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Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals,9780131707849
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Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780131707849

ISBN10:
0131707841
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2010
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $136.00
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  • Appraisal Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals
    Appraisal Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals
  • Appraisal Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals
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  • Appraisal Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals
    Appraisal Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals
  • Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals
    Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals




Summary

The leading text in appraisal for counselors, is a thorough overview covering basic measurement theory and all relevant tests. It provides guidance on how and when to use tests in different environments with different populations, and practical guidance on basic procedures like test selection, administration, and reporting. Key revisions include significant expansion of measurement foundations, separate chapters on validity and reliability as well as a new chapter on "Understanding Test Scores." More case studies have also been added throughout the text to help readers understand how to work with assessments and assessment results.

Table of Contents

Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Assessment
1(9)
Testing and Assessment
2(1)
Value of Testing
2(1)
Standardized and Nonstandardized Tests
3(1)
Historical Contexts
3(4)
Current Issues
7(1)
Summary
8(1)
Questions for Discussion
8(1)
Suggested Activities
8(1)
Additional Readings
9(1)
Statistical Concepts
10(23)
Role of Statistics
11(1)
Four Scales of Measurement
11(2)
Nominal Scale
11(1)
Ordinal Scale
12(1)
Interval Scale
12(1)
Ratio Scale
13(1)
What Scores Look Like
13(3)
Frequency Distribution
13(3)
Graphic Presentations
16(3)
Symmetry and Skewness
18(1)
Measures of Central Tendency
19(3)
Mode
19(1)
Mean
20(1)
Median
21(1)
Comparison of Measures of Central Tendency
22(1)
Measures of Variability
22(2)
Range
22(1)
Variance
23(1)
Standard Deviation
23(1)
Measures of Relationship
24(4)
Pearson Product Moment Correlation
25(1)
Regression
26(2)
Factor Analysis
28(1)
Normal Curve
28(1)
Inferential Statistics
29(1)
Statistical Software
30(1)
Summary
30(1)
Questions for Discussion
31(1)
Suggested Activities
31(1)
Additional Readings
31(2)
Understanding Test Scores
33(18)
Test Scores
34(1)
Scoring and Interpreting Tests
34(1)
Models of Scoring
34(1)
Examples of Test Scoring
35(1)
Scoring Alternate and Authentic Assessments
35(1)
Criterion- And Norm-Referenced Interpretation
36(1)
Criterion-Referenced Interpretation
36(1)
Norm-Referenced Interpretation
37(4)
Percentiles
37(1)
Standard Scores
38(3)
Developmental Intraindividual Comparison
41(3)
Age Norms
42(1)
Grade Equivalent and Placement Scores
43(1)
Norming Groups
44(1)
Conversion Tables
45(1)
Profiles
46(1)
Standards for Scoring and Interpretation
46(2)
Summary
48(1)
Questions for Discussion
48(1)
Suggested Activities
48(2)
Additional Readings
50(1)
Validity
51(13)
Validity
52(9)
Content Validity
52(1)
Criterion-Related Validity
53(3)
Construct Validity
56(2)
Consequential Validity
58(1)
Overview of Validation Concepts
59(1)
Threats to Test Validity
60(1)
Summary
61(1)
Questions for Discussion
62(1)
Suggested Activities
62(1)
Additional Readings
63(1)
Reliability
64(10)
Reliability
65(6)
Reliability Coefficients
65(1)
Methods of Assessing Reliability
66(2)
Standard Error of Measurement
68(2)
Factors Influencing Reliability
70(1)
Summary
71(1)
Questions for Discussion
71(1)
Suggested Activities
71(2)
Additional Readings
73(1)
Process and Procedures of Testing
74(28)
Decision Theory Model
75(7)
Making Decisions and Judgments
75(1)
Identifying the Type of Information Needed
75(1)
Identifying Available Information
