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Aspects of Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History, Volume II,9780130384928

Aspects of Western Civilization: Problems and Sources in History, Volume II

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Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780130384928

ISBN10:
0130384925
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $61.40

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Summary

For freshman/sophomore level courses in Western Civilization from the ancient world to present, or Intro to Humanities or survey courses of a particular period. A chronologically arranged compilation of primary and some secondary sources in Western Civilization. Organized around eight major themes to provide direction and cohesion to the text while allowing for originality of thought in both written and oral analysis. Students are presented with basic questions regarding historical development, human nature, moral action and practical necessity while incorporating a wide variety of political, social, economic, religious, intellectual and scientific issues. The readings present history as a vehicle for better understanding in the present rather than a stagnant observation of past societies.

Table of Contents

Preface xxvii
PART ONE FOUNDATIONS OF THE MODERN WORLD
1(96)
``I Am the State'': The Absolutism Of Louis XIV
3(28)
The Theory of Absolute Monarchy
7(9)
``The Mortal God'': Leviathan (1651)
8(3)
Thomas Hobbes
The Ideal Absolute State (1697)
11(3)
Jean Domat
Politics and Scripture (1679)
14(2)
Acques Benigne Bossuet
The Practice of Absolute Rule
16(8)
Letters to His Heirs: ``Allow Good Sense to Act''
16(3)
King Louis XIV
The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685)
19(1)
King Louis XIV
``A Frightful Plot'': Results of the Revocation The Duke of Saint-Simon
20(1)
The Sighs of Enslaved France (1690)
21(3)
Pierre Jurieu
Louis XIV: The Sun King
24(7)
``Vanity Was His Ruin'' The Duke of Saint-Simon
24(4)
The Palace of Versailles: ``A Celebration of Greatness''
28(2)
Jean Colbert
Visible Majesty
30(1)
King Louis XIV
``Dare to Know!'': The Scientific Revolution
31(21)
Science and the Church
33(9)
The Heliocentric Statement (ca. 1520)
34(1)
Nicolaus Copernicus
On the Movement of the Earth (1543)
35(1)
Nicolaus Copernicus
Science and the Bible: ``They Would Have Us Abandon Reason'' (1615)
36(4)
Galileo Galilei
The Resolution: ``Science and Faith Are Both Gifts from God'' (1993)
40(2)
Pope John Paul II
The Foundations of Modern Science
42(10)
The Advancement of Learning (1605)
42(2)
Sir Francis Bacon
``I Think, Therefore I Am'': Discourse on Method (1637)
44(2)
Rene Descartes
``I Learn and Teach from the Fabric of Nature'': On the Circulation of the Blood (1628)
46(3)
William Harvey
Principles of Analysis---Induction and God: Optics (1704)
49(3)
Sir Isaac Newton
The Enlightenment and the Revolution of the Mind
52(45)
Thoughts on the Human Condition and Human Progress
55(7)
The Blank State of the Mind: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
55(1)
John Locke
The Progress of the Human Mind (1795)
56(2)
Marquis De Condorcet
``The Greatest Happiness of the Greatest Number'': On Crimes and Punishments (1764)
58(2)
Cesare Beccaria
What Is Enlightenment? (1784)
60(2)
Immanuel Kant
Thoughts on Religion
62(4)
God---``A Cause Contradicted by Its Effects'': Common Sense (1770)
62(2)
Baron D'Holbach
On Universal Toleration
64(1)
Voltaire
``If God Did Not Exist, He Would Have to Be Invented''
65(1)
Voltaire
Thoughts on Education
66(8)
A Philosophical Dictionary (1764)
66(5)
Voltaire
Introduction to the Encyclopedia (1751)
71(1)
Jean Le Rond D'Alembert
``We Did Not Live Entirely in Vain'' (1764)
72(2)
Denis Diderot
Thoughts on Government: The Political Framework
74(10)
Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)
74(5)
John Locke
The Spirit of the Laws (1748)
79(1)
Baron De Montesquieu
The Social Contract (1762)
80(4)
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Thoughts on Women: The Social Framework
84(6)
Woman: ``Especially Constituted to Please Man''
84(2)
Jean Jacques Rousseau
A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)
86(2)
Mary Wollstonecraft
The Parisian Salon of an ``Indispensable Woman''
88(2)
Thoughts on Commerce: The Economic Framework
90(7)
Mercantilist Regulation: ``The Maxim of All Polite Nations''
90(2)
Sir William Keith
The Wealth of Nations (1776)
92(5)
Adam Smith
PART TWO THE ERA OF REVOLUTION
97(190)
``Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!'': The French Revolution
99(45)
Conditions of Society on the Eve of Revolution
102(7)
The Corruption of the French Court
103(1)
Marquis D'Argenson
``Ancient Oaks Mutilated by Time''
103(1)
Marquis De Bouille
The Indifferent Nobility
104(1)
Compte De Segur
The Superficial Education of the Nobility
105(1)
Mme De Stael
``Luxury, Debauchery, and Lavish Expenditure''
105(1)
Marquis De Ferrieres
The Grievances of Carcassonne
106(2)
Beggars, Rags, and Misery
108(1)
Arthur Young
The Outbreak of Revolution (1789--1791)
109(13)
``What Is the Third Estate?'' (January 1789) The Abbe Sieyes
109(1)
Women of the Third Estate (January 1789)
110(2)
The Tennis Court Oath (June 29, 1789)
112(1)
The Fall of the Bastille (July 14, 1789)
112(4)
Declaration of the Rights of Man (August 27, 1789)
116(2)
Declaration of the Rights of Woman (1791)
118(4)
Olympe De Gouges
The Historical Intersection New York: 1978
122(6)
``If Men Could Menstruate''
Gloria Steinem
Reflections on the Revolution (1790)
125(2)
Edmund Burke
The Clerical Oath of Loyalty (November 27, 1790)
127(1)
The Radicalization of the Revolution (1792-1794)
128(1)
The Fall of Louis XVI
128(7)
The Indictment of Louis XVI (December 11, 1792)
129(1)
The Execution of Louis XVI (January 21, 1793)
130(2)
Henry Edgeworth De Firmont
Proclamation of the Convention to the French People (January 23, 1793)
132(1)
Reflections on Louis XVI
133(1)
Mme Roland
Reality Check: An Update on the Political Rights of Women (1793)
134(1)
The Reign of Terror
135(9)
``You Would Exterminate All Your Enemies by the Guillotine!'' (December 20, 1793)
136(3)
Camille Desmoulins
``Virtue and Terror'': Speech to the Convention (February 5, 1794)
139(1)
Maximilien Robespierre
The Administration of Terror (June 10, 1794)
140(2)
The Execution of Robespierre (July 28, 1794)
142
Durand De Maillane
The Death of Marat
137(7)
Jacques-Louis David
Nationalism and Romanticism: ``The Spirit of the People''
144(55)
The Napoleonic Era (1796--1815)
149(1)
The Will to Power (1796--1802)
149(2)
On the Realities of Power (1796)
150(1)
Napoleon Bonaparte
The Historical Intersection Florence: 1512
151(2)
``How a Prince Should Keep His Word''
Niccolo Machiavelli
The First Consul: ``A Citizen Devoted to the Republic'' (November 10, 1799)
153(2)
Napoleon Bonaparte
Suppression of the Newspapers (1800)
155(1)
Articles for the Catholic Church (1802)
156(1)
The Imperial Mantle (1804--1806)
156(5)
``The Only Salvation Lies in Hereditary Power'' (December 1804)
157(1)
Napoleon Bonaparte
Why the French Submitted to Napoleon's Rule (1804)
158(1)
Comtesse De Remusat
The Imperial Catechism (April 1806)
159(2)
The Historical Intersection Switzerland: 1541
161(1)
The Genevan Catechism
John Calvin
The Military Genius
162(5)
``An End to the Woes of Anarchy'' (1810)
163(1)
Napoleon Bonaparte
``Napoleon Crossing the Alps''
163(2)
Jacques-Louis David
The Invasion of Russia (1812)
165(1)
Napoleon Bonaparte
``Everything Had Failed Us''
166(1)
Wairy Louis Constant
Exile and Death: The Hero in History
167(4)
Napoleon in Exile: ``We Stand as Martyrs to an Immortal Cause!''
