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Astronomy Today

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780131445963

ISBN10:
0131445960
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
List Price: $118.20

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Summary

0136155502 Astronomy Today Vol 2, 6/e: Stars and Galaxies includes Part One on foundations (Chapters 1-5); Part Three on stars and stellar evolution (Chapters 16-22); and Part Four on galaxies and cosmology (Chapters 23-28). Vol 1 ISBN 0136155499 has to be purchased separatelyAstronomy Today Vol 1, 6/e: The Solar System covers Part One on foundations (Chapters 1-5); Part Two on the solar system (Chapters 6-15); the Sun chapter (Chapter 16); and the final chapter on life in the universe (Chapter 28).

Table of Contents

Preface xiv
PART ONE Astronomy and the Universe
1(139)
Charting the Heavens
The Foundations of Astronomy
2(2)
Our Place in Space
4(2)
Scientific Theory and the Scientific Method
6(2)
The ``Obvious'' View
8(5)
More Precisely 1-1 Angular Measure
11(1)
More Precisely 1-2 Celestial Coordinates
12(1)
Earth's Orbital Motion
13(4)
Physlet® Illustration The Solar vs. Sidereal Day
13(2)
Animation The Earth's Seasons
15(2)
Astronomical Timekeeping
17(2)
The Motion of the Moon
19(6)
Physlet® Illustration Phase of the Moon
20(2)
Physlet® Illustration Eclipses
22(3)
The Measurement of Distance
25(9)
Tutorial Stellar Parallax
27(1)
More Precisely 1-3 Measuring Distances with Geometry
28(1)
Physlet® Illustration Angular Measurements vs. Distance Measurements
28(1)
Chapter Review
29(3)
The Copernican Revolution
The Birth of Modern Science
32(2)
Ancient Astronomy
34(2)
The Geocentric Universe
36(3)
The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System
39(2)
Discovery 2-1 The Foundations of the Copernican Revolution
40(1)
The Birth of Modern Astronomy
41(3)
The Laws of Planetary Motion
44(4)
More Precisely 2-1 Some Properties of Planetary Orbits
47(1)
Physlet® Illustration Kepler's 3 Laws
48(1)
The Dimensions of the Solar System
48(2)
Newton's Laws
50(12)
More Precisely 2-2 The Moon Is Falling!
53(1)
Physlet® Illustration Universal Gravitation
54(2)
Physlet® Illustration Escape Speed
56(1)
More Precisely 2-3 Weighing the Sun
57(1)
Chapter Review
57(3)
Radiation
Information from the Cosmos
60(2)
Information from the Skies
62(3)
Physlet® Illustration Basic Wave Properties
64(1)
Waves in What?
65(4)
Physlet® Illustration Electromagnetic Waves
66(2)
Discovery 3-1 The Wave Nature of Radiation
68(1)
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
69(2)
Thermal Radiation
71(6)
More Precisely 3-1 The Kelvin Temperature Scale
72(2)
Tutorial The Planck Spectrum
74(2)
More Precisely 3-2 More about the Radiation Laws
76(1)
Tutorial Continuous Spectra and Blackbody Radiation
76(1)
The Doppler Effect
77(7)
Physlet® Illustration Doppler Effect
79(1)
Tutorial Doppler Effect
79(1)
Chapter Review
79(3)
Spectroscopy
The Inner Workings of Atoms
82(2)
Spectral Lines
84(4)
Tutorial Emission Spectra
85(2)
Tutorial Absorption Spectra
87(1)
The Formation of Spectral Lines
88(8)
More Precisely 4-1 The Energy Levels of the Hydrogen Atom
90(2)
Discovery 4-1 The Photoelectric Effect
92(1)
Physlet® Illustration The Bohr Atom
93(1)
