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The Atmosphere An Introduction to Meteorology,9780131874626
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The Atmosphere An Introduction to Meteorology

by ; ;
Edition:
10th
ISBN13:

9780131874626

ISBN10:
0131874624
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/27/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Using everyday, easy-to-grasp examples to reinforce basic concepts, this highly regarded handbook remains the standard introduction to meteorology and the atmosphere components, problems, and applications.Includes the most up-to-date coverage of topics such as: ozone depletion; the ultraviolet index; temperature; dew point temperature and orographic effects; wildfires and weather; thunderstorms and lightning; the record-breaking Florida hurricane season; effects of air pollution, and more. Incorporates top-quality visuals, including new satellite images and illustrations by the award-winning Dennis Tasa, to demonstrate the highly visual nature of meteorology. Uses a largely non-technical writing style to help readers grasp important concepts.For those interested in learning more about meteorology.

Table of Contents

Preface xiv
Introduction to the Atmosphere
1(31)
Meteorology, Weather, and Climate
3(2)
Atmospheric Hazard: Assault by the Elements
5(1)
The Nature of Scientific Inquiry
6(2)
Hypothesis
6(1)
Theory
6(2)
Scientific Methods
8(1)
Observing the Atmosphere
8(2)
The Atmosphere: A Part of the Earth System
10(6)
Earth's Four Spheres
12(2)
Earth System Science
14(1)
Earth as a System
15(1)
Composition of the Atmosphere
16(4)
Major Components
16(1)
Carbon Dioxide
17(1)
Variable Components
17(3)
Ozone Depletion---A Global Issue
20(3)
The Ozone Hole
20(2)
Effects of Ozone Depletion
22(1)
Montreal Protocol
22(1)
Extent of the Atmosphere
23(1)
Thermal Structure of the Atmosphere
24(2)
Troposphere
24(1)
Stratosphere
25(1)
Mesosphere
25(1)
Thermosphere
25(1)
Vertical Variations in Composition
26(1)
Ionosphere
27(1)
The Auroras
27(1)
Chapter Summary
27(2)
Vocabulary Review
29(1)
Review Questions
29(1)
Problems
30(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
31(1)
Heating Earth's Surface and Atmosphere
32(32)
Earth-Sun Relationships
34(7)
Earth's Motions
34(1)
The Seasons
35(1)
Earth's Orientation
36(1)
Solstices and Equinoxes
37(4)
Energy Heat and Temperature
41(1)
Forms of Energy
41(1)
Temperature
42(1)
Heat
42(1)
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
42(6)
Conduction
42(2)
Convection
44(1)
Radiation
44(4)
What Happens to Incoming Solar Radiation?
48(3)
Reflection and Scattering
48(2)
Absorption by Earth's Surface and Atmosphere
50(1)
Radiation Emitted by Earth
51(4)
Heating the Atmosphere
51(2)
The Greenhouse Effect
53(1)
Role of Clouds in Heating Earth
54(1)
Heat Budget
55(2)
Latitudinal Heat Balance
57(3)
Chapter Summary
60(1)
Vocabulary Review
61(1)
Review Questions
61(1)
Problems
62(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
63(1)
Temperature
64(32)
For the Record: Air-Temperature Data
65(3)
Why Temperatures Vary: The Controls of Temperature
68(9)
Land and Water
68(5)
Ocean Currents
73(1)
Altitude
74(1)
Geographic Position
75(1)
Cloud Cover and Albedo
75(2)
World Distribution of Temperatures
77(3)
Cycles of Air Temperature
80(2)
Daily Temperature Variations
81(1)
Magnitude of Daily Temperature Changes
82(1)
Annual Temperature Variations
82(1)
Temperature Measurement
82(5)
Mechanical Thermometers
83(3)
Electrical Thermometers
86(1)
Instrument Shelters
86(1)
Temperature Scales
87(1)
Applications of Temperature Data
88(3)
Heating Degree-Days
88(1)
Cooling Degree-Days
89(1)
Growing Degree-Days
89(1)
Temperature and Comfort
89(2)
Chapter Summary
91(1)
Vocabulary Review
92(1)
Review Questions
93(1)
Problems
94(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
95(1)
Moisture and Atmospheric Stability
96(34)
Movement of Water Through the Atmosphere
98(1)
Water's Changes of State
99(4)
Ice, Liquid Water, and Water Vapor
99
Latent Heat
000(103)
Humidity: Water Vapor in the Air
103(1)
