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This reader is appropriate as a main text or a supplementary text for introductory-level survey courses in Western Civilization and European History and Civilization. Aspects of Western Civilization:Problems and Sources in History, Volume 2, 7/e,challenges students with basic questions regarding historical development, human nature, moral action, and practical necessity. This collection of diverse primary sources explores a wide variety of issues and is organized around seven major themes: the Power Structure, Social and Spiritual Values, the Institution and the Individual, Imperialism, Revolution and Historical Transition, the Varieties of Truth, and Women in History.

Author Biography

Perry M. Rogers received his B.A. from San Jose State University, his M.A. from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his Ph.D. from the University of Washington where he specialized in ancient history with fields in medieval history, and Early Modern Europe.  He has been a professor of Roman history at the Ohio State University and has held an adjunct position in the Liberal Arts at the Pontifical College Josephinum for several years.  He remains Chair of the History Department at Columbus School for Girls, an independent, college preparatory school in Columbus, Ohio.  Rogers’s two-volume publications for Pearson/Prentice Hall include Aspects of Western Civilization (7th edition), Aspects of World History, and The Human Spirit:  Sources in the Western Humanities.

Table of Contents





Chapter 1: The Age of the Renaissance and Reformation



The Humanist Movement

Oration on the Dignity of Man (1486), Pico della Mirandola

The Soul of Man (1474), Marcilio Ficino


The Political Life of Florence

The Rule of Cosimo de’Medici, Vespasiano

The Prince: “Everyone Sees What You Appear to Be, Few Perceive What You Are”

            Niccolò Machiavelli



The Lutheran Reformation

“How Many Sins Are Committed in a Single Day?” (1517), Johann Tetzel

Salvation Through Faith Alone, Martin Luther

The Ninety-five Theses (1517), Martin Luther

“Here I Stand”:  Address at the Diet of Worms (1521), Martin Luther

The Edict of Worms (1521), Emperor Charles V


In the Wake of Luther

John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation

On the Necessity of Reforming the Church (1544), John Calvin

Predestination: Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536), John Calvin


The Catholic Reformation

Spiritual Exercises (1548), Ignatius Loyola

The Council of Trent:  Profession of Faith

The Tridentine Index of Books (1564)



 Chapter 2: “I Am the State”: The Development of Absolutism in England and France


 The English Revolution (1649-1689)


The Struggle for Constitutional Government (1650-1660)


“The Mortal God”: Leviathan (1651), Thomas Hobbes

The Instrument of Government (December 16, 1653)

Cromwell Denies the Crown (May 8, 1657), Oliver Cromwell


The Reflection in the Mirror: Oliver Cromwell: The Lord Protector

“To You Our Country Owes Its Liberties”           John Milton

“Guilty of Crimes for which Hell-Fire Is Prepared”, Edward Hyde


The Restoration and the Glorious Revolution (1660-1689)


“A Force Sufficient to Defend Us from the Violence of Those Evil Counsellors”, William of Orange

The Bill of Rights (1689)


The Absolutism of Louis XIV


The Theory of Divine-Right Monarchy


The Ideal Absolute State (1697), Jean Domat

Politics and Scripture (1679), Jacques Benigne Bossuet

The Sun King and the Practice of Absolute Rule


“Vanity Was His Ruin”, The Duke of Saint-Simon

Letters to His Heirs: “Allow Good Sense to Act”, King Louis XIV

“A Frightful Plot”: The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, The Duke of Saint-Simon


The Artistic Vision: The Palace of Versailles

“A Celebration of Greatness”, Jean Colbert

Visible Majesty, King Louis XIV



Chapter 3: “Dare to Know!”: The Scientific Revolution


 Science and the Church


The Heliocentric Statement (ca. 1520), Nicolaus Copernicus

On the Movement of the Earth (1543), Nicolaus Copernicus

Science and the Bible: “They Would Have Us Abandon Reason” (1615), Galileo Galilei


The Reflection in the Mirror: Galileo Absolved: The Resolution

“Science and Faith Are Both Gifts from God” (1993)    Pope John Paul II


The Foundations of Modern Science


The Advancement of Learning (1605), Sir Francis Bacon

“I Think, Therefore I Am”: Discourse on Method (1637), René Eescartes


Against the Grain: On the Circulation of the Blood  (1628)