Animation Classical Hydrogen Atom I/Classical Hydrogen Atom II
94(2)
Molecules
96(1)
Spectral-Line Analysis
97(9)
Chapter Review
101(3)
Telescopes
The Tools of Astronomy
104(2)
Telescope Design
106(5)
Physlet® Illustration Image Formation by a Lens
107(1)
Tutorial The Optics of a Simple Lens/Chromatic Aberration
107(1)
Physlet® Illustration Telescope Designs
108(1)
Tutorial Reflecting Telescopes
108(1)
Physlet® Illustration Image Formation in a Mirror
108(3)
Images and Detectors
111(5)
Discovery 5-1 The Hubble Space Telescope
114(2)
Telescope Size
116(3)
High-Resolution Astronomy
119(4)
Radio Astronomy
123(4)
Interferometry
127(3)
Space-Based Astronomy
130(6)
Animation Light and Data Paths
135(1)
Full-Spectrum Coverage
136(4)
Chapter Review
137(3)
PART TWO Our Planetary System
140(262)
The Solar System
An Introduction to Comparative Planetology
142(2)
An Inventory of the Solar System
144(2)
Planetary Properties
146(2)
More Precisely 6-1 Computing Planetary Properties
147(1)
The Overall Layout of the Solar System
148(1)
Animation An Astronomical Ruler
148(1)
Terrestrial and Jovian Planets
149(2)
Animation Size and Scale of the Terrestrial Planets I/The Gas Giants
149(1)
Physlet® Illustration The Mass of a Planet
150(1)
Interplanetary Debris
151(1)
Spacecraft Exploration of the Solar System
152(8)
Discovery 6-1 Gravitational ``Slingshots''
158(2)
How Did the Solar System Form?
160(10)
Physlet® Illustration Gravitational Slingshot
159(2)
Animation Beta Pictoris Warp
161(1)
More Precisely 6-2 The Concept of Angular Momentum
162(3)
Chapter Review
165(3)
Earth
Our Home in Space
168(2)
Overall Structure of Planet Earth
170(1)
Earth's Atmosphere
170(7)
Physlet® Illustration Atmospheric Lifetimes
172(2)
More Precisely 7-1 Why Is the Sky Blue?
174(1)
Tutorial The Greenhouse Effect
175(1)
Discovery 7-1 The Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming
176(1)
Earth's Interior
177(3)
Discovery 7-2 Earth's ``Rapidly'' Spinning Core
178(2)
Surface Activity
180(9)
More Precisely 7-2 Radioactive Dating
182(7)
Earth's Magnetosphere
189(3)
Physlet® Illustration Earth's Magnetic Field
189(3)
The Tides
192(8)
Chapter Review
194(4)
The Moon and Mercury
Scorched and Battered Worlds
198(2)
Orbital Properties
200(2)
Physical Properties
202(1)
Surface Features on the Moon and Mercury
203(3)
Rotation Rates
206(6)
Discovery 8-1 Lunar Exploration
208(1)
Physlet® Illustration Rotation of Mercury
209(1)
More Precisely 8-1 Why Air Sticks Around
210(2)
Lunar Cratering and Surface Composition
212(7)
Animation Meteor Energy
212(6)
Discovery 8-2 The Moon on a Shoestring
218(1)
The Surface of Mercury
219(1)
Interiors
220(2)
Animation Terrestrial Planets II
222(1)
The Origin of the Moon
222(2)
Evolutionary History of the Moon and Mercury
224(6)
Chapter Review
225(3)
Venus
Earth's Sister Planet
228(2)
Orbital Properties
230(1)
Physical Properties
230(2)
Animation The Phases of Venus
231(1)
Animation The Rotation of Venus
232(1)
Long-Distance Observations of Venus
232(3)
More Precisely 9-1 Synodic Periods and Solar Days
234(1)
The Surface of Venus
235(8)
Tutorial SuperSpaceship---Voyage to Venus
235(8)
The Atmosphere of Venus
243(3)
Tutorial The Greenhouse Effect
245(1)
Venus's Magnetic Field and Internal Structure
246(6)
Chapter Review
247(3)
Mars
A Near Miss for Life?
