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Assessing and Guiding Young Children's Development and Learning,9780205337170
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Assessing and Guiding Young Children's Development and Learning

by ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780205337170

ISBN10:
0205337171
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

This comprehensive guide to assessment in early childhood curriculum continues to provide the most current research and practical guides to integrate authentic assessment with effective teaching. Assessing and Guiding Young Children's Development and Learning is the only text that shows assessment as a process teachers can bring to the classroom. This book includes guides for interpreting and using assessment information once it has been collected. These guides are based on the most current research about how young children learn. It also includes constructivist approaches, as well as cultural and individual differences.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Part I Professionalism in Assessment
Assessment in Early Childhood: A Work in Progress
1(10)
Factors Contributing to Current Changes in Assessment
2(4)
Changing Concepts of the Primary Purpose of Assessment
3(1)
Changing Concepts of How Children Develop and Learn
3(1)
Changing Nature of School and Center Populations
3(1)
Changing Educational Outcomes, Curricula, and Instructional Strategies
4(1)
Mandated Testing and Assessment
5(1)
Limitations and Inadequacies of Standardized Testing
5(1)
Expectations of Teachers
6(1)
Professional Organizations
6(1)
Accountability
6(1)
Working with Other Professionals
6(1)
Challenges
7(1)
Credibility
7(1)
Feasibility
7(1)
Professional Initiative and Responsibility
8(1)
Summary
8(1)
For Self-Reflection
9(1)
For Further Study and Discussion
9(1)
Suggested Readings
9(2)
Legal, Ethical, and Professional Responsibilities in Assessment
11(20)
Know and Abide by Basic Rights, Laws, and Court Rulings
12(3)
The Right to Equal Protection under the Law
12(1)
The Right to Due Process
13(1)
The Right to Privacy
13(1)
Major Legislation
14(1)
Be Sensitive to Individual Differences
15(3)
Children with Special Needs
16(1)
Children at Risk
16(1)
Children Who Need Challenge
16(1)
Inclusive Education
16(2)
Be Sensitive to Social and Cultural Differences
18(4)
Cultural Differences That May Influence Assessment
19(1)
Implications for Assessment
20(2)
Be Fair and Impartial
22(5)
Be as Objective as Possible
22(2)
Ensure the Accuracy and Trustworthiness of Assessment Information
24(3)
Use Assessment Results in Appropriate Ways
27(1)
Know the Limitations of Each Method of Assessment, and Guard against Overreliance on Any One
27(1)
Use Assessment Results for the Intended Purposes
27(1)
Know and Abide by State, School District, and Center Policies
27(1)
Summary
28(1)
For Self-Reflection
29(1)
For Further Study and Discussion
29(1)
Suggested Readings
30(1)
Part II Assessing and Teaching
Why, What, and When to Assess
31(17)
Assessment Decisions
32(1)
Why Assess?
33(2)
To Determine Children's Status and Progress
33(1)
To Provide Information for Classroom Planning and Decision Making
34(1)
To Identify Children Who Might Benefit from Special Help
34(1)
To Collect and Document Information for Reporting and Communication
35(1)
What to Assess?
35(6)
Major Child Growth and Development Domains
35(1)
Expected Outcomes of the Program for Individual Children
36(2)
Unique Patterns of Development, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interests
38(1)
Problems or Concerns about a Particular Child or Group
39(1)
Practical Considerations
40(1)
When to Assess?
41(4)
Before School Starts
41(1)
Assess Day by Day
42(1)
Assess Periodically
43(1)
Assess before and after a Concentrated Emphasis
43(1)
Assess to Get Information about a Specific Problem or Concern
44(1)
Some Final Thoughts
45(1)
Summary
45(1)
For Self-Reflection
46(1)
For Further Study and Discussion
46(1)
Suggested Readings
47(1)
Documenting: Collecting Information
48(23)
Multiple Windows
49(1)
Sources of Information
50(2)
The Child as a Source of Information
50(1)
Parents and Other Adults as a Source of Information
51(1)
Records as a Source of Information
51(1)
Methods of Collecting Information
52(12)
Observe Children Systematically
52(1)
Elicit Responses from Children
53(5)
Collect Work Products from Classroom Activities
58(2)
Elicit Information from Parents
60(4)
Contexts for Assessment
64(3)
Characteristics of the Context
64(2)
Examples of Contexts for Assessment
66(1)
Choosing the Appropriate Assessment Window
67(1)
Identify the Behavior to Be Assessed
67(1)
Use Authentic Assessment Measures or Windows
68(1)
Maximize the Chances of Seeing a Behavior
68(1)
Use Multiple Assessment Measures or Windows
68(1)
Summary
68(1)
For Self-Reflection
69(1)
For Further Study and Discussion
69(1)
Suggested Readings
70(1)
Documenting: Recording Information
71(24)
Description and Examples of Recording Procedures
72(18)
Procedures That Describe
72(7)
Procedures That Count or Tally
79(7)
Procedures That Rate or Rank
86(3)
Other Procedures
89(1)
Selecting a Recording Procedure
90(3)
Purpose of the Assessment
90(1)
What Is Being Assessed
90(1)
Amount of Detail Needed
90(1)
Practical Considerations
91(2)
Summary
93(1)
For Self-Reflection
94(1)
For Further Study and Discussion
94(1)
Suggested Readings
94(1)
Compiling and Summarizing Information
95(25)
Portfolios
96(14)
Description and Definition
96(1)
Purposes
97(1)
Basic Approaches to Portfolio Building
97(1)
Selection of Content
98(2)
Organization of Content