167(1)
Napoleon Bonaparte
Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte
168(1)
Lord Byron
``The Third of May, 1808''
169(1)
Francisco Goya
The Role of Great Men in History
170(1)
G.W.F. Hegel
The Romantic Movement (1780--1830)
171(1)
The Evocation of Nature
172(3)
``The Language of the Sense, the Anchor of My Purest Thoughts''
172(2)
William Wordsworth
Ode to the West Wind (1820)
174(1)
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Terror and the Macabre
175(6)
Faust: ``Into Witchery and Dreams . . .''
176(1)
Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
The Erlking
177(3)
Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
Frankenstein (1818)
180(1)
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
The Nationalist Vision
181(1)
Volksgeist: ``The Spirit of the People''
181(11)
The Conservative Confession of Faith
183(3)
Prince Klemens Von Metternich
Stirrings: The People and the Fatherland
186(2)
Johann Gottlieb Fichte
The Duties of Man
188(2)
Giuseppe Mazzini
Greek Independence (1822): ``To Avenge Ourselves Against a Frightful Tyranny''
190(2)
Arts and Ideas
192(7)
``Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi''
192(1)
Eugene Delacroix
``Liberty Leading the People'' (1832)
192(3)
Eugene Delacroix
``A Moderate Amount of Happiness for All Men''
195(1)
Alexis De Tocqueville
1848: ``A Great Outbreak of Elemental Forces Had Begun''
196(3)
Carl Schurz
``A World to Win!'': The Industrial Revolution
199(44)
Rural and Urban Transformations
203(4)
The Dependent Poor (1795)
204(1)
David Davies
``How Are Men to Provide for Their Families?'': A Workers Petition (1786)
205(2)
The Urban Landscape
207(1)
The Factory System
207(11)
Sybil (1845)
207(1)
Benjamin Disraeli
Testimony before the Sadler Committee (1832)
208(3)
Child Labor
211(3)
A Defense of the Factory System (1835)
214(4)
Andrew Ure
Living Conditions
218(3)
The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844)
218(1)
Friedrich Engels
The Impact of the Factory System on Women and the Family
219(2)
Friedrich Engels
Reaction and Reform
221(1)
Law and Liberty: The Liberal Truth
221(8)
The Principle of Population (1798)
221(2)
Thomas Malthus
The Iron Law of Wages (1817)
223(3)
David Ricardo
The Chartist Demands (1838)
226(1)
A Middle-Class Perspective (1859)
227(2)
Samuel Smiles
Visions of a New World: The Socialist Truth
229(14)
Utopian Socialism (1816)
229(3)
Robert Owen
The Communist Manifesto (1848)
232(6)
Karl Marx
Friedrich Engels
Rerum Novarum (1891)
238(5)
Pope Leo XIII
``Mark Them with Your Dead!'': The Scramble for Global Empire
243(44)
``Send Forth the Best Ye Breed!'': The Foundations of Imperialism
247(1)
Political Unification and Consolidation
248(7)
Proclamation for the Liberation of Sicily (1860)
249(1)
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Address to the Italian Parliament (1871)
250(2)
King Victor Emmanuel
``We Germans Fear God, and Naught Else in the World'': Speech to the Reichstag (1888)
252(3)
Otto Von Bismarck
Racism and the Corruption of Science
255(6)
The Descent of Man (1871)
255(2)
Charles Darwin
The Standpoint of Science (1900)
257(2)
Karl Pearson
The Backward Peoples (1920)
259(2)
Sir Harry Johnston
For God and Country
261(7)
The Mandate System: Britain's Duty in Egypt (1890)
261(2)
Joseph Chamberlain
``France Must Be a Great Country!'' (1883)
263(1)
Jules Ferry
Germany's Place in the Sun (1901)
264(1)
Kaiser Wilhelm II
``The Hand of God'': American Imperialism in the Philippines (1900)
265(3)
Albert J. Beveridge
The Historical Intersection France: 1095
268(2)
The Spirit of the Crusades: ``It Is the Will of God!''