250(2)
Orbital Properties
252(1)
Physical Properties
253(1)
Long-Distance Observations of Mars
254(1)
The Surface of Mars
255(11)
Video Rotation of Mars
255(1)
Video Mars Rotation and North Pole
256(10)
The Martian Atmosphere
266(4)
Discovery 10-1 Life on Mars?
268(2)
Martian Internal Structure
270(1)
The Moons of Mars
270(6)
Chapter Review
271(3)
Jupiter
Giant of the Solar System
274(2)
Orbital and Physical Properties
276(2)
The Atmosphere of Jupiter
278(6)
Animation Galileo Mission to Jupiter
281(3)
Internal Structure
284(1)
Animation The Gas Giants Part II
284(1)
Discovery 11-1 Almost a Star?
284(1)
Jupiter's Magnetosphere
285(2)
The Moons of Jupiter
287(11)
Discovery 11-2 Jupiter's Many Moons
290(2)
Animation Io Cutaway/Galileo Flyby of Io
292(3)
Video Jupiter's Moon Europa
295(1)
Video Jupiter's Moon Ganymede
296(2)
Jupiter's Ring
298(6)
Chapter Review
299(3)
Saturn
Spectacular Rings and Mysterious Moons
302(2)
Orbital and Physical Properties
304(1)
Saturn's Atmosphere
305(4)
Video Saturn Storm
306(3)
Saturn's Interior and Magnetosphere
309(1)
Saturn's Spectacular Ring System
310(7)
Physlet® Illustration Roche Limit
312(5)
The Moons of Saturn
317(13)
Discovery 12-1 New Moons or Ring Debris at Saturn?
318(7)
Chapter Review
325(3)
Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto
The Outer Worlds of the Solar System
328(2)
The Discovery of Uranus
330(1)
The Discovery of Neptune
330(2)
Physical Properties of Uranus and Neptune
332(1)
The Atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune
333(4)
Magnetospheres and Internal Structure
337(1)
The Moon Systems of Uranus and Neptune
338(6)
The Rings of the Outermost Jovian Planets
344(3)
The Discovery of Pluto
347(1)
Animation Orbits of Neptune and Pluto
348(1)
Physical Properties of Pluto
348(1)
Video Historical Observation of Pluto
349(1)
Animation Mutual Eclipses of Charon and Pluto
349(1)
The Origin of Pluto
349(7)
Discovery 13-1 Surface Detail on Planet Pluto
351(1)
Chapter Review
351(3)
Solar System Debris
Keys to Our Origin
354(2)
Asteroids
356(7)
Discovery 14-1 What Killed the Dinosaurs?
362(1)
Comets
363(11)
Animation Comet Hale-Bopp Nucleus Animation
364(1)
Animation Anatomy of a Comet Part I
365(3)
Discovery 14-2 Comets Hyakutake and Hale-Bopp
368(2)
Animation Anatomy of a Comet Part II
370(2)
Discovery 14-3 A Cometary Impact
372(2)
Meteoroids
374(10)
Animation Asteroid Comet Breakup
375(4)
Chapter Review
379(3)
The Formation of Planetary Systems
The Solar System and Beyond
382(2)
Modeling Planet Formation
384(1)
Planets in the Solar System
385(6)
Animation Solar System Formation
386(4)
Discovery 15-1 The Angular Momentum Problem
390(1)
Physlet® Illustration Conservation of Angular Momentum
390(1)
Interplanetary Debris
391(2)
The Role of Catastrophes
393(1)
Planets beyond the Solar System
393(4)
Is Our Solar System Unusual?