Vapor Pressure and Saturation
104(2)
Relative Humidity
106(4)
How Relative Humidity Changes
106(3)
Natural Changes in Relative Humidity
109(1)
Dew-Point Temperature
110(1)
Humidity Measurement
111(2)
Adiabatic Temperature Changes
113(1)
Adiabatic Cooling and Condensation
114(1)
Processes That Lift Air
114(6)
Orographic Lifting
115(1)
Frontal Wedging
116(1)
Convergence
117(1)
Localized Convective Lifting
118(2)
The Critical Weathermaker: Atmospheric Stability
120(3)
Types of Stability
120(3)
Stability and Daily Weather
123(2)
How Stability Changes
124(1)
Temperature Changes and Stability
125(1)
Vertical Air Movement and Stability
125(1)
Chapter Summary
125(2)
Vocabulary Review
127(1)
Review Questions
127(1)
Problems
128(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
129(1)
Forms of Condensation and Precipitation
130(36)
Cloud Formation
132(1)
Condensation Aloft
132(1)
Growth of Cloud Droplets
132(1)
Cloud Classification
133(5)
High Clouds
133(1)
Middle Clouds
133(3)
Low Clouds
136(1)
Clouds of Vertical Development
136(1)
Cloud Varieties
137(1)
Types of Fog
138(4)
Fogs Formed by Cooling
139(3)
Fogs Formed by Evaporation
142(1)
Dew and Frost
142(1)
How Precipitation Forms
143(7)
Precipitation from Cold Clouds: The Bergeron Process
145(2)
Precipitation from Warm Clouds: The Collision-Coalescence Process
147(3)
Forms of Precipitation
150(5)
Rain
150(1)
Snow
151(1)
Sleet and Glaze
151(1)
Hail
151(4)
Rime
155(1)
Precipitation Measurement
155(2)
Standard Instruments
155(1)
Measuring Snowfall
156(1)
Measurement Errors
156(1)
Precipitation Measurement by Weather Radar
157(1)
Intentional Weather Modification
157(5)
Cloud Seeding
158(1)
Fog and Cloud Dispersal
159(1)
Hail Suppression
160(1)
Frost Prevention
161(1)
Understanding the Role of Clouds in the Climate System
162(1)
Chapter Summary
163(1)
Vocabulary Review
163(1)
Review Questions
164(1)
Problems
164(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
165(1)
Air Pressure and Winds
166(30)
Understanding Air Pressure
168(1)
Measuring Air Pressure
169(3)
Pressure Changes with Altitude
172(1)
Horizontal Variations in Air Pressure
173(2)
Influence of Temperature and Water Vapor on Air Pressure
174(1)
Airflow and Pressure
174(1)
Factors Affecting Wind
175(6)
Pressure-Gradient Force
175(3)
Coriolis Force
178(3)
Friction
181(1)
Winds Aloft and Geostrophic Flow
181(2)
Curved Flow and the Gradient Wind
183(3)
Surface Winds
186(1)
How Winds Generate Vertical Air Motion
187(3)
Vertical Airflow Associated with Cyclones and Anticylones
188(1)
Factors That Promote Vertical Airflow
189(1)
Wind Measurement
190(4)
Chapter Summary
194(1)
Vocabulary Review
195(1)
Review Questions
195(1)
Problems
195(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
195(1)
Circulation of the Atmosphere
196(36)
Scales of Atmospheric Motion
198(2)
Large- and Small-Scale Circulation
199(1)
Structure of Wind Patterns
199(1)
Local Winds
200(5)
Land and Sea Breezes
202(1)
Mountain and Valley Breezes
202(1)
Chinook (Foehn) Winds
203(1)
Katabatic (Fall) Winds
203(1)
Country Breezes
204(1)
Global Circulation
205(2)
Single-Cell Circulation Model
205(1)
Three-Cell Circulation Model
206(1)
Observed Distribution of Pressure and Winds
207(3)
Idealized Zonal Pressure Belts
207(1)
Semipermanent Pressure Systems: The Real World
208(2)
Monsoons
210(2)
The Asian Monsoon
210(1)
The North American Monsoon
211(1)
The Westerlies
212(3)
Why Westerlies?
212(1)
Jet Streams
213(1)
Origin of the Polar Jet Stream
213(2)
Subtropical Jet Stream
215(1)
Waves in the Westerlies
215(1)
Westerlies and Earth's Heat Budget
215(2)
Global Winds and Ocean Currents
217(2)
The Importance of Ocean Currents
218(1)
Ocean Currents and Upwelling
219(1)
El Nino and La Nina
219(3)
Global Distribution of Precipitation
222(3)
Zonal Distribution of Precipitation
223(2)
Distribution of Precipitation over the Continents
225(1)
Precipitation Regimes on a Hypothetical Continent
225(4)
Chapter Summary
229(1)
Vocabulary Review
230(1)
Review Questions
231(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
231(1)
Air Masses
232(18)
What Is an Air Mass?
