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Aspects of Western Civilization, Volume I: Problems and Sources in History,9780130384911
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Aspects of Western Civilization, Volume I: Problems and Sources in History

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780130384911

ISBN10:
0130384917
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div

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Summary

For freshman/sophomore level courses in Western Civilization from the ancient world to present, or Intro to Humanities or survey courses of a particular period. A two-volume chronologically arranged compilation of primary and some secondary sources in Western Civilization. Organized around eight major themes to provide direction and cohesion to the text while allowing for originality of thought in both written and oral analysis. Students are presented with basic questions regarding historical development, human nature, moral action and practical necessity while incorporating a wide variety of political, social, economic, religious, intellectual and scientific issues. The readings present history as a vehicle for better understanding in the present rather than a stagnant observation of past societies.

Table of Contents

Preface xxvii
PART ONE THE FOUNDATIONS OF CIVILIZATION 1(54)
Civilization in the Ancient Near East: Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Israel
3(52)
Mesopotamian Civilization
6(1)
Secular Authority and Order
6(3)
The Reign of Sargon
6(1)
The Code of Hammurabi
6(3)
Mesopotamian Thought and Religion
9(6)
The Epic of Gilgamesh
9(3)
The Biblical Flood
12(1)
The Mesopotamian View of Death
13(2)
Egyptian Civilization
15(1)
The Authority of the Pharaohs
15(4)
Building the Pyramids
15(1)
Herodotus
Mummification
16(1)
Herodotus
Ramses the Great
17(2)
Egyptian Values
19(3)
Instructions of Kagemni
19(1)
Love Song: ``Would You Then Leave Me?''
20(1)
Love Song: ``I Am Your Best Girl''
21(1)
Egyptian Religion
22(7)
The Pyramid Texts
22(1)
The Book of the Dead: Negative Confession
23(2)
Hymn to the Aten
25(4)
Akhenaten
Hebrew Civilization
29(1)
Origins, Oppression, and the Exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt
29(3)
The Creation of the World
30(2)
The Historical Intersection Yucatan: 1550
32(4)
Maya Origins: The Creation of the World
Paradise and the Fall from Grace
36(2)
The Hebrew Bondage
38(1)
The Burning Bush
38(1)
The Mission of Moses
39(1)
The Departure of the Israelites
39(2)
Covenant and Commandments
41(3)
The Ten Commandments
41(2)
The Covenant Code
43(1)
The Wisdom and Songs of Life
44(7)
Job: ``Clothed In Fearful Splendor''
45(1)
Psalm 104: ``All Creatures Depend On You''
46(2)
Psalm 8: The Power of God's Name
48(1)
Song of Songs: ``I Am the Rose of Sharon''
49(2)
The New Covenant of Jeremiah
51(4)
``Deep Within Them I Shall Plant My Law''
52(3)
PART TWO THE GREEK WORLD 55(116)
Legend and History: The World of Early Greece
57(38)
The Trojan War: Homer's Iliad
60(10)
The Wrath of Achilles
61(2)
Homer
Hector and Andromache
63(1)
Homer
The Death of Patroclus
64(1)
Homer
The Death of Hector
65(3)
Homer
The Excavation of Troy
68(2)
Heinrich Schliemann
Greek Values: The Odyssey of Homer
70(14)
The Adventure of the Cyclops
71(3)
Homer
Odysseus in the Underworld
74(2)
Homer
The Sirens, Scylla, and Charybdis
76(3)
Homer
The Return of Odysseus
79(5)
Homer
The Heroic Age
84(8)
Works and Days
84(4)
Hesiod
Love Poetry from Lesbos
88(1)
Sappho
The Celebration of Olympic Athletes
89(3)
Pindar
Early Greek Philosophy
92(3)
Thales of Miletus: Water Is the Primary Element
92(1)
Aristotle
Anaximenes: ``The First Principle Is Infinite Air''
93(1)
Hippolytus
Pythagoras on the Transmigration of the Soul
94(1)
Diodorus
Democracy and Empire: The Golden Age of Athens
95(42)
The Greek Polis: Two Ways of Life
98(8)
The City-State of Sparta: Reforms of Lycurgus
98(1)
Plutarch
Spartan Discipline
99(2)
Plutarch
``Fix Your Eyes Every Day on the Greatness of Athens'': The Funeral Oration of Pericles (430 B.C.E.)
