is Metaphon Therapy?
287(6)
Phonemic Disorders with Concurrent Language Problems: Therapeutic Suggestions
293(4)
Connecting Phonology to Morphosyntax
294(2)
Connecting Phonology to Semantics
296(1)
The Child with an Emerging Phonological System: Therapeutic Suggestions
297(2)
Combining Phonology with Semantics: Developing a Lexicon
297(2)
Treatment of Multiple Vowel Errors
299(4)
The Child with a Very Limited Vowel Inventory: Therapeutic Suggestions
301(1)
The Child with a High Proportion of Vowel Substitutions: Therapeutic Suggestions
302(1)
Summary
303(2)
Articulatory/Phonological Disorders in Selected Populations
305(40)
Developmental Apraxia of Speech: A Disorder of Speech Motor Control
305(6)
Definition and General Features
305(1)
Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics
306(2)
Clinical Implications: Diagnostics
308(1)
Clinical Implications: Therapeutics
309(2)
Motor Speech Disorders: Cerebral Palsy
311(7)
Definition and General Features
311(1)
Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics
311(2)
Clinical Implications: Diagnostics
313(2)
Clinical Implications: Therapeutics
315(3)
Clefting: Cleft Palate and Cleft Lip
318(7)
Definition and General Features
318(1)
Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics
318(1)
Clinical Implications: Diagnostics
319(4)
Clinical Implications: Therapeutics
323(2)
Mental Disability
325(5)
Definition and General Features
325(1)
Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics
326(1)
Clinical Implications: Diagnostics
327(1)
Clinical Implications: Therapeutics
328(2)
Hearing Impairment
330(3)
Definition and General Features
330(1)
Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics
330(1)
Clinical Implications: Diagnostics
331(1)
Clinical Implications: Therapeutics
332(1)
Motor Speech Disorders: Acquired Apraxia of Speech
333(4)
Definition and General Features
333(2)
Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics
335(1)
Clinical Implications: Diagnostics
335(2)
Clinical Implications: Therapeutics
337(1)
Motor Speech Disorders: The Dysarthrias
337(7)
Definition and General Features
337(1)
Articulatory/Phonological Characteristics
338(2)
Clinical Implications: Diagnostics
340(1)
Clinical Implications: Therapeutics
341(3)
Summary
344(1)
Glossary 345(10)
References 355(33)
Index 388


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