What is included with this book?
Outline, scope, and rationale of the book | p. xiii |
Preface | p. xiv |
Natural fluid dynamics | p. xv |
Rotating fluid dynamics: GFD Lab 0 | p. xvii |
Holicism | p. xix |
Characteristics of the atmosphere | p. 1 |
Geometry | p. 1 |
Chemical composition of the atmosphere | p. 2 |
Physical properties of air | p. 4 |
Dry air | p. 4 |
Moist air | p. 5 |
GFD Lab I: Cloud formation on adiabatic expansion | p. 7 |
Problems | p. 7 |
The global energy balance | p. 9 |
Planetary emission temperature | p. 9 |
The atmospheric absorption spectrum | p. 13 |
The greenhouse effect | p. 14 |
A simple greenhouse model | p. 14 |
A leaky greenhouse | p. 16 |
A more opaque greenhouse | p. 16 |
Climate feedbacks | p. 19 |
Further reading | p. 20 |
Problems | p. 20 |
The vertical structure of the atmosphere | p. 23 |
Vertical distribution of temperature and greenhouse gases | p. 23 |
Typical temperature profile | p. 23 |
Atmospheric layers | p. 24 |
The relationship between pressure and density: hydrostatic balance | p. 26 |
Vertical structure of pressure and density | p. 28 |
Isothermal atmosphere | p. 28 |
Non-isothermal atmosphere | p. 28 |
Density | p. 29 |
Further reading | p. 29 |
Problems | p. 29 |
Convection | p. 31 |
The nature of convection | p. 32 |
Convection in a shallow fluid | p. 32 |
Instability | p. 33 |
Convection in water | p. 34 |
Buoyancy | p. 34 |
Stability | p. 35 |
Energetics | p. 36 |
GFD Lab II: Convection | p. 36 |
Dry convection in a compressible atmosphere | p. 39 |
The adiabatic lapse rate (in unsaturated air) | p. 39 |
Potential temperature | p. 41 |
The atmosphere under stable conditions | p. 42 |
Gravity waves | p. 42 |
Temperature inversions | p. 44 |
Moist convection | p. 46 |
Humidity | p. 47 |
Saturated adiabatic lapse rate | p. 49 |
Equivalent potential temperature | p. 50 |
Convection in the atmosphere | p. 50 |
Types of convection | p. 51 |
Where does convection occur? | p. 55 |
Radiative-convective equilibrium | p. 56 |
Further reading | p. 57 |
Problems | p. 57 |
The meridional structure of the atmosphere | p. 61 |
Radiative forcing and temperature | p. 62 |
Incoming radiation | p. 62 |
Outgoing radiation | p. 63 |
The energy balance of the atmosphere | p. 64 |
Meridional structure of temperature | p. 64 |
Pressure and geopotential height | p. 67 |
Moisture | p. 70 |
Winds | p. 73 |
Distribution of winds | p. 74 |
Further reading | p. 78 |
Problems | p. 78 |
The equations of fluid motion | p. 81 |
Differentiation following the motion | p. 82 |
Equation of motion for a nonrotating fluid | p. 84 |
Forces on a fluid parcel | p. 84 |
The equations of motion | p. 86 |
Hydrostatic balance | p. 87 |
Conservation of mass | p. 87 |
Incompressible flow | p. 88 |
Compressible flow | p. 88 |
Thermodynamic equation | p. 89 |
Integration, boundary conditions, and restrictions in application | p. 89 |
Equations of motion for a rotating fluid | p. 90 |
GFD Lab III: Radial inflow | p. 90 |
Transformation into rotating coordinates | p. 93 |
The rotating equations of motion | p. 94 |
GFD Labs IV and V: Experiments with Coriolis forces on a parabolic rotating table | p. 96 |
Putting things on the sphere | p. 100 |
GFD Lab VI: An experiment on the Earth's rotation | p. 103 |
Further reading | p. 104 |
Problems | p. 104 |
Balanced flow | p. 109 |
Geostrophic motion | p. 110 |
The geostrophic wind in pressure coordinates | p. 112 |
Highs and lows; synoptic charts | p. 114 |
Balanced flow in the radial-inflow experiment | p. 116 |
The Taylor-Proudman theorem | p. 117 |
GFD Lab VII: Taylor columns | p. 118 |
The thermal wind equation | p. 119 |
GFD Lab VIII: The thermal wind relation | p. 120 |
The thermal wind equation and the Taylor-Proudman theorem | p. 122 |
GFD Lab IX: cylinder "collapse" under gravity and rotation | p. 123 |
Mutual adjustment of velocity and pressure | p. 125 |
Thermal wind in pressure coordinates | p. 126 |
Sub geostrophic flow: the Ekman layer | p. 129 |
GFD Lab X: Ekman layers: frictionally-induced cross-isobaric flow | p. 130 |
Ageostrophic flow in atmospheric highs and lows | p. 130 |
Planetary-scale ageostrophic flow | p. 133 |
Problems | p. 135 |
The general circulation of the atmosphere | p. 139 |
Understanding the observed circulation | p. 140 |
A mechanistic view of the circulation | p. 141 |
The tropical Hadley circulation | p. 142 |
The extratropical circulation and GFD Lab XI: Baroclinic instability | p. 145 |