101(5)
Thucydides
The Historical Intersection Normandy: 1994
106(2)
Fiftieth Anniversary of D-Day: ``When They Were Young, These Men Saved the World''
President Bill Clinton
The Persian Wars and the Defense of Greece (490--480 B.C.E.)
108(4)
The Spartans at Thermopylae (480 B.C.E.)
108(2)
Herodotus
The Defense of Athens: Inscriptional Evidence (480 B.C.E.)
110(1)
The Battle of Salamis (480 B.C.E.)
111(1)
Aeschylus
Athenian Imperialism
112(1)
From Confederacy to Empire
112(1)
Thucydides
Maintaining the Athenian Empire: Inscriptional Evidence
113(1)
Greek Tragedy
113(8)
Oedipus the King (430 B.C.E.)
113(1)
Sophocles
Antigone (441 B.C.E.)
114(7)
Sophocles
The Peloponnesian War and the Decline of Athens (431--400 B.C.E.)
121(16)
The Mytilenian Debate (427 B.C.E.)
121(3)
Thucydides
The Melian Dialogue (416 B.C.E.)
124(4)
Thucydides
The Trojan Women (415 B.C.E.)
128(2)
Euripides
The Sicilian Disaster (413 B.C.E.)
130(1)
Thucydides
Women and War: Lysistrata (411 B.C.E.)
131(3)
Aristophanes
The Trial of Socrates (399 B.C.E.)
134(3)
Plato
The Age of Alexander the Great
137(34)
Democracy and Disillusionment
140(4)
The Unenlightened Majority
140(3)
Plato
The Freedom of Democracy
143(1)
Plato
The Rise of Macedon and the Fall of Greece
144(5)
The First Philippic (351 B.C.E.)
144(2)
Demosthenes
Address to Philip (346 B.C.E.)
146(1)
Isocrates
The League of Corinth: Loyalty Oath (338 B.C.E.)
147(1)
On the Crown (330 B.C.E.)
148(1)
Demosthenes
Alexander the Great
149(5)
``Carve Out A Kingdom Worthy of Yourself!''
149(1)
Plutarch
``Alexander Ran Him Through!''
150(2)
Plutarch
The Leadership of Alexander
152(1)
Arrian
Alexander and the Brotherhood of Man
153(1)
Plutarch
The Thought of the Age
154(1)
The Philosophy of Plato
154(7)
Allegory of the Cave
154(4)
Plato
The Equality of Women in the State
158(3)
Plato
The Thought of Aristotle
161(4)
On Education
161(2)
Aristotle
Virtue and Moderation: The Doctrine of the Mean
163(1)
Aristotle
The Status of Women
164(1)
Aristotle
Hellenistic Philosophy and Science
165(6)
Epicureanism: Golden Maxims
166(1)
Epicurus
The Principles of Skepticism
167(1)
Sextus Empiricus
Archimedes and the Destruction of the Roman Fleet
168(3)
Plutarch
PART THREE THE ROMAN WORLD 171(120)
Breakdown and Rebirth: The Crisis of the Roman Republic
173(42)
Roman Virtues in the Early and Middle Republic
176(7)
The Oath of the Horatii: ``One of the Great Stories of Ancient Times''
177(3)
Livy
The Rape of Lucretia
180(1)
Livy
``Hannibal Is at the Gates!''
181(2)
Livy
The Senate and the Gracchan Reform Plan
183(3)
The Growth of the Latifundia
183(1)
Appian
The Murder of Tiberius Gracchus (133 B.C.E.)