Robert the Monk
The White Man's Burden (1899)
270(2)
Rudyard Kipling
``To Seek Another's Profit and Work Another's Gain''
272(1)
``Your New-Caught Sullen Peoples''
273(1)
Education in India: ``The Intrinsic Superiority of Western Literature'' (1835)
274(1)
Thomas Babington Macaulay
Foreign Children
275(1)
Robert Louis Stevenson
``The Great African Hunt''
276(2)
Charles Seignobos
``A Natural Inclination to Submit to a Higher Authority'' (1893)
278(2)
Sir Frederick Dealtry Lugard
The Historical Intersection Bolivia: 1550
280(3)
The Barbarians of the New World: ``They Are Slaves by Nature''
Juan Gines De Sepulveda
``The Judgment of Your Peers''
283(4)
The ``White Man's Face'': Terror in the Congo
283(1)
Frederick Starr
The Battle Hymn of the Republic (Brought Down to Date)
284(3)
Mark Twain
PART THREE THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
287(308)
The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Era
289(70)
Fin de Siecle
294(1)
The Woman Question and Anti-Feminism
294(7)
Against Woman Suffrage (1884)
295(3)
Francis Parkman
``The Brain Weight of Women is Five Ounces Less Than That of Men'' (1887)
298(3)
George Romanes
The Historical Intersection Seneca Falls: 1848
301(2)
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Lucretia Mott
``This Is the Logic of Demons!''
303(1)
Josephine Butler
``I Incite This Meeting to Rebellion'' (1912)
304(1)
Emmeline Pankhurst
The Revolt Against Reason
305(8)
The Grand Inquisitor (1880)
307(2)
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Faith, Love, and Hope: ``Enough! Enough!'' (1887)
309(3)
Friedrich Nietzsche
``God Is Dead!''
312(1)
Friedrich Nietzsche
The Road to War
313(1)
The Celebration of War
313(5)
``Without War, No State Could Exist''
314(2)
Heinrich Von Treitschke
Establishing ``Laws of War'': The Hague Convention (1907)
316(1)
``Blind Obedience to Primitive Instincts'' (1910)
317(1)
Norman Angell
``The Lamps Go Out Over Europe''
318(7)
Statutes of ``The Black Hand''
319(1)
Assassination at Sarajevo: The Plot and Murder (June 28, 1914)
320(3)
``The Sword is Drawn!'' (August 18, 1914)
323(2)
Kaiser Wilhelm II
``They Shall Not Pass'': The Great War (1914--1918)
325(1)
The Horror of Battle
325(11)
The Battle of Verdun (February--December 1916)
326(3)
The Battle of the Somme (July-November 1916)
329(1)
No Man's Land
330(2)
J. Knight-Adkin
What Are You Fighting For, Michel?
332(1)
The Red Baron: Glory in the Skies?
333(3)
Baron Manfred Von Richthofen
``On the Other Side of the Boundary''
336(1)
Ernst Udet
``World Without End'': Women in War
336(3)
``There Had Never Been Untruth Between Us''
337(1)
Helen Thomas
``If the Men Refuse to Fight, We Will Show What the Women Can Do!''