397(5)
Chapter Review
399(3)
PART THREE Stars and Stellar Evolution
402(198)
The Sun
Our Parent Star
404(2)
Physical Properties of the Sun
406(2)
Tutorial SuperSpaceship---Voyage to the Sun
407(1)
The Heart of the Sun
408(4)
More Precisely 16-1 Fundamental Forces
412(1)
The Solar Interior
412(5)
Discovery 16-1 SOHO: Eavesdropping on the Sun
415(1)
Physlet® Illustration Random Walk
416(1)
The Solar Atmosphere
417(4)
The Active Sun
421(10)
Physlet® Illustration Rotation of Sunspots
422(6)
Video May 12, 1997 Solar Flare Event
428(1)
Animation Coronal Mass Ejection
428(2)
Discovery 16-2 Solar-Terrestrial Relations
430(1)
Observations of Solar Neutrinos
431(7)
Chapter Review
433(3)
Red Giants and White Dwarfs
A Field Guide to the Stars
436(2)
The Solar Neighborhood
438(4)
Discovery 17-1 Naming the Stars
441(1)
Luminosity and Apparent Brightness
442(4)
Animation The Inverse-Square Law
443(2)
More Precisely 17-1 More on the Magnitude Scale
445(1)
Physlet® Illustration Stars, Brightness, and the Magnitude Scale
445(1)
Stellar Temperatures
446(3)
Physlet® Illustration Blackbody Spectrum and Stellar Temperatures
447(2)
Stellar Sizes
449(3)
More Precisely 17-2 Estimating Stellar Radii
451(1)
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
452(3)
Tutorial Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
453(1)
Discovery 17-2 The Hipparcos Mission
454(1)
Extending the Cosmic Distance Scale
455(3)
Stellar Masses
458(2)
Tutorial Binary Stars-Radial Velocity Curves
458(1)
Tutorial Eclipsing Binary Stars-Light Curves
459(1)
Mass and Other Stellar Properties
460(8)
Chapter Review
463(3)
The Interstellar Medium
Gas and Dust among the Stars
466(2)
Interstellar Matter
468(3)
Emission Nebulae
471(7)
Video Gaseous Pillars of Star Birth
474(1)
Animation M16 The Eagle Nebula
474(3)
Video Orion Nebula Mosaic
477(1)
Dark Dust Clouds
478(3)
Discovery 18-1 Ultraviolet Astronomy and the ``Local Bubble''
479(2)
21-Centimeter Radiation
481(2)
Physlet® Illustration 21-cm Radiation
482(1)
Interstellar Molecules
483(7)
Chapter Review
485(3)
Star Formation
A Traumatic Birth
488(2)
Star-Forming Regions
490(2)
The Formation of Stars Like the Sun
492(5)
Animation Evolution of a 1-Solar Mass Star
495(2)
Stars of Other Masses
497(2)
Discovery 19-1 Observations of Brown Dwarfs
498(1)
Observations of Cloud Fragments and Protostars
499(5)
Animation Bi-Polar Outflow
503(1)
Shock Waves and Star Formation
504(1)
Star Clusters
505(11)
Discovery 19-2 Eta Carinae
510(1)
Chapter Review
511(3)
Stellar Evolution
The Life and Death of a Star
514(2)
Leaving the Main Sequence
516(2)
Evolution of a Sun-like Star
518(5)
More Precisely 20-1 The CNO Cycle
518(5)
The Death of a Low-Mass Star
523(7)
Animation Death of the Sun Part 1/Death of the Sun Part 2
524(2)
Video Helix Nebula Animation
526(1)
Animation Bi-Polar Planetary Nebula/H-R Diagram Tracks Stellar Evolution
527(3)
Evolution of Stars More Massive than the Sun
530(3)
Discovery 20-1 Learning Astronomy from History
530(2)
Discovery 20-2 Mass Loss from Giant Stars
532(1)
Observing Stellar Evolution in Star Clusters
533(3)
The Evolution of Binary-Star Systems
536(8)
Chapter Review
539(3)
Stellar Explosions
Novae, Supernovae, and the Formation of the Elements
542(2)
Life after Death for White Dwarfs
544(2)
Animation Recurrent Nova
545(1)