                            “A Motion, As It Were, In a Circle”      William  Harvey


Principles of Analysis–Induction and God: Optics (1704)        Sir Isaac Newton


Chapter 4: The Enlightenment and the Revolution of the Mind

Thoughts on the Human Condition and Human Progress


The Blank Slate of the Mind: An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)      John Locke


Against the Grain: On Crimes and Punishments  (1764)

“The Greatest Happiness of the Greatest Number”, Cesare Beccaria


Thoughts on Religion


God–“A Cause Contradicted by Its Effects”: Common Sense (1770), Baron d’Holbach

On Universal Toleration, Voltaire

“If God Did Not Exist, He Would Have to Be Invented”, Voltaire


Thoughts on Education


Introduction to the Encyclopedia (1751), Jean Le Rond d’Alembert

“We Did Not Live Entirely in Vain” (1764), Denis Diderot


Thoughts on Government: The Political Framework


Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690), John Locke

The Spirit of the Laws (1748), Baron  de montesquieu

The Social Contract (1762), Jean Jacques Rousseau

The Declaration of Independence (1776), Thomas Jefferson


Thoughts on Women: The Social Framework


Woman: “Especially Constituted to Please Man”, Jean Jacques Rousseau

A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792), Mary Wollstonecraft


Thoughts on Commerce: The Economic Framework


The Wealth of Nations (1776), Adam Smith




Chapter 5: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity!”:  The French Revolution


 Conditions of Society on the Eve of Revolution


The Corruption of the French Court, Marquis d’Argenson

“Ancient Oaks Mutilated by Time” , Marquis de Bouille

The Grievances of Carcassonne                                                           

Beggars, Rags, and Misery, Arthur Young


 The Outbreak of Revolution (1789—1791)


“What Is the Third Estate?” (January 1789), the Abbé Aieyès

Women of the Third Estate: “We Ask to Be Enlightened” (January 1789)

The Tennis Court Oath (June 29, 1789)

The Fall of the Bastille (July 14, 1789)

Declaration of the Rights of Man (August 27, 1789)


Against the Grain: The Flip Side of Liberty

                         Declaration of the Rights of Woman (1791), Olympe de Gouges


Reflections on the Revolution (1790), Edmund Burke


The Radicalization of the Revolution (1792—1794)


The Fall of Louis XVI (1792-1793)


The Execution of Louis XVI (January 21, 1793), Henry Edgeworth de Firmont

Proclamation of the Convention to the French People (January 23, 1793)

Reflections on Louis XVI, Mme Roland

The Reflection in the Mirror: A Revolutionary Reality Check

An Update on the Political Rights of Women (1793)


The Reign of Terror (1793-1794)


“You Would Exterminate All Your Enemies by the Guillotine!” (December 20, 1793), Camille Desmoulins


The Artistic Vision: Jean-Claude Marat:  “The Martyr of the Revolution”

The Death of Marat (1793), Jacques-Louis David


“Virtue and Terror”: Speech to the Convention (February 5, 1794), Maximilien  Robespierre

The Administration of Terror (June 10, 1794)

The Execution of Robespierre (July 28, 1794), Durand de Maillane



 Chapter 6: Paths of Glory: Napoleon and the Romantic Movement


The Napoleonic Era (1796-1815)


The Will to Power (1796-1802)


On the Realities of Power (1796), Napoleon Bonaparte

Suppression of the Newspapers (1800)

Articles for the Catholic Church (1802)


The Imperial Mantle (1804-1806)


“The Only Salvation Lies in Hereditary Power” (December 1804), Napoleon Bonaparte

Why the French Submitted to Napoleon’s Rule (1804), Comtesse de Rémusat

The Imperial Catechism (April 1806)


Exile and Death: The Hero in History


Napoleon in Exile:  “We Stand as Martyrs to an Immortal Cause!”, Napoleon Bonaparte

The Role of Great Men in History, G. W. F. Hegel

Against the Grain: Beethoven’s Eroica: “To the Memory of a Great Man”

Portrait of Beethoven, Joseph Karl Stieler

Ode to Joy, Friedrich Schiller


The Romantic Movement (1780-1830)


The Erlking, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Terror and the Macabre:  Frankenstein (1818), Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley


The Artistic Vision: “The Tyrant of Europe”

Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte, Lord Byron    

The Third of May, 1808 , Francisco Goya


Chapter 7:  “A World to Win!”: The Industrial Revolution


Rural and Urban Transformations


The Dependent Poor (1795), David Davies

“How Are Men to Provide for Their Families?”:  A Workers Petition (1786)


The Urban Landscape


The Factory System


Sybil (1845), Benjamin Disraeli

The Sadler Report:  “Not Many as Deformed as I Am” (1832)

Child Labor

A Defense of the Factory System (1835), Andrew Ure


Living Conditions   


The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844), Friedrich Engels  

The Impact of the Factory System on Women and the Family, Friedrich Engels

Reaction and Reform


Against the Grain: The Horrors of the Slave Trade

 “A Scene of Horror Almost Inconceivable” , Olauda Eqiano

“We Can No Longer Plead Ignorance”, William Wilberforce


Law and Liberty: The Liberal Truth


The Iron Law of Wages (1817), David Ricardo

The Chartist Demands (1838)

A Middle-Class Perspective (1859), Samuel Smiles


The Artistic Vision: The Social Perspective by Train

Over London by Rail , Gustave Doré

Third Class Carriage , Honoré Daumier


Visions of a New World: The Socialist Truth


Utopian Socialism (1816), Robert Owen

The Communist Manifesto (1848), Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels


The Reflection in the Mirror: A Papal Perspective:  Rerum Novarum (1891 )

“A Yoke Little Better Than That of Slavery Itself”, Pope Leo XIII



Chapter 8: Fatherland: The Power of Nationalism


Volksgeist :  The “Spirit of the People”(1815-1850)


The Conservative Confession of Faith, Prince Klemens von Metternich

Stirrings:  The People and the Fatherland, Johann Gottlieb Fichte

The Duties of Man, Giuseppi Mazzini


The Reflection in the Mirror: The Greek Revolution of 1820

“To Avenge Ourselves Against a Frightful Tyranny”

Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi (1826), Eugène Delacroix


“A Moderate Amount of Happiness for All Men”, Alexis de Tocqueville

1848: “A Great Outburst of Elemental Forces Had Begun”, Carl Schurz

The Political Unification of Italy and Germany (1850-1890)


Proclamation for the Liberation of Sicily (1860), Giuseppe Garibaldi

Address to the Italian Parliament (1871), King Victor Emmanuel II

“We Germans Fear God, and Nothing Else in the World”:

                       Speech to the Reichstag (1888), Otto von Bismarck


Against the Grain: The Zionist Movement

The Basil Program (1897)        


Chapter 9: “Mark Them with Your Dead!”:  The Scramble for Global Empire


“Send Forth the Best Ye Breed!”: The Foundations of Imperialism


Racism and the Corruption of Science


The Descent of Man (1871), Charles Darwin

The Standpoint of Science (1900),  Karl Pearson


For God and Country


The Mandate System: Britain’s Duty in Egypt (1890) , Joseph Chamberlain

“France Must Be a Great Country!”  (1883), Jules Ferry

Germany’s Place in the Sun (1900), Kaiser Wilhelm II

The White Man’s Burden (1899), Rudyard Kipling


“To Seek Another’s Profit and Work Another’s Gain”


“Your New-Caught Sullen Peoples”


Education in India: “The Intrinsic Superiority of Western Literature” (1835), Thomas Babington Macaulay

Foreign Children, Robert Louis Stevenson

“A Natural Inclination to Submit to a Higher Authority” (1893)

Sir Frederick Dealtry Lugard

The Reflection in the Mirror  “The Judgment of Your Peers”

The “White Man’s Face”: Terror in the Congo, Frederick Starr

The Battle Hymn of the Republic (Brought Down to Date), Mark Twain


Chapter 10: Fin de Siècle: The Birth of the Modern Era


The Woman Question and Anti-Feminism


 Seneca Falls Declaration (1848)

“Sisters of America! Your Sisters of France Are United with You” (1851)

Pauline Roland and Jeanne Deroine

Against Woman Suffrage (1884), Francis Parkman

“The Brain Weight of Women is Five Ounces Less Than That of Men” (1887), George Romanes