76(1)
Strategies to Obtain Additional Information
76(2)
Locating Appropriate Tests
78(4)
Evaluating and Selecting Tests
82(3)
Practical Issues in Testing
85(2)
Time of Testing
85(1)
Cost of Testing
85(1)
Format of Test
85(1)
Readability
85(1)
Ease of Administration
86(1)
Ease of Scoring
86(1)
Ease of Interpretation
86(1)
Available Aids for Test Administrators
86(1)
Usefulness of the Test Manual
86(1)
Steps in Test Development
87(2)
Test Administration Guidelines and Procedures
89(8)
Standards for Test Administration
89(1)
Pretesting Procedures
90(1)
Examiner Knowledge
91(1)
Management Details
91(1)
Training Test Administrators
92(1)
Awareness and Orientation
92(2)
Administering the Test
94(2)
Posttesting Procedures
96(1)
Major Issues and Problems In Test Administration
97(2)
Examiner Bias
97(2)
Feedback on the Test and Test Administration
99(1)
Summary
99(1)
Questions for Discussion
100(1)
Suggested Activities
100(1)
Additional Readings
101(1)
Legal and Ethical Concerns and Issues in Testing
102(21)
Professional Standards and Codes of Ethics
103(5)
NBCC Code of Ethics
103(1)
APA Standards
104(1)
ACA Code of Ethics
105(1)
Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing
105(1)
National Council on Measurement in Education
106(2)
Social and Ethical Issues
108(4)
Professional Training and Competence
108(2)
Responsibilities of the Test Takers
110(1)
Test Quality
110(1)
Client Welfare Issues
111(1)
Internet Testing
111(1)
Gender Bias
111(1)
Multicultural Differences
111(1)
Responsible Test Use
112(1)
Legal Aspects
112(3)
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (Buckley Amendment)
113(1)
Public Law 94-142: Education of All Handicapped Children Act
113(1)
Public Law 98-524: The Vocational Education Act of 1984
113(1)
Public Law 99-457: Amendment to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1975
114(1)
Public Law 101-476: Education of the Handicapped Act of 1990
114(1)
Public Law 101-336: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
114(1)
Public Law 107-110: No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
115(1)
Employment Laws
115(1)
Court Decisions on Educational Testing
116(1)
Court Decisions on Employment Testing
117(1)
Questions and Procedures
118(1)
Current Trends and Perspectives
118(1)
Summary
119(1)
Questions for Discussion
120(1)
Suggested Activities
120(1)
Additional Readings
121(2)
Ability and Intelligence Testing
123(35)
Definitions of Intelligence
124(1)
Models of Intelligence
125(7)
Spearman's g
125(1)
Thurstone's Multifactor Theory
125(1)
E. L. Thorndike
125(1)
Hierarchical Theory
126(1)
Guilford's Model of Intelligence
126(1)
Cattell's Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
127(1)
Sternberg's Cognitive Approaches to Intelligence
127(2)
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
129(1)
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences
130(2)
Multicultural Issues
132(1)
Types of Tests
132(21)
Individual Scales
132(16)
Intelligence Tests for Special Populations
148(5)
Trends and Issues
153(1)
Summary
154(1)
Questions for Discussion
154(1)
Suggested Activities
155(1)
Additional Readings
156(2)
Aptitude Testing
158(17)
Aptitude Tests
159(1)
Multiaptitude Batteries
159(5)
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery
159(2)
Differential Aptitude Test Battery, Fifth Edition
161(1)
General Aptitude Test Battery
162(1)
Career Ability Placement Survey
162(2)
Admissions Tests
164(3)
Specialized Aptitude Tests
167(4)
Clerical Ability
167(1)
Mechanical Ability
168(1)
Psychomotor Ability
168(2)
Artistic Aptitude
170(1)
Musical Aptitude
170(1)
Computer Aptitude
170(1)
Trends
171(1)
Summary
172(1)
Questions for Discussion
172(1)
Suggested Activities
173(1)
Additional Readings
173(2)
The Assessment of Achievement
175(37)
Types of Achievement Tests
176(7)
Survey Achievement Batteries
176(1)
Criterion-Referenced Tests
177(1)
Item Banks
178(1)
Minimum-Level Skills Tests
179(1)
State Assessment Tests
179(1)
National Assessment of Educational Progress
180(1)
Subject-Area Tests
180(1)
Individual Achievement Tests
181(1)
Adult Achievement Tests
182(1)
Diagnostic Tests
183(1)