184(1)
Plutarch
``Vengeance with Excessive Cruelty''
185(1)
Sallust
The Breakdown of Roman Unity (100--45 B.C.E.)
186(1)
The Ascendency of the Generals
186(4)
The Wrath of Sulla (82 B.C.E.)
186(1)
Appian
Crassus: The Richest Man in Rome
187(1)
Plutarch
The Glorious Record of Pompey the Great
188(1)
Pliny
A Roman Triumph
189(1)
Zonaras
Cicero and the Conspiracy of Catiline (63 B.C.E.)
190(2)
Catiline Plots Revolt
190(1)
Sallust
``The Enemy Is Within''
191(1)
Cicero
The Civil War (49--45 B.C.E.)
192(2)
``The Die Is Cast'': Caesar Crosses the Rubicon
192(1)
Suetonius
``We Must Trust to the Mercy of the Storm''
193(1)
Cicero
The Fall of the Roman Republic (44--31 B.C.E.)
194(1)
Dictatorship and Assassination
194(3)
Caesar's Reforms
194(1)
Suetonius
Abuse of Power
195(1)
Suetonius
The Assassination of Julius Caesar (44 B.C.E.)
196(1)
Plutarch
The Power Vacuum
197(3)
The Philippic Against Mark Antony
198(1)
Cicero
The Murder of Cicero: ``Antony's Greatest and Bitterest Enemy''
199(1)
Appian
Cleopatra: Queen of the Nile
200(2)
Cleopatra's Influence over Mark Antony
200(1)
Plutarch
``She Was No Weak-Kneed Woman''
201(1)
Horace
The Establishment of the Augustan Principate
202(1)
The Loss of Liberty and the ``Restored Republic''
202(7)
The Powers and Authority of the Emperor
202(1)
Dio Cassius
The Transition from Republic to Principate
203(1)
Tacitus
Res Gestae: The Accomplishments of Augustus
204(5)
Augustus
The Historical Intersection China: 210 B.C.E.
209(3)
The Achievements of the First Chinese Emperor
Sima Qian
Propaganda for the New Order
212(3)
The Peace of Augustus
212(2)
Horace
``To Spare the Conquered and Crush the Proud''
214(1)
Virgil
Caesar and Christ
215(37)
Roman State Religion and the Mystery Cults
218(3)
Formalism of the State Religion
218(1)
Pliny
The Imperial Cult: The Deification of Augustus
218(1)
Dio Cassius
Invasion of the Eastern Cults
219(1)
Minucius Felix
Orgiastic Frenzy
220(1)
Apuleius
The Message of Jesus
221(3)
The Baptism of Jesus
221(1)
The Sermon on the Mount
221(2)
The Good Samaritan
223(1)
The Mission of Jesus
224(4)
Instructions to the Twelve Disciples
224(2)
Peter: The Rock
226(1)
Suffering, Persecution, and the Son of Man
226(1)
The Final Judgment
227(1)
The Work of Paul
228(4)
Paul's Answer to the Intellectuals
228(1)
``Neither Jew Nor Greek, Male Nor Female''
229(1)
The Resurrection of Christ
229(2)
On Love
231(1)
Conflict and the Development of the Christian Church
232(1)
Roman Imperial Policy
232(6)
The Persecution Under Nero (64 C.E.)
232(1)
Tacitus
``The Infection of This Superstition Has Spread''
233(2)
Pliny the Younger
The Persecution Under Diocletian (305 C.E.)
235(1)
Lactantius
``A Religion of Lust'': Anti-Christian Propaganda
236(2)
Minucius Felix
The Historical Intersection Germany: 1938
238(2)
``I Got You At Last, You Little German Girl!'': Anti-Jewish Propaganda
Ernst Hiemer
A Christian Defense
240(3)
Tertullian
The Early Church Fathers
243(5)
First Principles of the Early Church (225 C.E.)