Against the Grain: The Independent Woman

A Doll’s House (1879), Henrik Ibsen


“This Is the Logic of Demons!”, Josephine Butler

“I Incite This Meeting to Rebellion” (1912), Emmeline Pankhurst


The Revolt Against Reason


Faith, Love, and Hope: “Enough!  Enough!” (1887), Friedrich Nietzsche

“God Is Dead!”, Friedrich Nietzsche


The Artistic Vision: The Insular World of Edvard Munch

Scream (1893), Edvard Munch




Chapter 11: The Great War (1914-1918)


The Road to War


The Celebration of War


“Without War, No State Could Exist”, Heinrich von Treitschke

“Blind Obedience to Primitive Instincts” (1910), Norman Angell


The Lamps Go Out Over Europe


Statutes of “The Black Hand”

Assassination at Sarajevo:  The Plot and Murder (June 28, 1914)

“The Sword is Drawn!” (August 18, 1914), Kaiser Wilhelm II


“They Shall Not Pass”: The Great War (1914-1918)


The Horror of Battle


The Battle of Verdun (February—December 1916)

The Battle of the Somme (July—November 1916)

No Man’s Land,  J. Knight-Adkin

“What Are You Fighting For, Michel?”


Against the Grain: Glory in the Skies:  The Red Baron

 “An Englishman for Breakfast”              Baron Manfred von Richthofen

“On the Other Side of the Boundary”                                         Ernst Udet


It Is Sweet and Proper to Die for One’s Country


Five Souls                                                                                                     W. N. Ewer

A German War Letter: “One Blood-Soaked, Corpse-Strewn Field”      Richard Schiemder


The Artistic Vision: The Nightmare of Otto Dix

Dance of Death in the Year *17: Dead Man Hill

Aftermath:  The Light That Failed


“This Is the Way the World Ends”


A German Soldier Returns Home: “A Complete Stranger”                               Anna Eisenmenger

“If You Want to Endure Life—Prepare for Death”                                                 Sigmund Freud



Chapter 12: The Russian Revolution and the  Development of the Soviet State (1917—1939)


The Provisional Government (March—November 1917)


“A New, Free Russia Is Born!”: First Declaration of the Provisional Government (March 19, 1917)

The April Theses (April 20, 1917)                           V. I. Lenin


The Bolshevik Revolution (November—December 1917)


The Overthrow of the Provisional Government: “A New Page in the History of Russia”              V. I. Lenin

“Little Good Is To Be Expected” (November 8, 1917)                     Izvestia

Censorship of the Press (November 9, 1917)                                V. I. Lenin

Establishment of the Secret Police (December 20, 1917)             V. I. Lenin


The Aftermath of Revolution (1917-1928)


State and Revolution: The Transition from Capitalism to Communism (August 1917)                            V. I. Lenin

“Days of Grueling Work”                                                                                                                                        Alexandra Kollontai

The Communist Emancipation of Women (1920)                                   V. I. Lenin

“Stalin Is Too Rude” (January 4, 1923)                                                       V. I. Lenin

Stalin’s Falsification of History (1927)                                                      Leon Trotsky


The Development of the Totalitarian State (1928-1938)


The Artistic Vision: The Soviet Creation of Belief

                                                       Industrial Worker and Collective Farm Girl (1937)              Vera Mukhina        

The Soviet Control of Society


Industrialization: “Either Perish or Overtake Capitalistic Countries” (1931)                           Joseph Stalin

Collectivization and the Liquidation of the Kulaks (1929)                                                         Joseph Stalin

“For the Fatherland!” (1936)    pravda

The Purge Trials: “Traitors Must Be Shot Like Dirty Dogs!” (1938)                                          Andrei Vyshinsky

The Gulag: “Stalin’s Sadistic Nature Thirsted for Blood!” (1938)


The Reflection in the Mirror  The Orwellian World

“Power Is in Tearing Human Minds to Pieces”   George Orwell



Chapter 13: Europe between the Wars:  Fascism and the Nazi Rise to Power (1919—1939)


The Legacy of World War I


The Rise of Benito Mussolini


“The State’s Authority Was Ready for the Grave” (1922)                                 

The Fascist March on Rome (October 26, 1922)                                               

The Doctrine of Fascism: “This Will Be the Century of the State”                    