234(1)
Source Regions
235(1)
Classifying Air Masses
236(1)
Air-Mass Modification
237(1)
Properties of North American Air Masses
237(9)
Continental Polar (cP) and Continental Arctic (cA) Air Masses
237(2)
Lake-Effect Snow: Cold Air over Warm Water
239(1)
Maritime Polar (mP) Air Masses
239(5)
Maritime Tropical (mT) Air Masses
244(1)
Continental Tropical (cT) Air Masses
245(1)
Chapter Summary
246(1)
Vocabulary Review
247(1)
Review Questions
247(1)
Problems
248(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
249(1)
Weather Patterns
250(34)
Polar-Front Theory (Norwegian Cyclone Model)
253(1)
Fronts
254(6)
Warm Fronts
255(2)
Cold Fronts
257(1)
Stationary Fronts
258(1)
Occluded Fronts
258(2)
Drylines
260(1)
Life Cycle of a Mid-latitude Cyclone
260(2)
Formation: The Clash of Two Air Masses
260(1)
Development of Cyclonic Flow
260(2)
Occlusion: The Beginning of the End
262(1)
Idealized Weather of a Mid-latitude Cyclone
262(3)
Cyclone Formation
265(2)
Cyclonic and Anticyclonic Circulation
265(1)
Divergence and Convergence Aloft
266(1)
Traveling Cyclones
267(2)
Patterns of Movement
267(2)
Flow Aloft and Cyclonic Migration
269(1)
Anticyclonic Weather and Blocking Highs
269(1)
Case Study of a Mid-latitude Cyclone
270(9)
Violent Spring Weather
272(6)
Weather in Peoria
278(1)
A Modern View: The Conveyor Belt Model
279(2)
Chapter Summary
281(1)
Vocabulary Review
282(1)
Review Questions
282(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
283(1)
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
284(34)
What's in a Name?
286(1)
Thunderstorms
287(1)
Air-Mass Thunderstorms
287(3)
Stages of Developments
288(1)
Occurrence
289(1)
Severe Thunderstorms
290(1)
Supercell Thunderstorms
291(5)
Squall Lines and Mesoscale Convective Complexes
291(5)
Microbursts
296(1)
Lightning and Thunder
296(4)
What Causes Lightning?
297(1)
The Lightning Stroke
297(3)
Thunder
300(1)
Tornadoes
300(2)
The Development and Occurrence of Tornadoes
302(4)
Tornado Development
303(1)
Tornado Climatology
303(2)
Profile of a Tornado
305(1)
Tornado Destruction
306(2)
Tornado Forecasting
308(5)
Tornado Watches and Warnings
308(2)
Doppler Radar
310(3)
Chapter Summary
313(2)
Vocabulary Review
315(1)
Review Questions
315(1)
Problems
316(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
317(1)
Hurricanes
318(26)
Profile of a Hurricane
320(5)
Hurricane Formation and Decay
325(2)
Hurricane Formation
326(1)
Hurricane Decay
327(1)
Hurricane Destruction
327(5)
Storm Surge
329(1)
Wind Damage
330(1)
Inland Flooding
331(1)
Estimating the Intensity of a Hurricane
332(1)
Detecting and Tracking Hurricanes
333(8)
The Role of Satellites
338(1)
Aircraft Reconnaissance
338(1)
Radar and Data Buoys
338(1)
Hurricane Watches and Warnings
339(2)
Chapter Summary
341(1)
Vocabulary Review
341(1)
Review Questions
342(1)
Problems
342(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
343(1)
Weather Analysis and Forecasting
344(32)
The Weather Business: A Brief Overview
346(2)
Weather Analysis
348(4)
Gathering Data
348(2)
Weather Maps: Pictures of the Atmosphere
350(2)
Weather Forecasting
352(6)
Numerical Weather Prediction: Forecasting by Computer
353(3)
Other Forecasting Methods
356(2)
Upper Airflow and Weather Forecasting
358(6)
Upper-Level Maps
358(2)
The Connection Between Upper-Level Flow and Surface Weather
360(4)
Long-Range Forecasts
364(1)
Forecast Accuracy
365(3)
Satellites in Weather Forecasting
368(4)
What Weather Satellites Provide
369(1)
Satellite Measurements
370(2)
Chapter Summary
372(1)
Vocabulary Review
372(1)
Review Questions
373(1)
Problems
373(2)
Atmospheric Science Online
375(1)
Air Pollution
376(22)
A Brief Historical Perspective
376(4)
Air Pollution: Not a New Problem
379(1)
Some Historic Episodes
380(1)
Sources and Types of Air Pollution
380(7)
Primary Pollutants
381(5)
Secondary Pollutants
386(1)
Trends in Air Quality
387(4)
Meteorological Factors Affecting Air Pollution
391(2)
Wind As a Factor
391(1)
The Role of Atmospheric Stability
391(2)
Acid Precipitation
393(3)
Extent and Potency of Acid Precipitation
393(1)
Effects of Acid Precipitation
393(3)
Chapter Summary
396(1)
Vocabulary Review
397(1)
Review Questions
397(1)
Problems
397(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
397(1)
The Changing Climate
398(30)
The Climate System
400(1)
How Is Climate Change Detected?