338(1)
Florence Farmborough
It Is Sweet and Proper to Die for One's Country
339(4)
Five Souls
340(1)
W. N. Ewer
A German War Letter: ``One Blood-Soaked, Corpse-Strewn Field''
341(1)
Dulce et Decorum Est
342(1)
Wilfred Owen
The Aftermath: The Light That Failed
343(9)
``This Is the Way the World Ends''
343(1)
The Framework of Peace (1918)
343(3)
Woodrow Wilson
A German Soldier Returns Home: ``A Complete Stranger''
346(1)
Anna Eisenmenger
Treaty Concerning Submarines and Poisonous Gases in Warfare (1922)
347(2)
``If You Want to Endure Life---Prepare for Death''
349(2)
Sigmund Freud
The Hollow Men (1925)
351(1)
T. S. Eliot
The Reflection in the Mirror (1925--1930)
352(7)
The International Anarchy (1926)
353(1)
G. Lowes Dickinson
A Room of One's Own (1929)
354(2)
Virginia Woolf
On Human Nature (1930)
356(3)
Sigmund Freud
The Russian Revolution and the Development of the Totalitarian State (1917-1939)
359(46)
The Provisional Government (March-November 1917)
365(6)
Shall the Romanov Dynasty Remain? (March 15, 1917)
365(1)
Izvestiia
First Declaration of the Provisional Government (March 19, 1917)
366(2)
Policy of the Petrograd Soviet (March 27, 1917)
368(1)
The April Theses (April 20, 1917)
369(2)
V. I. Lenin
The Bolshevik Revolution (November-December 1917)
371(8)
The Overthrow of the Provisional Government: ``A New Page in the History of Russia''
372(1)
V. I. Lenin
``Little Good Is to Be Expected'' (November 8, 1917)
373(1)
Izvestiia
Censorship of the Press (November 9, 1917)
373(1)
V. I. Lenin
Establishment of the Secret Police (December 20, 1917)
373(3)
V. I. Lenin
Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly (December 1917)
376(1)
V. I. Lenin
A Self-Portrait (March 7, 1921)
377(2)
V. I. Lenin
The Aftermath of Revolution
379(9)
State and Revolution: The Transition from Capitalism to Communism (August 1917)
379(4)
V. I. Lenin
``Days of Grueling Work''
383(1)
Alexandra Kollontai
The Communist Emancipation of Women (1920)
384(2)
V. I. Lenin
``Stalin Is Too Rude'' (January 4, 1923)
386(1)
V. I. Lenin
Stalin's Falsification of History (1927)
387(1)
Leon Trotsky
The Development of the Totalitarian State
388(1)
The Soviet Control of Society
389(7)
Industrialization: ``Either Perish or Overtake Capitalistic Countries'' (1931)
389(1)
Joseph Stalin
Collectivization and the Liquidation of the Kulaks (1929)
390(2)
Joseph Stalin
``For the Fatherland!'' (1936)
392(2)
Pravda
The Purge Trials: ``Traitors Must Be Shot Like Dirty Dogs!'' (1938)
394(1)
Andrei Vyshinsky
The Gulag: ``Stalin's Sadistic Nature Thirsted for Blood!'' (1938)
395(1)
The Soviet State Ideal
396(7)
The Creation of ``Stalinism'' (1934)
396(2)
Joseph Stalin
Literature and the Soviet Ideal: ``The Craftsmen of Culture'' (1934)
398(2)
Maxim Gorky
Our Country: ``A Dream Come True'' (1937)
400(3)
A. Stetsky
The Historical Intersection London: 1948
403(2)
1984: ``Power Is in Tearing Human Minds to Pieces''
George Orwell
Europe Between the Wars: Fascism and the Nazi Rise to Power (1919-1939)
405(50)
The Legacy of World War I
409(1)
The Rise of Benito Mussolini
410(6)
``The State's Authority Was Ready for the Grave'' (1922)
410(1)
Benito Mussolini
The Fascist March on Rome (October 26, 1922)
411(2)
Benito Mussolini
The Doctrine of Fascism: ``This Will Be the Century of the State''
413(3)
Benito Mussolini
``Germany in Her Deepest Humiliation''
416(3)
``I Resolved Now to Become a Politician''
416(1)
Adolf Hitler
``Stabbed in the Back'' (1919)
417(1)
Paul Von Hindenburg
The Treaty of Versailles (1919)
418(1)
The Weimar Republic
419(1)
Germany's Unstable Democracy: The Best and Worst of Times
420(6)
The Weimar Constitution: Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Germans (1919)
420(1)
Loyalty to the Weimar Republic
421(1)
Lilo Linke
Inflation: ``The Boiling Kettle of a Wicked Witch''
422(2)
Lilo Linke
The Devaluation of Currency
424(1)
Konrad Heiden
``The Outlawry of War'': Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
424(2)
Hitler's Response to Germany's Problems
426(5)
The Nazi Program (1920)
426(2)
``We Fashion Once More a Hammer---a German Sword!''