Using Achievement Test Results
183(1)
Factors Affecting Test Scores
184(3)
Analysis of Class Profile
187(1)
Alternate Assessment
188(2)
Curiculum-Based Measurement
189(1)
Observational Approaches
190(6)
Test Behavior Observational Scales
190(2)
Clinical Observations
192(1)
Self-Observations
192(1)
Unstructured versus Structured Observation
193(1)
Problems in Observation
193(1)
Critical Incident Approach
193(1)
Situation Tests
194(1)
Unobtrusive versus Participant Observation
195(1)
Training Observers
195(1)
Methods of Data Collection
196(5)
Anecdotal Records
196(1)
Behavior Tallying and Charting
197(2)
Checklists
199(1)
Rating Scales
199(2)
Guidelines for Observation
201(1)
Authentic Assessment
201(5)
Guidelines for Authentic Assessment Systems
202(1)
Scoring Rubrics
202(1)
Issues and Problems
203(1)
Portfolio Assessment
203(3)
Summary
206(1)
Questions for Discussion
206(1)
Suggested Activities
207(3)
Additional Readings
210(2)
Career and Employment Testing
212(27)
Interest Inventories
213(4)
Self-Directed Search
213(1)
Strong Interest Inventory
214(1)
Career Occupational Preference System
215(1)
Other Interest Inventories
215(2)
Values
217(1)
Guidelines for Interpreting Tests
218(1)
Career Development Instruments
218(1)
Combined Programs
219(1)
Problems of Interest Measurement
220(1)
Employment Testing
221(2)
Types of Tests
221(2)
Certification
223(1)
Test Use in Government
223(1)
Occupational and Professional Licensing
224(1)
Test Use in the Military Sector
224(1)
Personnel Selection and Classification Techniques
224(8)
Biographical Data
225(1)
Interviews
225(1)
Assessment Center
226(1)
Job Analysis
227(2)
WorkKeys
229(1)
Guidelines for Employee Selection
229(1)
Using the MBTI in Organizations
230(1)
Personnel Selection Inventory
231(1)
Current Trends and Perspectives
232(2)
Summary
234(1)
Questions for Discussion
235(1)
Suggested Activities
236(2)
Additional Readings
238(1)
Personality Testing
239(28)
Role of Personality Theory
240(4)
Psychodynamic Approaches
240(1)
Behavioral Approaches
241(1)
Humanistic Approaches
242(1)
Trait, Type, and State Theories
242(1)
Empirical Approaches
243(1)
Techniques for Measuring Personality
244(14)
Verbal Techniques
245(1)
Visual Techniques
245(2)
Drawing Techniques
247(4)
Manipulative Techniques
251(1)
Objective Techniques
251(7)
Format of Tests
258(1)
Dimensions of Personality
259(1)
Enneagram
259(1)
Self-Concept Scales
259(1)
Problems in Personality Assessment
260(1)
Summary
261(1)
Questions for Discussion
262(1)
Suggested Activities
262(3)
Additional Readings
265(2)
Clinical Assessment
267(20)
Clinical Assessment
268(1)
Types of Tests and Assessment Techniques
268(1)
Models of Clinical Assessment
268(1)
Tests in Counseling
269(1)
Assessment Approaches
270(5)
Interviews
270(5)
Behavioral Assessment
275(2)
Behavioral Observation
276(1)
Self-Monitoring
277(1)
Simulation and Analogue Methods
277(1)
Tests That Assess DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders
277(5)
Psychodiagnostic Testing
278(2)
Neuropsychological Assessment Batteries
280(1)
Interviewing Children and Adolescents
281(1)
Pitfalls
282(1)
Cultural Issues in Personality Assessment
282(1)
Summary
283(1)
Questions for Discussion
283(1)
Suggested Activities
284(1)
Additional Readings
285(2)
Assessment of Development
287(14)
General Principles
288(1)
Domains
288(2)
Methods of Assessment
290(1)
Early Identification
290(1)
Language Development
291(1)
Cognitive Stages
292(2)
Psychosocial Development
294(2)
Moral Development
296(1)
Career Development
297(1)
Summary
298(1)
Questions for Discussion
299(1)
Suggested Activities
299(1)
Additional Readings
300(1)
Environmental Assessment
301(26)
Theoretical Background
302(2)
Models and Dimensions
303(1)
Assessment Strategies
304(1)
Family and Home Environment
304(3)
School Environment
307(1)
School Climate
308(1)
Learning Styles
309(8)
Processing Style
310(1)
Modality Assessment
310(4)
Cognitive Style
314(3)
Learning Styles: A Multiple Intelligences Approach
317(4)
Learning Personalities
317(1)
Learning Style Inventories
318(3)
Work Environment
321(1)
Person-Environment-Fit
321(2)
Summary
323(1)
Questions for Discussion
323(1)