100(3)
Relationship of Portfolios to Other Types of Assessment
103(1)
Increasing the Information in Each Portfolio Item
103(6)
Issues
109(1)
Group and Individual Profiles
110(7)
Description and Definition of Group Profiles
111(1)
Purposes of Group Profiles
111(3)
Selecting and Organizing Content of Group Profiles
114(1)
Description and Definition of Individual Profiles
115(1)
Purposes of Individual Profiles
115(1)
Selecting and Organizing Content of Individual Profiles
116(1)
Summary
117(1)
For Self-Reflection
118(1)
For Further Study and Discussion
118(1)
Suggested Readings
118(2)
Interpreting Assessment Information
120(18)
Ensure the Authenticity and Trustworthiness of the Data
121(1)
To Determine Progress, Compare Performance at Two or More Points in Time
121(1)
Work from Compilations and Summaries
121(1)
Look for Patterns, Including Patterns of Errors, Rather Than Isolated Instances
121(1)
Consider a Child's or a Group's Unique and Individual Patterns of Development, Temperament, Interests, and Dispositions
122(1)
Identify Areas of Concern
122(1)
Interpret and Understand the Meaning of Assessment Findings
122(13)
Generate Multiple Hypotheses about Possible Meanings, but Hold Them Tentatively
123(1)
Analyze Performance as a Band or Interval within Which a Child Is Functioning
123(2)
Consider the Influence of the Total Sociocultural Context on Children's Actions
125(1)
Compare Evidence to Developmental or Curriculum Expectations
125(5)
Analyze Information for Clues to Learning Processes and Strategies
130(5)
Summary
135(1)
For Self-Reflection
136(1)
For Further Study and Discussion
136(1)
Suggested Readings
137(1)
Using Assessment Information
138(17)
Planning Strategies
139(2)
Plan and Organize the Intended Changes
139(1)
Refer to Assessment Information as You Plan
140(1)
Allow Time for Reflection
140(1)
Plan Ways to Meet Children's Assessed Needs
140(1)
Deliberately Incorporate the Wealth of Information, Resources, and Strategies Available to Support Young Children's Learning
140(1)
Plan for and with Other People in the Classroom
141(1)
Balance What You Might Like to Do with What Is Possible
141(1)
Individual and Group Strategies
141(4)
For One or Two Children
142(1)
For Several Children
143(1)
Mixed-Age Classes
143(1)
For the Entire Group
144(1)
Curriculum and Classroom Modification Strategies
145(2)
Allocate Time and Space in Different Ways to Achieve Different Results
145(1)
Select and Arrange Materials in Response to Assessment Results
145(1)
Use Any Apparent Sequence
146(1)
Look at the Need for Possible Change in Procedures
147(1)
Rethink and Restructure to Meet Children ``Where They Are''
147(1)
Examples of Using Assessment Information to Guide Instruction
147(6)
Play
147(3)
Large Muscle/Gross Motor Development
150(1)
Small Muscle/Fine Motor Development
150(1)
Memory Strategies
151(2)
Summary
153(1)
For Self-Reflection
153(1)
For Further Study and Discussion
153(1)
Suggested Readings
154(1)
Organizing for Assessment
155(27)
Integrating Assessment and Teaching
155(3)
General Guidelines
156(2)
Developing a Plan
158(6)
Considerations in Planning for Assessment
158(2)
Sample Assessment Plans
160(3)
Using the Plan
163(1)
Organizing Files and Forms
164(16)
Notebooks, Files, and Portfolios
164(6)
Forms
170(5)
Still and Video Cameras, Audiotape Recorders, and Computers
175(2)
Other Aids
177(3)
Summary
180(1)
For Self-Reflection
180(1)
For Further Study and Discussion
180(1)
Suggested Readings
181(1)
Part III The Classroom and Beyond
Standardized Tests: What Early Childhood Teachers Should Know
182(18)
The Difference between an Assessment That Has Standardized Procedures and a Standardized Test
183(1)
Definition of a Standardized Test
183(1)
Limitations and Inadequacies of Standardized Testing
184(2)
Technical and Educational Inadequacies
184(1)
Overuse and Misuse
185(1)
Unsuitability for the Population
185(1)
Undue Influence on Education
185(1)
Types of Standardized Tests
186(2)
Standardized Achievement Tests
186(1)
Standardized Aptitude Tests
187(1)
Standardized Screening and Diagnostic Tests
187(1)
Standardized Testing in Early Childhood Classrooms Today
188(1)
The Early Childhood Teacher's Role in Standardized Testing
188(9)
How to Find Out If a Standardized Test Is Reliable and Valid
189(3)
How to Administer a Standardized Test
192(1)
How to Explain Different Types of Test Scores
193(3)
How to Interpret Standardized Test Results
196(1)
Finding Out More about Standardized Tests
197(1)
Summary
197(1)
For Self-Reflection
198(1)
For Further Study and Discussion
198(1)
Suggested Readings
199(1)
Communicating and Collaborating Using Assessment Processes and Results
200(20)
Communicating with Children
201(1)
Communicating with Parents
201(10)
Before Reporting
201(2)
Ways to Report
203(8)
Communicating and Collaborating with Other Professionals
211(6)
Communication within the School or Center
211(1)
Communication with Other Schools and Centers
212(1)
Communication and Collaboration in Specialized Services
212(5)
Communicating with Funding and Regulatory Agencies, Governing Boards, and Citizen Groups
217(1)
Professional and Personal Development and Learning
217(1)
Professional Development and Learning
217(1)
Personal Development and Learning
218(1)
Summary
218(1)
For Self-Reflection
219(1)
For Further Study and Discussion
219(1)
Suggested Readings
219(1)
Appendix A Assessment and Analysis Guides 220(23)
Appendix B Developmental Red Flags for Children Ages 3 to 5 243(8)
Glossary 251(4)
References 255(16)
Name Index 271(4)
Subject Index 275


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