428(2)
Adolf Hitler
Nazi Political Rally Announcement (February 1921) National Socialist German Workers' Party
430(1)
Nazi Appeal and Victory
431(1)
Nazi Propaganda
431(3)
Nationalists, Socialists, and Jews (1930)
432(1)
Joseph Goebbels
Free Germany! (1932)
433(1)
Statistical Evidence
434(2)
Elections to the German Reichstag (1924--1932)
435(1)
Chancellor to Dictator
436(4)
Decree for the Protection of the People and State (February 28, 1933)
436(2)
The Enabling Act (March 24, 1933)
438(1)
Law Against the New Formation of Parties (July 14, 1933)
438(1)
Law Concerning the Head of the German State (August 1, 1934)
439(1)
The Role of the Family in the Nazi State
440(2)
``Our Fanatical Fellow-Combatants'' (September 8, 1934)
440(2)
Adolf Hitler
The Historical Intersection Argentina: 1951
442(3)
``Yes, I am Fanatically Peronista''
Eva Peron
``The Disenfranchisement of Women''
445(1)
Hanna Schmitt
Hitler Youth: ``Tough As Leather, Hard As Krupp Steel''
446(2)
Adolf Hitler
Conversion and Resistence
448(7)
``Now I Know Which Road to Take''
448(1)
Joseph Goebbels
``I Had Given Him My Heart''
449(2)
Kurt Ludecke
A Matter of Principle
451(1)
S. Ricarda Huch
``Guilty! Guilty! Guilty!'': Leaflets of ``The White Rose'' (1942)
452(3)
Hans
Sophie Scholl
``The Abyss Also Looks into You'': War and Holocaust (1939--1945)
455(66)
The Road to War (1938--1939)
459(1)
The Czechoslovak Crisis (September 1938-March 1939)
459(5)
``The Misery of the Sudeten Germans Is Indescribable'' (September 12, 1938)
460(1)
Adolf Hitler
``Czechoslovakia Has Ceased to Exist'' (March 15, 1939)
461(2)
Adolf Hitler
``I Bitterly Regret What Has Now Occurred'' (March 15, 1939)
463(1)
Neville Chamberlain
The Invasion of Poland (September 1939)
464(4)
``Our Enemies Are Little Worms'' (August 22, 1939)
464(2)
Adolf Hitler
``At Dawn We Crossed into Poland'' (September 1, 1939)
466(1)
Lieutenant Baron Tasslio Von Bogenhardt
``Everything I Have Hoped for Has Crashed into Ruins'' (September 3, 1939)
467(1)
Neville Chamberlain
Total War (1939--1943)
468(1)
The Battlefield and the Homefront
469(12)
The Invasion of France: ``We Were Through the Maginot Line!'' (May 15, 1940)
469(2)
General Erwin Rommel
Alone: ``Their Finest Hour'' (June 18, 1940)
471(1)
Winston Churchill
The Battle of Britain: ``So Much Owed by So Many to So Few'' (August 20, 1940)
472(1)
Winston Churchill
London Aflame!
473(1)
Mrs. Robert Henrey
The Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor: ``I Saw My Maker on Sunday''
474(2)
Private Nicholas Gaynos
The U.S.S. Arizona: ``Some Sort of Hellish Nightmare!''