244(1)
Origen
On the Unity of the Church (251 C.E.) Saint Cyprian of Carthage
245(2)
The City of God
247(1)
Saint Augustine
The Triumph of Christianity
248(1)
The Edict of Toleration (311 C.E.)
248(1)
Eusebius
The Edict of Milan (313 C.E.)
248(1)
Eusebius
The Theodosian Code: Prohibition of Pagan Worship (392 C.E.)
249(1)
The Authority of the Papacy
249(3)
The Petrine Theory
250(1)
Pope Leo I
Loyalty to the Pope: Oath to Gregory II (723 C.E.)
250(2)
Bishop Boniface
The Pax Romana and the Decline of Rome
252(39)
Strength and Success (14--180 C.E.)
256(1)
Political and Military Control
256(8)
The Blessings of Imperial Rule: Peace and Prosperity
256(1)
Plutarch
``To Rome'': An Oration
257(1)
Aelius Aristeides
The Imperial Army
257(3)
Flavius Josephus
Imperial Patronage
260(1)
Pliny the Younger
The Realities of Roman Rule
261(1)
Techniques of Roman Control
261(1)
Tacitus
Submission and Safety
262(1)
Tacitus
``They Make a Desolation and Call It Peace''
263(1)
Tacitus
``All Roads Lead to Rome''
264(7)
The Glory of the City
264(2)
Strabo
The Dark Side of Rome
266(1)
Juvenal
The Magnificence of the Baths
267(1)
Lucian
The Bathing Establishment
268(1)
Seneca
``Bread and Circuses''
268(1)
Fronto
``The Give and Take of Death'': Gladiatorial Combat
269(1)
Seneca
``Charming Privacy'': The Rural Aristocrat Pliny the Younger
270(1)
Social and Intellectual Aspects of the Pax Romana
271(1)
Slavery in the Roman Empire
271(3)
A Slave Rebellion Pliny the Younger
271(1)
The Proper Treatment of Slaves
272(1)
Seneca
Social Mobility: ``Once a Mere Worm, Now a King''
273(1)
Petronius
The Life and Death of the City of Pompeii
274(4)
Wall Inscriptions
274(1)
The Destruction of Pompeii (79 C.E.) Pliny the Younger
274(4)
The Stoic Philosophy
278(3)
``How Will I Die?''
279(1)
Epictetus
``What Is the Principal Thing in Life?''
279(1)
Seneca
Meditations
280(1)
Marcus Aurelius
Failure and Decline (180--500 C.E.)
281(1)
Political and Economic Dislocation
281(3)
``Empire for Sale'' (193 C.E.)
281(1)
Dio Cassius
Distrust of Imperial Coinage (260 C.E.)
282(1)
Price Controls
282(2)
Barbarian Invasions
284(3)
The Germanic Tribes
284(1)
Tacitus
News of the Attacks
285(2)
Jerome
The Historical Intersection London: 1776
287(4)
Decline and Christianity
287(4)
Edward Gibbon
PART FOUR THE MEDIEVAL WORLD 291(110)
Icon, Scimitar, and Cross: Early Medieval Civilization (500--1100)
293(37)
Byzantine Civilization
296(1)
The Emperor Justinian (527--565)
296(4)
The Secret History of Justinian and Theodora
296(2)
Procopius
The Nika Riot (532)
298(1)
Procopius
The Digest of Roman Law
299(1)
Byzantine Spiritual Foundations
300(4)
Heresy: The Threat of Arianism
301(1)
Eusebius
The Nicene Creed (325)
302(1)
Eusebius
Iconoclasm and Orthodoxy: The Second Council of Nicaea (787)
303(1)
A Western Attitude Toward the Byzantine Greeks (1147) Odo of Deuil
304(1)
Islamic Civilization