The End of a High-Mass Star
546(2)
Physlet® Illustration Supernova
548(1)
Supernovae
548(7)
Discovery 21-1 Supernova 1987A
550(1)
Animation Shockwaves Hit the Ring Around Supernova 1987A/Composition and Structure of the Ring Around SuperNova 1987A
551(1)
Animation Supernova Explosion
552(2)
Discovery 21-2 The Crab Nebula in Motion
554(1)
The Formation of the Elements
555(6)
The Cycle of Stellar Evolution
561(7)
Chapter Review
562(4)
Neutron Stars and Black Holes
Strange States of Matter
566(2)
Neutron Stars
568(1)
Pulsars
569(4)
Physlet® Illustration Period of a Pulsar
571(2)
Neutron-Star Binaries
573(3)
Gamma-Ray Bursts
576(4)
Black Holes
580(1)
Einstein's Theories of Relativity
581(5)
Tutorial Escape Speed and Black Hole Event Horizons
581(2)
Physlet® Illustration Equivalence of Gravitational Field and Acceleration
583(1)
Tutorial SuperSpaceship-Voyage to the Sun
583(1)
More Precisely 22-1 Special Relativity
584(2)
Space Travel Near Black Holes
586(4)
More Precisely 22-2 Tests of General Relativity
590(1)
Observational Evidence for Black Holes
590(10)
Discovery 22-1 Gravity Waves: A New Window on the Universe
592(2)
Animation Black Hole Geometry
594(3)
Chapter Review
597(3)
PART FOUR Galaxies and Cosmology
600(2)
The Milky Way Galaxy
A Spiral in Space
602(2)
Our Parent Galaxy
604(2)
Measuring the Milky Way
606(6)
Animation Cepheid Star in Distant Galaxy
608(2)
Discovery 23-1 Early Computers
610(2)
Galactic Structure
612(4)
The Formation of the Milky Way
616(1)
Galactic Spiral Arms
617(5)
Discovery 23-2 Density Waves
620(2)
The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy
622(3)
Physlet® Illustration The Mass of a Galaxy
622(2)
Tutorial Gravitational Lensing
624(1)
The Galactic Center
625(9)
Chapter Review
629(3)
Normal and Active Galaxies
Building Blocks of the Universe
632(2)
Hubble's Galaxy Classification
634(7)
The Distribution of Galaxies in Space
641(3)
Hubble's Law
644(4)
Animation Cluster Merger
645(2)
Physlet® Illustration Galaxy Redshifts and Hubble's Law
647(1)
Active Galactic Nuclei
648(10)
More Precisely 24-1 Relativistic Redshifts and Look-Back Time
650(7)
Animation Birth of a Quasar
657(1)
Animation Active Galaxy
658(1)
The Central Engine of an Active Galaxy
658(10)
Animation Cosmic Jets
659(1)
Animation Black Hole in Galaxy M87
660(1)
Animation Supermassive Black Hole
661(1)
Chapter Review
662(4)
Galaxies and Dark Matter
The Large-Scale Structure of the Cosmos
666(2)
Dark Matter in the Universe
668(4)
Animation Dark Matter
670(2)
Galaxy Collisions
672(2)
Animation Collision of Two Spiral Galaxies
672(2)
Galaxy Formation and Evolution
674(4)
Animation Hubble Deep Field Zoom Sequence
675(1)
Animation Starburst Galaxy
676(2)
Black Holes and Active Galaxies
678(4)
Physlet® Illustration Active Galactic Nuclei
679(3)
The Universe on Large Scales
682(12)
Discovery 25-1 The Sloan Digital Sky Survey
684(4)
Animation Gravitational Lensing
688(1)
Chapter Review
689(3)
Cosmology
The Big Bang and the Fate of the Universe
692(2)
The Universe on the Largest Scales
694(2)
Animation Cosmic Structure
694(2)
The Expanding Universe
696(5)
Discovery 26-1 Stunning Views of Deep Space
698(1)
Animation Big Bang
699(2)
The Fate of the Cosmos
701(2)
The Geometry of Space
703(3)
More Precisely 26-1 Curved Space
705(1)
Will the Universe Expand Forever?