“Germany in Her Deepest Humiliation”


“I Resolved Now to Become a Politician”                    Adolf Hitler

“Stabbed in the Back” (1919)                                       Paul von Hindenburg

The Treaty of Versailles (1919)


The Weimar Republic


Germany’s Unstable Democracy: The Best and Worst of Times


The Weimar Constitution: Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Germans (1919)

Inflation: “The Boiling Kettle of a Wicked Witch”                                  Lilo Linke


Hitler’s Response to Germany’s Problems


The Nazi Program (1920)

Nazi Political Rally Announcement (February 1921)                        National Socialist German Workers’ Party


Nazi Appeal and Victory


Nazi Propaganda


Nationalists, Socialists, and Jews (1930)                                             Joseph Goebbels

Free Germany! (1932)

Nazi Victory by the Numbers:  Elections to the German Reichstag (1924—1932)


Chancellor to Dictator


Decree for the Protection of the People and State (February 28, 1933)

The Enabling Act (March 24, 1933)

Law Against the New Formation of Parties (July 14, 1933)

Law Concerning the Head of the German State (August 1, 1934)


The Role of the Family in the Nazi State


“Our Fanatical Fellow-Combatants” (September 8, 1934)                    Adolf Hitler

“The Disenfranchisement of Women”                                                      Hanna Schmitt

Hitler Youth: “Tough As Leather, Hard As Krupp Steel”                        Adolf Hitler


Conversion and Resistance


“Now I Know Which Road to Take”                                         Joseph Goebbels

“I Had Given Him My Heart”                                                   Kurt Ludecke


Against the Grain: “Guilty! Guilty!  Guilty!”

                                  Leaflets of “The White Rose” (1942)                Hans and Sophie Scholl



Chapter 14: “The Abyss Also Looks into You”:  War and Holocaust (1939-1945)


 The Road to War (1938—1939)


The Czechoslovak Crisis (September 1938—March 1939)


“The Misery of the Sudeten Germans Is Indescribable” (September 12, 1938)               Adolf Hitler

“Czechoslovakia Has Ceased to Exist” (March 15, 1939)                                                    Adolf Hitler

“I Bitterly Regret What Has Now Occurred” (March 15, 1939)                                             Neville Chamberlain


The Invasion of Poland (September 1939)


“Our Enemies Are Little Worms” (August 22, 1939)                                                             Adolf Hitler

“Everything I Have Hoped for Has Crashed into Ruins” (September 3, 1939)                  Neville Chamberlain


Total War (1939-1943)


The Battlefield and the Homefront


Alone:  “Their Finest Hour” (June 18, 1940)                                                                              Winston Churchill

The Battle of Britain:  “So Much Owed by So Many to So Few” (August 20, 1940)               Winston Churchill

London Aflame!                                                                                                                             Mrs. Robert Henrey

“A Date Which Will Live in Infamy”                                                                                               President Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Women in the Factories: “My Hands Are as Smooth as the Steel I Worked On”                   Elizabeth Hawes


The Jewish Holocaust (1923-1945)


“The Jews Are the Cause of Our Misfortune!”


The Jewish Peril (April 1923)                                                                                    Adolf Hitler

“Not a Single Jew” (1932)

“I Got You at Last, You Little German Girl!” (1938)                                               Ernst Hiemer


The Radicalization of Anti-Semitism (1938-1941)


“Jewish Ghettos Shall Have to Be Created” (November 12, 1938)

“The Annihilation of the Jewish Race in Europe!” (January 30, 1939)                 Adolf Hitler

“The Jews Are to Blame!” (1941)                                                                               Joseph Goebbels


The Final Solution (1942-1945)


“A Complete Solution to the Jewish Question” (July 31, 1941)                           Hermann Goering

The Wansee Conference (January 20, 1942)


The Death Camps: “Work Makes You Free”


Sites of Nazi Concentration Camps

Genocide                                                                           Rudolf Hoess                                                                        

The Pit                                                                                Hermann Gräbe

Gas                                                                                     Kurt Gerstein

Mobile Killing

Nazi Medical Experiments                                               Dr. Franz Blaha

Commandant of Auschwitz                                            Rudolf Hoess


Against the Grain: Jewish Resistance

Nazi Problems in the Warsaw Ghetto (May 1, 1943)    Joseph Goebbels

The Destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto (May 1943)     Jürgen Stroop