304(1)
The Religious Tenets of the Qur'an
304(7)
The Heritage of Islam
306(2)
The Qur'an on Women
308(1)
The Love of Allah
309(1)
Al-Ghazzali
Islamic Conversion: ``O King, If You Believed In Allah''
310(1)
Al-Bakri
Islamic Science and Mathematics
311(2)
On the Separation of Mathematics and Religion
312(1)
Al-Ghazzali
On the Causes of Small-Pox
312(1)
Al-Razi
The Dawn of the European Middle Ages
313(1)
Early Germanic Society
313(4)
Laws of the Salian Franks
313(2)
Beowulf: The Germanic Hero
315(2)
Charlemagne and the Empire of the Franks
317(5)
The Moderate and Progressive King
318(2)
Einhard
The Missi Dominici (802)
320(1)
The Carolingian Renaissance: Education and the Scriptures
321(1)
Charlemagne
Feudalism
322(1)
The Viking Onslaught (850--1050)
322(4)
The Annals of Xanten (845--854)
322(1)
The Siege of Paris (806)
323(3)
Abbo
The Feudal Relationship
326(4)
Legal Rules for Military Service
326(1)
King Louis IX
Liege Homage
327(1)
Restraint of Feudal Violence: The Truce of God (1063)
327(2)
Ordeal of Hot Iron
329(1)
The Sword of Faith: The Medieval Synthesis of Western Civilization (1100--1450)
330(71)
Section I: The High Middle Ages (1100--1300)
334(1)
The Medieval Church in Ascendency
334(1)
The Crusades
334(3)
Launching the Crusades: ``It Is the Will of God!'' (1095)
334(3)
Robert the Monk
The Historical Intersection The United States: 1900
337(3)
``The Hand of God'': American Imperialism in the Philippines
Albert J. Beveridge
The Fall of Jerusalem (1099)
340(2)
The Protection of Allah
342(1)
Usamah Ibn-Munqidh
The Franks: ``Superior in Courage, But Nothing Else''
343(1)
Usamah Ibn-Munquidh
The Investiture Controversy (1075--1122)
344(6)
Decree on Lay Investiture (1075)
345(1)
Pope Gregory VII
Dictatus Papae (1075)
346(1)
Pope Gregory VII
The Excommunication of Emperor Henry IV (February 1076)
347(1)
Pope Gregory VII
``Go To Canossa!'': Henry's Penance (January 28, 1077)
348(1)
Pope Gregory VII
Oath at Canossa (January 1077)
349(1)
Emperor Henry IV
Innocent III and the Papal Supremacy
350(2)
The Sun and the Moon (1198)
351(1)
Pope Innocent III
The Punishment of Heretics (1198)
351(1)
Pope Innocent III
Innocent Chooses the Holy Roman Emperor (1201)
352(1)
Pope Innocent III
Medieval Monasticism
352(9)
The Rule of Saint Benedict (530)
353(3)
The Vow of a Monk
356(1)
Visions of Ecstasy Hildegard of Bingen
356(2)
The Canticle of Brother Sun (1225) Saint Francis of Assisi
358(3)
Mind and Society in the High Middle Ages
361(1)
The World of Thought
361(6)
Political Theory: The Responsibilities of Kingship (1159) John of Salisbury
361(1)
The Existence of God
362(3)
Saint Thomas Aquinas
The Love of God Saint Bernard of Clairvaux
365(1)
The Dialectical Method: Sic et Non
365(2)
Peter Abelard
The Medieval Woman
367(11)
Whether Woman Was Fittingly Made from the Rib of Man?
367(1)
Saint Thomas Aquinas
Whether a Woman Can Baptize?