Suggested Activities
324(1)
Additional Readings
325(2)
The Computer in Assessment
327(16)
Computer Uses
328(1)
Computer-Assisted Testing
328(1)
Computer-Adaptive Testing
329(1)
Differences Between Conventional and Computer Tests
330(1)
The Graduate Record Examination (GRE)
331(1)
Computer-Aided Personality Testing
331(1)
Evaluating Computer-Based Adaptive Testing
332(2)
Internet-Based Assessment
334(1)
Computer Simulation in Testing
335(1)
Professional Standards and Guidelines
336(1)
Sources of Information
337(1)
Computer Options
338(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Applications
338(1)
Software for Test Development
339
Trends and Issues
338(2)
Summary
340(1)
Questions for Discussion
341(1)
Suggested Activities
341(1)
Additional Readings
342(1)
Working with Diverse Populations
343(26)
Standards for Testing People With Disabling Conditions
344(2)
Testing Linguistic Minorities
344(1)
Idea
345(1)
Preschool Evaluations
346(2)
Types of Disabilities and Disorders
348(7)
Communication Disorders
348(1)
Intellectual Disabilities
348(1)
Behavior Disorders
349(3)
Hearing Impairment
352(1)
Visual Impairment
353(1)
Individuals Who Are Gifted or Talented
354(1)
Standards for Multicultural Assessment
355(2)
Technical Considerations
355(1)
Administration and Scoring
356(1)
Use and Interpretation
356(1)
Test Bias
357(1)
Test Taker Bias Factors
357(1)
Examiner Bias Factors
358(1)
Developing Greater Multicultural Understanding
358(4)
Ethical Principles
359(1)
Etic and Emic Perspectives
359(1)
Acculturation
360(1)
Strategies
360(2)
Summary
362(1)
Questions for Discussion
363(1)
Suggested Activities
363(3)
Additional Readings
366(3)
Assessment Issues in Education
369(24)
High-Stakes Testing
370(2)
Student Assessment Programs
372(2)
Scholastic Aptitude Tests
373(1)
Multifactor Aptitude Tests
373(1)
Career Guidance Tests
373(1)
Needs Assessments
374(2)
Developmental Model
374(2)
Test-Taking Skills
376(1)
Stress Reduction
376(1)
Test Anxiety
376(2)
Measures of Test Anxiety
377(1)
Strategies to Help Test Anxiety
377(1)
Relaxation Techniques
378(1)
Improving Test Scores
378(3)
Coaching
379(1)
Strategies to Increase Test Wiseness
379(1)
Application of Test Wiseness to Teacher-Made Tests
380(1)
Workshop on Test-Taking Skills
381(1)
Other Factors
382(1)
Information on Test Taking
383(3)
Test Alert
385(1)
Learning Styles
386(1)
Processing Style
386(1)
Summary
386(1)
Questions for Discussion
387(1)
Suggested Activities
388(3)
Additional Readings
391(2)
Communicating Test Results
393(25)
Test Reports
394(1)
Written Reports
394(1)
Purpose of Written Reports
394(1)
Dimensions of Reports
394(1)
Models of Assessment
394(1)
Test-Oriented Model
394(1)
Domain-Oriented Model
395(1)
Hypothesis-Oriented Model
395(1)
Levels of Reports
395(1)
Guidelines for Communicating Test Results
396(1)
Informed Consent
397(1)
Standards for Reporting Test Results
397(2)
Methods of Reporting Test Results
399(2)
Individual Sessions
399(1)
Group Sessions
399(1)
Written Reports
399(1)
Computer-Generated Test Reports
400(1)
Video Approaches
400(1)
Oral Reports
400(1)
Problem Areas
401(2)
Acceptance
401(1)
Readiness of the Client
401(1)
Negative Results
402(1)
Flat Profiles
402(1)
Motivation and Attitude
402(1)
Communication of Test Results to the Public
403(2)
General Guidelines
403(2)
The Tester as Consultant: Legal Considerations
405(1)
Ethical Standards for Consultation
405(1)
Consulting With Parents
405(8)
Explaining Test Results to Parents
406(1)
Parent-Examiner Conferences
407(1)
Types of Questions Parents Ask About Tests
408(1)
Other Areas of Concern to Parents
408(2)
The Informing Interview
410(1)
Parents as Test Interpreters
410(1)
Consulting with Teachers
411(1)
Indirect Delivery Model
412(1)
Problem-Solving Consulting Model
412(1)
Consulting With Other Professionals
413(1)
Evaluation of the Consultant
413(1)
Summary
414(1)
Questions for Discussion
414(1)
Suggested Activities
415(2)
Additional Readings
417(1)
Appendix: Test Publishers and Distributors 418(2)
Glossary 420(9)
References 429(11)
Test Index 440(5)
Name Index 445(3)
Subject Index 448


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