400(5)
Seafloor Sediment---A Storehouse of Climate Data
400(1)
Oxygen Isotope Analysis
401(1)
Climate Change Recorded in Glacial Ice
402(1)
Tree Rings---Archives of Environmental History
403(2)
Other Types of Proxy Data
405(1)
Natural Causes of Climate Change
405(8)
Plate Tectonies and Climate Change
406(1)
Volcanic Activity and Climate Change
407(2)
Orbital Variations
409(3)
Solar Variability and Climate
412(1)
Human Impact on Global Climate
413(1)
Carbon Dioxide, Trace Gases, and Climate Change
413(4)
CO2 Levels Are Rising
414(1)
The Atmosphere's Response
415(1)
The Role of Trace Gases
415(2)
Climate-Feedback Mechanisms
417(2)
How Aerosols Influence Climate
419(1)
Some Possible Consequences of Global Warming
419(7)
Water Resources and Agriculture
420(1)
Sea-Level Rise
421(1)
The Changing Arctic
421(3)
The Potential for ``Surprises''
424(2)
Chapter Summary
426(1)
Vocabulary Review
427(1)
Review Questions
427(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
427(1)
World Climates
428(42)
Climate Classification
430(2)
Climate Controls: A Summary
432(4)
Latitude
432(1)
Land and Water
432(1)
Geographic Position and Prevailing Winds
432(1)
Mountains and Highlands
433(1)
Ocean Currents
433(3)
Pressure and Wind Systems
436(1)
World Climates---An Overview
436(1)
The Wet Tropics (Af, Am)
436(5)
Temperature Characteristics
438(1)
Precipitation Characteristics
439(2)
Tropical Wet and Dry (Aw)
441(2)
Temperature Characteristics
441(1)
Precipitation Characteristics
441(1)
The Monsoon
442(1)
The Cw Variant
442(1)
The Dry Climates (B)
443(7)
What Is Meant by ``Dry''?
444(1)
Subtropical Desert (BWh) and Steppe (BSh)
445(2)
West Coast Subtropical Deserts
447(2)
Middle-Latitude Desert (BWk) and Steppe (BSk)
449(1)
Humid Middle-Latitude Climates with Mild Winters (C)
450(5)
Humid Subtropical Climate (Cfa)
450(2)
The Marine West Coast Climate (Cfb)
452(1)
The Dry-Summer Subtropical (Mediterranean) Climate (Csa, Csb)
453(2)
Humid Continental Climates with Severe Winters (D)
455(4)
Humid Continental Climate (Dfa)
455(3)
The Subarctic Climate (Dfc, Dfd)
458(1)
The Polar Climates (E)
459(3)
The Tundra Climate (ET)
459(2)
The Ice-Cap Climate (EF)
461(1)
Highland Climates
462(3)
Chapter Summary
465(1)
Vocabulary Review
466(1)
Review Questions
467(1)
Problems
468(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
469(1)
Optical Phenomena of the Atmosphere
470(17)
Nature of Light
472(2)
Reflection
472(1)
Refraction
473(1)
Mirages
474(2)
Rainbows
476(3)
Halos, Sun Dogs, and Solar Pillars
479(3)
The Glory
482(1)
The Corona
483(2)
Chapter Summary
485(1)
Vocabulary Review
485(1)
Review Questions
486(1)
Atmospheric Science Online
486(1)
Appendix A Metric Units 487(3)
Appendix B Explanation and Decoding of the Daily Weather Map 490(7)
Appendix C Relative Humitidy and Dew-Point Tables 497(2)
Appendix D Laws Relating to Gases 499(1)
Appendix E Newton's Laws of Motion 500(1)
Appendix F Climate Data 501(5)
Glossary 506(9)
Index 515


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