368(1)
Saint Thomas Aquinas
The Tragedy of Abelard and Heloise
369(2)
Chivalric Ideals: The Function of Knighthood John of Salisbury
371(2)
To His Love Afar
373(1)
Jaufre Rudel
A Distressed Lover The Countess De Dia
374(1)
The Minds of Women: ``Freer and Sharper''
375(3)
Christine De Pizan
Section II: The Late Middle Ages (1300--1450)
378(1)
The Waning of the Medieval Church
378(1)
The Fall of Pope Boniface VIII
378(3)
Clericis Laicos (1298)
378(1)
Pope Boniface VIII
Unam Sanctam (1302)
379(1)
Pope Boniface VIII
The Argument Against Papal Supremacy: Defensor Pacis (1324) Marsilius of Padua
380(1)
The Babylonian Captivity and the Conciliar Movement
381(5)
On the Abuses of Avignon
382(1)
Petrarch
``The Wolf Is Carrying Away Your Sheep'' Saint Catherine of Siena
383(1)
The Great Schism: The Cardinals Revolt (1378)
384(1)
The Council of Pisa (1409)
385(1)
The Council of Constance (1417)
386(1)
Disease and History: The Black Death
386(1)
The Black Death Arrives
387(7)
The Plague in France
388(3)
Jean De Venette
``A Most Terrible Plague''
391(3)
Giovanni Boccaccio
Effects and Significance of the Plague
394(7)
``God's Hand Was Unstrung''
395(1)
Matteo Villani
``The Greatest Biological Event In History''
396(5)
Robert S. Gottfried
PART FIVE TRANSITIONS TO THE MODERN WORLD 401(134)
The Age of the Renaissance
403(31)
Criticism of the Renaissance Papacy
407(2)
The Vices of the Church
407(1)
Nicholas Clamanges
The Wealth of the Church (1480)
408(1)
The Humanist Movement
409(3)
A Humanist Education
409(1)
Leonardo Bruni
Oration on the Dignity of Man (1486)
410(1)
Pico Della Mirandola
The Soul of Man (1474)
411(1)
Marsilio Ficino
The Political Life of Florence
412(9)
The Rule of Cosimo d'Medici
412(2)
Vespasiano
``This Will Be Your Final Destruction'' (1494)
414(3)
Girolamo Savonarola
Precepts of Power: ``Everyone Sees What You Seem to Be, Few Perceive What You Are''
417(4)
Niccolo Machiavelli
The Historical Intersection France: 1796
421(1)
The Realities of Power
Napoleon Bonaparte
Renaissance Arts and Manners
422(1)
On Art and Artists
422(7)
Scholarship and Art: Leon Battista Alberti
422(1)
Giorgio Vasari
The Development of Art (1550)
423(2)
Giorgio Vasari
The Notebooks of a Universal Man
425(4)
Leonardo Da Vinci
Images of Renaissance Women and Men
429(5)
Book of the Courtier (1518)
429(1)
Baldassare Castiglione
On the Nature and Purpose of Women and Men
430(2)
Baldassare Castiglione
Women and Witchcraft: ``All Wickedness Is But Little to the Wickedness of a Woman''
432(2)
The Reformation Era
434(60)
The State of the Papacy
437(1)
The Criticism of the Northern Humanists
437(4)
The Pope's Special Mission (1515)
438(1)
Jacob Wimpheling
The Praise of Folly (1509)
439(2)
Desiderius Erasmus
The Lutheran Reformation
441(1)
The Indulgence Controversy
441(7)
Instructions for the Sale of Indulgences (1517)
442(1)
Archbishop Albert
``How Many Sins Are Committed in a Single Day?'' (1517)
443(2)
Johann Tetzel
Salvation Through Faith Alone
445(1)
Martin Luther
The Ninety-five Theses (1517)
446(2)
Martin Luther
Breaking with Rome