Manifesto of the Jewish Resistance in Vilna (September 1943)


Götterdämmerung :  The Final Destruction (1944—1945)


The D-Day Invasions (June 6, 1944)


The Paratrooper: “He Was Blown Away”                                 Ken Russell

The Assault on Omaha Beach: “I’m Hit! I’m Hit!”                  Harold Baumgarten


The Reflection in the Mirror  Fiftieth Anniversary of D-Day

 “When They Were Young, These Men Saved the World”                                     President Bill Clinton

The Vision at Sixty-Five                   President Barack Obama

The Funeral Oration of Pericles      Thucydides


The Aftermath of War


The Destruction of Hiroshima (August 6, 1945)             Harry S Truman

Nuremberg:  The Crimes of the Nazi Regime                   Justice Robert H. Jackson

The Existential Perspective (1956)                                     Jean-Paul Sartre



Chapter 15:  The Era of the Superpowers: Cold War Confrontation (1945-1990)


 Retrenchment (1945-1960)


The Reconstruction of Europe


The Marshall Plan (June 1947)                                               George C. Marshall

Program for the Welfare State: The Beveridge Report


The Retreat from Empire


Vietnam: “Determined to Fight to the Bitter End” (1945)            Ho Chi Minh

British Rule in India (1946)       JAWAHARLAL NEHRU

The Arab Nationalist Movement and Revolution (1958)             Abdul Gamal Nasser


The Cold War (1945—1990)


The “Superpower” Rivalry


The Soviet Victory: Capitalism Versus Communism (February 1946)                 Joseph Stalin

“An Iron Curtain Has Descended Across the Continent” (March 1946)               Sir Winston Churchill

The Truman Doctrine (March 1947)                                                                          Harry S Truman

Marx Was Wrong: The Flaws of Communism (1953)                                              Theodore White

How to Spot a Communist (1955)


Currents of Dissent


The New Class (1957)                                     Milovan Djilas

“The Victory of Communism Is Inevitable!”:

 The Secret Speech (1962)                             Nikita Khrushchev

Prague Spring: The Brezhnev Doctrine (1968)


“A World Turned Upside Down!”: The Gorbachev Era


Against the Grain: Cracks in the Berlin Wall

                                    “Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall!” (June 12, 1987)                           President Ronald Reagan


Perestroika and the Socialist Renewal of Society (September 11, 1989)                                   Mikhail Gorbachev

Gorbachev’s Resignation: “This Society Has Acquired Freedom” (December 25, 1991)        Mikhail Gorbachev



Chapter 16:  The Dynamics of Change  in the Contemporary World (1990-2010)


Political and Economic Initiatives


A United Germany in a United Europe (June 5, 1990)                                                                  Helmut Kohl

The Reconciliation of France and Germany (September 24, 1990)                                           François Mitterrand

“Czechoslovakia Is Returning to Europe”                                              (February 21, 1990)     Václav Havel

Communism: “Far Away from the Mainstream of Civilization” (December 31, 1999)           Vladimir Putin

Monetary Union: Europe’s Global Role (1998)                                                                              Lawrence H. Summers


Ethnic Strife and Terrorism


Ethnic Strife in Eastern Europe (April 15, 1994)                                            Helmut Tuerk

Crimes Against Humanity:  “Ethnic Cleansing” in Serbia (1992)


The Reflection in the Mirror: Balkan Crimes

“We Are Witnesses to a Process of Death in the Balkans” (January 12, 1994)    Pope John Paul II


“We Wage a War to Save Civilization Itself” (2001)                                     President George W. Bush


The Islamic World and the West


“Fanaticism Is Not a State of Religion, But a State of Mind” (July 11, 2005)               Prime Minister Tony Blair

“This Is Going to Be Freedom’s Century” (March 29, 2006)                                        President George W. Bush

Turkey and the European Union (2009)                                                                          President Barack Obama 


Against the Grain: The Future of the West

“A New Beginning” (June 4, 2009)                                                 President Barack Obama

 “The Burqa Is Not Welcome in France”: The Press Conference (June 6, 2009)        

President Barack Obama and President Nicholas Sarkozy


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