476(1)
Seaman John Rampley
``A Date Which Will Live in Infamy''
477(2)
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Women in the Factories: ``My Hands Are as Smooth as the Steel I Worked On''
479(2)
Elizabeth Hawes
Holocaust: The Final Solution
481(2)
Nazi Racial Policy and Propaganda
483(3)
``I Got You at Last, You Little German Girl!'' (1938)
483(1)
Ernst Hiemer
``A Complete Solution to the Jewish Question'' (July 31, 1941)
484(1)
Hermann Goering
The Wansee Conference (January 20, 1942)
485(1)
The Death Camps
486(5)
Sites of Nazi Concentration Camps
487(1)
Genocide
487(4)
Rudolf Hoess
The Historical Intersection China: 1937
491(2)
The Rape of Nanjing
The Pit
493(1)
Hermann Grabe
Gas
494(2)
Kurt Gerstein
Mobile Killing
496(1)
Nazi Medical Experiments
497(2)
Dr. Franz Blaha
Commandant of Auschwitz
499(1)
Rudolf Hoess
Gotterdammerung: The Final Destruction (1944--1945)
500(1)
The D-Day Invasions (June 6, 1944)
501(6)
The Paratrooper: ``He Was Blown Away''
501(1)
Ken Russell
The Assault on Omaha Beach: ``I'm Hit! I'm Hit!''
502(3)
Harold Baumgarten
Fiftieth Anniversary of D-Day: ``When They Were Young, These Men Saved the World''
505(2)
President Bill Clinton
The Historical Intersection Athens: 430 B.C.E.
507(2)
``Freedom Depends on Being Courageous'': The Funeral Oration of Pericles (430 B.C.E.)
Thucydides
``Like Cherry Blossoms in the Spring'': The Fall of Japan
509(7)
Kamikaze: ``Death and I Are Waiting''
509(1)
Ensign Heiichi Okabe
The Destruction of Hiroshima (August 6, 1945)
510(3)
Harry S Truman
``They Had No Faces''
513(1)
Dr. Michihiko Hachiya
``In the End, My Husband Didn't Come Back''
514(2)
Tsuyuko Yokomaru
The Aftermath of War
516(5)
Nuremberg: The Crimes of the Nazi Regime
516(1)
Justice Robert H. Jackson
The Destruction of the European Jews
517(2)
Raul Hilberg
The Responsibility of the Individual (1956)
519(2)
Jean-Paul Sartre
The Era of the Superpowers: Confrontation and the Dynamics of Change
521(74)
Retrenchment (1945--1965)
527(1)
The Reconstruction of Europe
527(4)
The Marshall Plan (June 1947)
528(1)
George C. Marshall
Program for the Welfare State: The Beveridge Report
529(2)
The Retreat from Empire
531(7)
Vietnam: ``Determined to Fight to the Bitter End'' (1945)
532(2)
Ho Chi Minh
British Rule in India (1946)
534(2)
Jawaharlal Nehru
The Suez Canal Incident: ``Those Who Attack Egypt Will Never Leave Egypt Alive'' (1956)
536(2)
Gamal Abdul Nasser
The Domestic Retreat and the Women's Movement
538(8)
The Second Sex (1949)
539(3)
Simone De Beauvoir
The Feminine Mystique (1963)
542(4)
Betty Friedan
The Historical Intersection New York: 1991
546(4)
Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women
Susan Faludi
The Cold War (1945-1990)
550(1)
The ``Superpower'' Rivalry
550(15)
The Soviet Victory: Capitalism Versus Communism (February 1946)
550(2)
Joseph Stalin
``An Iron Curtain Has Descended Across the Continent'' (March 1946)
552(1)
Sir Winston Churchill
The Truman Doctrine (March 1947)
553(2)
Harry S Truman
An Assessment of Communism (1953)
555(2)
Theodore White
How to Spot a Communist (1955)
557(3)
The New Class (1957)
560(3)
Milovan Djilas
``The Victory of Communism Is Inevitable'': Speech to the 22nd Communist Party Congress (1962)
563(2)
Nikita Khrushchev
Currents of Dissent in the ``Evil Empire''
565(4)
``Freedom of Thought Is the Only Guarantee'' (1974)
566(1)
Andrei Sakharov
``What Have You to Fear?'' (1974)
567(2)
Alexander I. Solzhenitsyn
``A World Turned Upside Down!'': The Gorbachev Era and Beyond
569(11)
Perestroika and the Socialist Renewal of Society (September 11, 1989)
571(3)
Mikhail Gorbachev
Gorbachev's Resignation: ``This Society Has Acquired Freedom'' (December 25, 1991)
574(3)
Mikhail Gorbachev
Communism: ``Far Away from the Main Stream of Civilization'' (December 31, 1999)
577(3)
Vladimir Putin
The Future of the West
580(1)
Political and Economic Initiatives
580(7)
A United Germany in a United Europe (June 5, 1990)
580(2)
Helmut Kohl
The Reconciliation of France and Germany (September 24, 1990)
582(3)
Francois Mitterand
Monetary Union: Europe's Global Role (1998)
585(2)
Lawrence H. Summers
Ethnic Strife and Terrorism
587(8)
Ethnic Strife in Eastern Europe (April 15, 1994)