448(9)
Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (1520)
449(1)
Martin Luther
On Christian Liberty (1520)
450(3)
Martin Luther
``Here I Stand'': Address at the Diet of Worms (1521)
453(3)
Martin Luther
The Edict of Worms (1521)
456(1)
Emperor Charles V
Social and Political Aspects of the Reformation
457(3)
On Celibacy and Marriage
457(1)
Martin Luther
Condemnation of the Peasant Revolt (1524)
458(2)
Martin Luther
In the Wake of Luther
460(1)
John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation
460(5)
On the Necessity of Reforming the Church (1544)
461(1)
John Calvin
Predestination: Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)
462(1)
John Calvin
Genevan Catechism: Concerning the Lord's Supper (1541)
463(2)
John Calvin
The Historical Intersection France: 1806
465(2)
The Imperial Catechism
Napoleon Bonaparte
Ordinances for the Regulation of Churches (1547)
467(1)
John Calvin
The Spread of Calvinism (1561)
468(1)
Giovanni Michiel
The Radical Reformation: Anabaptism
469(5)
On the Mystery of Baptism (1526)
471(1)
Hans Hut
``They Should Be Drowned Without Mercy'': Measures Against Anabaptists
472(1)
Communism In Munster (1535)
473(1)
Heinrich Gresbeck
``The Devil Laughed Hard'': Polygamy in Munster (1535)
474(1)
Heinrich Gresbeck
The English Reformation
474(6)
The Supremacy Act (1534): ``The Only Supreme Head of the Church of England''
475(1)
The Act of Succession (1534)
476(1)
The Execution of Bishop Fisher and Sir Thomas More (1535): ``When I Come Down, Let Me Shift for Myself''
476(1)
Good Queen Mary (1553): ``Loving Subjects and Christian Charity''
477(1)
Bloody Mary: ``To Be Burned According to the Wholesome Laws of Our Realm''
478(1)
The Enforcement of the Elizabethan Settlement (1593): ``Divine Service According to Her Majesty's Laws''
479(1)
The Catholic Reformation
480(1)
The Society of Jesus
480(3)
Constitution (1540)
480(1)
Spiritual Exercises (1548)
481(1)
Ignatius Loyola
The Way of Perfection: ``Prayer Is the Mortar Which Keeps Our House Together'' Saint Teresa of Avila
481(2)
The Council of Trent (1545--1563)
483(6)
The Profession of Faith
483(1)
The Closing Oration at Trent (1563)
484(3)
Bishop Jerome Ragozonus
The Tridentine Index of Books (1564)
487(2)
Resolution: The Bloody Wars of Religion
489(5)
The Abdication of Charles V (1556): ``The Wretched Condition of the Christian State''
489(2)
Emperor Charles V
The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre (1572): ``A Thousand Times More Terrible Than Death Itself'' The Duke of Sully
491(1)
The Edict of Nantes (1589)
492(2)
``An Embarrassment of Riches'': The Interaction of New Worlds
494(41)
First Contact: Exploration and Encounter
499(1)
Christopher Columbus: ``Admiral of the Ocean Sea''
499(5)
Logbook of the First Voyage (1492)
500(3)
Bartolome De Las Casas
The ``New World''
503(1)
Christopher Columbus
The Portuguese in Africa and India
504(5)
The East Coast of Africa
505(1)
Duarte Barbosa
``Our Kingdom Is Being Lost''
506(2)
Nzinga Mbemba (Alfonso I)
``Cut Off their Ears, Hands and Noses!''