706(2)
Dark Energy and Cosmology
708(3)
Discovery 26-2 Einstein and the Cosmological Constant
709(2)
The Cosmic Microwave Background
711(7)
Physlet® Illustration Temperature
711(2)
Chapter Review
713(3)
The Early Universe
Toward the Beginning of Time
716(2)
Back to the Big Bang
718(3)
The Evolution of the Universe
721(5)
More Precisely 27-1 More on Fundamental Forces
724(2)
The Formation of Nuclei and Atoms
726(3)
The Inflationary Universe
729(5)
The Formation of Structure in the Universe
734(10)
Chapter Review
738(4)
Life in the Universe
Are We Alone?
742(2)
Cosmic Evolution
744(5)
Discovery 28-1 The Virus
745(4)
Life in the Solar System
749(2)
Intelligent Life in the Galaxy
751(4)
Physlet® Illustration Are We Alone?
751(4)
The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
755(4)
Chapter Review
759
Appendices
1(1)
Appendix 1: Scientific Notation
1(1)
Appendix 2: Astronomical Measurement
2(1)
Appendix 3: Tables
3
Glossary 1(1)
Answers to Concept Check Questions 1(4)
Answers to Self-Test Questions 5
Index 1(1)
Star Charts 1

Excerpts

Astronomy is a science that thrives on new discoveries. Fueled by new technologies and novel theoretical insights, the study of the cosmos continues to change our understanding of the universe. We are pleased to have the opportunity to present in this book a representative sample of the known facts, evolving ideas, and frontier discoveries in astronomy today. Astronomy Todayhas been written for students who have taken no previous college science courses and who will likely not major in physics or astronomy. It is intended for use in a one- or two-semester, non-technical astronomy course. We present a broad view of astronomy, straightforwardly descriptive and without complex mathematics. The absence of sophisticated mathematics, however, in no way prevents discussion of important concepts. Rather, we rely on qualitative reasoning as well as analogies with objects and phenomena familiar to the student to explain the complexities of the subject without oversimplification. We have tried to communicate the excitement we feel about astronomy and to awaken students to the marvelous universe around us. Many of you--teachers and students alike--have given us helpful feedback and constructive criticism on earlier editions. From these, we have learned to communicate better both the fundamentals and the excitement of astronomy. Many improvements inspired by your comments have been incorporated into this new edition. Focus of the Fifth Edition From the first edition, we have tried to meet the challenge of writing a book that is both accurate and approachable. To the student, astronomy sometimes seems like a long list of unfamiliar terms to be memorized and repeated. You will indeed be introduced to many new terms and concepts in this course, but we hope you will also learn and remember how science is done, how the universe works, and how things are connected. In the fifth edition, we have taken particular care to try to show how astronomers know what they know, and to highlight both the scientific principles underlying their work and the process used in discovery. New and Revised Material Astronomy is a rapidly evolving field, and the three years since the publication of the fourth edition ofAstronomy Todayhave seen many new discoveries covering the entire spectrum of astronomical research. Almost every chapter in the fifth edition has been substantially updated with new information. Several chapters have also seen significant internal reorganization in order to streamline the overall presentation, strengthen our focus on the process of science, and reflect new understanding and emphases in contemporary astronomy. Among the many changes are: Expanded coverage throughout of the scientific method and how astronomers "know what they know." New part-opening essays to establish historical context for each section of the text. Updated material in Chapter 5 on adaptive optics, Keck, Subaru, Gemini, and the VLT; additional material on infrared and optical interferometry; new coverage of theChandraandSpitzermissions. An introduction to solar-system formation in Chapter 6, to better frame the discussion of planetary properties that follows. New material in Chapter 7 on the Ozone Hole and Global Warming. Expanded coverage in Chapters 6 and 10 of the most recent missions to Mars. Updates in Chapter 10 on Martian oppositions, gullies, oceans, and ice. Final update on theGalileo/GEMmission in Chapter 11. Coverage ofStardust,new Kuiper belt objects, and Pluto's status as a planet in Chapter 14. Updated discussion of solar system formation in Chapter 15; expanded coverage of competing theories, planet migration, planetesimal ejection, plutinos, and the angular momentum problem. New sections in Chapter 15 on extrasolar planets, with updated material on the latest obse


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