588(2)
Helmut Tuerk
Crimes Against Humanity: Ethnic Cleansing (1992)
590(2)
The Trial of Slobodan Milosevic (2001)
592(3)
``We Wage a War to Save Civilization Itself'' (2001)
595
George W. Bush

Excerpts

The Roman orator Cicero once remarked that "History is the witness of the times, the torch of truth, the life of memory, the teacher of life, the messenger of antiquity." In spite of these noble words, historians have often labored under the burden of justifying the study of events that are over and done. Human beings are practical, more concerned with their present and future than with their past. And yet the study of history provides us with unique opportunities for self-knowledge. It teaches us what we have done and therefore helps define what we are. On a less abstract level, the study of history enables us to judge present circumstance by drawing on the laboratory of the past. Those who have lived and died, through their recorded attitudes, actions, and ideas, have left a legacy of experience. One of the best ways to travel through time and perceive the very "humanness" of history is through the study of primary sources. These are the documents, coins, letters, inscriptions, and monuments of past ages. The task of historians is to evaluate this evidence with a critical eye and then construct a narrative that is consistent with the "facts" as they have been established. Such interpretations are inherently subjective and open to dispute. History is thus filled with controversy as historians argue their way toward the truth. The only effective way to understand the past is through personal examination of the primary sources. Yet, for the beginning student, this poses some difficulties. Such inquiry casts the student adrift from the security of accepting the "truth" as revealed in a textbook. In fact, history is too often presented in a deceptively objective manner; one learns facts and dates in an effort to obtain the right answers for multiple-choice tests. But the student who has wrestled with primary sources and has experienced voices from the past on a more intimate level accepts the responsibility of evaluation and judgment. He or she understands that history does not easily lend itself to right answers, but demands reflection on the problems that have confronted past societies and are at play even in our contemporary world. Aspects of Western Civilizationoffers the student an opportunity to evaluate the primary sources of the past in a structured and organized format. The documents provided include state papers, secret dispatches, letters, diary accounts, poems, newspaper articles, papal encyclicals, propaganda' fliers, and even wall graffiti. Occasionally, the assessments of modern historians are included. Yet this two-volume book has been conceived as more than a simple compilation of sources. The subtitle of the work,Problems and Sources in History,gives true indication of the nature of its premise. Students learn from the past most effectively when faced with problems that have meaning for their own lives. In evaluating the material fromAspects of Western Civilization,the student will discover that issues are not nearly as simple as they may appear at first glance. Historical sources often contradict each other, and truth then depends upon logic and upon one's own experience and outlook on life. Throughout these volumes, the student is confronted with basic questions regarding historical development, human nature, moral action, and practical necessity. The text is therefore broad in its scope, incorporating a wide variety of political, social, economic, religious, intellectual, and scientific issues. It is internally organized aroundeight major themesthat provide direction and cohesion while allowing for originality of thought in both written and oral analysis: Imperialism:How has imperialism been justified throughout Western history, and what are the moral implications of gaining and maintaining empire? Is defensive imperialism a practical foreign policy option? This theme is often juxtaposed with subtopics of nationalism, war, altruism, and


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