508(1)
Gaspar Correa
Domination and Destruction
509(1)
Hernando Cortes and the Conquest of Mexico
509(8)
The Aztec Encounter: ``This Was Quetzalcoatl Who Had Come to Land''
510(1)
Bernardino De Sahagun
Montezuma: ``We Shall Obey You and Hold You As Our God''
511(2)
Hernando Cortes
Human Sacrifice: ``A Most Horrid and Abominable Custom''
513(1)
Hernando Cortes
The Destruction of Tenochtitlan: ``And Their Mothers Raised a Cry of Weeping''
514(1)
Bernardino De Sahagun
``We Could No Longer Endure the Stench of Dead Bodies''
515(1)
Hernando Cortes
The Devastation of Smallpox
516(1)
Bernardino De Sahagun
The Advantages of Empire
517(1)
The Spanish Empire in America
517(7)
The Extraction of Mercury
518(2)
Antonio Vasquez De Espinosa
The Silver Mines of Potosi
520(1)
Antonio Vasquez De Espinosa
The Barbarians of the New World: ``They Are Slaves by Nature''
521(3)
Juan Gines De Sepulveda
The Historical Intersection East Africa: 1893
524(2)
``A Natural Inclination to Submit to a Higher Authority''
Sir Frederick Dealtry Lugard
The ``Black Legend'' of Spain
526(2)
Bartolome De Las Casas
The Colonization and Settlement of the New World
528(6)
The Advantages of Colonization (1584)
528(2)
Richard Hakluyt
The Landing at Plymouth (1620)
530(1)
William Bradford
``Murdered in Cold Blood'' (1643)
531(3)
David Pieterzen De Vries
The Mercantile Economy
534(1)
The Efficiency of the Domestic Economy (1664)
534(1)
King Louis XIV
Economic Regulation: ``The Maxim of All Polite Nations''
535
Sir William Keith

Excerpts

The Roman orator Cicero once remarked that "History is the witness of the times, the torch of truth, the life of memory, the teacher of life, the messenger of antiquity." In spite of these noble words, historians have often labored under the burden of justifying the value of studying events which are over and done. Humankind is practical, more concerned with its present and future than with its past. And yet the study of history provides us with unique opportunities for self-knowledge. It teaches us what we have done and therefore helps define what we are. On a less abstract level, the study of history enables us to judge present circumstance by drawing on the laboratory of the past. Those who have lived and died, through their recorded attitudes, actions, and ideas, have left a legacy of experience. One of the best ways to travel through time and space and perceive the very "humanness" that lies at the root of history is through the study of primary sources. These are the documents, coins, letters, inscriptions, and monuments of past ages. The task of historians is to evaluate this evidence with a critical eye and then construct a narrative that is consistent with the "facts" as they have established them. Such interpretations are inherently subjective and are therefore open to dispute. History is thus filled with controversy as historians argue their way toward the "truth." The only way to work toward an understanding of the past is through personal examination of the primary sources. Yet, for the beginning student, this poses some difficulties. Such inquiry casts the student adrift from the security of accepting the "truth" as revealed in a textbook. In fact, history is too often presented in a deceptively objective manner; one learns "facts and dates" in an effort to obtain the "right answers" for multiple-choice tests. But the student who has wrestled with primary sources and has experienced voices from the past on a more intimate level, accepts the responsibility of evaluation and judgment. He or she understands that history does not easily lend itself to "right answers," but demands reflection on the problems that have confronted past societies and are at play even in our contemporary world. Cicero was right in viewing history as the "life of memory." But human memory is fragile and the records of the past can be destroyed or distorted. Without the past, people have nothing with which to judge what they are told in the present. Truth then becomes the preserve of the ruler or government, no longer relative, but absolute. The study of history, and primary sources in particular, goes far in making people aware of the continuity of humankind and the progress of civilization. Aspects of Western Civilizationoffers the student an opportunity to evaluate the primary sources of the past and to do so in a structured and organized format. The documents provided are diverse in nature and include state papers, secret dispatches, letters, diary accounts, poems, newspaper articles, papal encyclicals, propaganda flyers, and even wall graffiti. Occasionally, the assessments of modern historians are included to lend perspective. All give testimony to human endeavor in Western societies. Yet, this two-volume book has been conceived as more than a simple compilation of primary sources. The subtitle of the work,Problems and Sources in History,gives true indication of the nature of its premise. It is meant to provide the student with thoughtful and engaging material, which is focused around individual units that encompass time periods, specific events, and historical questions. Students learn from the past most effectively when posed with problems that have meaning for their own lives. In evaluating the material fromAspects of Western Civilization,the student will discover that issues are not nearly as simple as they may appear at first glance. Historical sources often contradict each other and truth


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