Energetics of the thermal wind equation | p. 149 |
Potential energy for a fluid system | p. 149 |
Available potential energy | p. 150 |
Release of available potential energy in baroclinic instability | p. 152 |
Energetics in a compressible atmosphere | p. 153 |
Large-scale atmospheric energy and momentum budget | p. 154 |
Energy transport | p. 154 |
Momentum transport | p. 156 |
Latitudinal variations of climate | p. 157 |
Further reading | p. 158 |
Problems | p. 159 |
The ocean and its circulation | p. 163 |
Physical characteristics of the ocean | p. 164 |
The ocean basins | p. 164 |
The cryosphere | p. 165 |
Properties of seawater; equation of state | p. 165 |
Temperature, salinity, and temperature structure | p. 168 |
The mixed layer and thermocline | p. 171 |
The observed mean circulation | p. 176 |
Inferences from geostrophic and hydrostatic balance | p. 182 |
Ocean surface structure and geostrophic flow | p. 183 |
Geostrophic flow at depth | p. 184 |
Steric effects | p. 186 |
The dynamic method | p. 187 |
Ocean eddies | p. 188 |
Observations of ocean eddies | p. 188 |
Further reading | p. 189 |
Problems | p. 190 |
The wind-driven circulation | p. 197 |
The wind stress and Ekman layers | p. 198 |
Balance of forces and transport in the Ekman layer | p. 199 |
Ekman pumping and suction and GFD Lab XII | p. 201 |
Ekman pumping and suction induced by large-scale wind patterns | p. 203 |
Response of the interior ocean to Ekman pumping | p. 206 |
Interior balances | p. 206 |
Wind-driven gyres and western boundary currents | p. 206 |
Taylor-Proudman on the sphere | p. 207 |
GFD Lab XIII: Wind-driven ocean gyres | p. 211 |
The depth-integrated circulation: Sverdrup theory | p. 213 |
Rationalization of position, sense of circulation, and volume transport of ocean gyres | p. 214 |
Effects of stratification and topography | p. 216 |
Taylor-Proudman in a layered ocean | p. 217 |
Baroclinic instability in the ocean | p. 218 |
Further reading | p. 220 |
Problems | p. 220 |
The thermohaline circulation of the ocean | p. 223 |
Air-sea fluxes and surface property distributions | p. 224 |
Heat, freshwater, and buoyancy fluxes | p. 224 |
Interpretation of surface temperature distributions | p. 231 |
Sites of deep convection | p. 232 |
The observed thermohaline circulation | p. 234 |
Inferences from interior tracer distributions | p. 234 |
Time scales and intensity of thermohaline circulation | p. 239 |
Dynamical models of the thermohaline circulation | p. 239 |
Abyssal circulation schematic deduced from Taylor-Proudman on the sphere | p. 239 |
GFD Lab XIV: The abyssal circulation | p. 241 |
Why western boundary currents? | p. 243 |
GFD Lab XV: Source sink flow in a rotating basin | p. 245 |
Observations of abyssal ocean circulation | p. 245 |
The ocean heat budget and transport | p. 247 |
Meridional heat transport | p. 248 |
Mechanisms of ocean heat transport and the partition of heat transport between the atmosphere and ocean | p. 251 |
Freshwater transport by the ocean | p. 255 |
Further reading | p. 256 |
Problems | p. 256 |
Climate and climate variability | p. 259 |
The ocean as a buffer of temperature change | p. 261 |
Nonseasonal changes in SST | p. 262 |
El Nino and the Southern Oscillation | p. 264 |
Interannual variability | p. 264 |
"Normal" conditions-equatorial upwelling and the Walker circulation | p. 266 |
ENSO | p. 269 |
Other modes of variability | p. 273 |
Paleoclimate | p. 273 |
Climate over Earth history | p. 275 |
Paleotemperatures over the past 70 million years: the [delta superscript 18] record | p. 277 |
Greenhouse climates | p. 280 |
Cold climates | p. 280 |
Glacial-interglacial cycles | p. 282 |
Global warming | p. 291 |
Further reading | p. 292 |
Problems | p. 292 |
Appendices | p. 295 |
Derivations | p. 295 |
The Planck function | p. 295 |
Computation of available potential energy | p. 296 |
Internal energy for a compressible atmosphere | p. 296 |
Mathematical definitions and notation | p. 296 |
Taylor expansion | p. 296 |
Vector identifies | p. 297 |
Polar and spherical coordinates | p. 298 |
Use of foraminifera shells in paleoclimate | p. 298 |
Laboratory experiments | p. 299 |
Rotating tables | p. 299 |
List of laboratory experiments | p. 300 |
Figures and access to data over the web | p. 302 |
References | p. 303 |
Textbooks and reviews | p. 303 |
Other references | p. 303 |
References to paleo-data sources | p. 304 |
Index | p. 307 |
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