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Atmospheric Science : An Introductory Survey,9780127329512
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Atmospheric Science : An Introductory Survey

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780127329512

ISBN10:
012732951X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
2/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Elsevier Science
List Price: $72.95

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Summary

"Atmospheric Science, Second Edition, has been completely revamped in terms of content and appearance. The authors illustrate concepts with colorful state-of-the-art imagery and cover a vast amount of new information in the field. They have also developed several online materials for instructors who adopt the text."--BOOK JACKET.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xi
Preface to the First Edition xv
Introduction and Overview
1(24)
Scope of the Subject and Recent Highlights
1(2)
Some Definitions and Terms of Reference
3(3)
A Brief Survey of the Atmosphere
6(15)
Optical Properties
6(1)
Mass
7(1)
Chemical Composition
8(1)
Vertical structure
9(3)
Winds
12(7)
Precipitation
19(2)
What's Next?
21(4)
Exercises
22(3)
The Earth System
25(38)
Components of the Earth System
25(13)
The Oceans
25(7)
The Cryosphere
32(3)
The Terrestrial Biosphere
35(2)
The Earth's Crust and Mantle
37(1)
Roles of Various Components of the Earth System in Climate
38(1)
The Hydrologic Cycle
38(3)
The Carbon Cycle
41(4)
Carbon in the Atmosphere
42(1)
Carbon in the Biosphere
42(2)
Carbon in the Oceans
44(1)
Carbon in the Earth's Crust
44(1)
Oxygen in the Earth System
45(3)
Sources of Free Oxygen
46(2)
A Brief History of Climate and the Earth System
48(8)
Formation and Evolution of the Earth System
48(3)
The Past 100 Million Years
51(1)
The Past Million Years
52(2)
The Past 20,000 Years
54(2)
Earth: The Habitable Planet
56(7)
Exercises
58(5)
Atmospheric Thermodynamics
63(50)
Gas Laws
63(4)
Virtual Temperature
66(1)
The Hydrostatic Equation
67(5)
Geopotential
68(1)
Scale Height and the Hypsometric Equation
69(2)
Thickness and Heights of Constant Pressure Surfaces
71(1)
Reduction of Pressure to Sea Level
72(1)
The First Law of Thermodynamics
72(4)
Joule's Law
74(1)
Specific Heats
75(1)
Enthalpy
75(1)
Adiabatic Processes
76(3)
Concept of an Air Parcel
77(1)
The Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate
77(1)
Potential Temperature
77(1)
Thermodynamic Diagrams
78(1)
Water Vapor in Air
79(9)
Moisture Parameters
80(4)
Latent Heats
84(1)
Saturated Adiabatic and Pseudoadiabatic Processes
84(1)
The Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate
84(1)
Equivalent Potential Temperature and Wet-Bulb Potential Temperature
85(1)
Normand's Rule
86(1)
Net Effects of Ascent Followed by Descent
86(2)
Static Stability
88(5)
Unsaturated Air
88(3)
Saturated Air
91(1)
Conditional and Convective Instability
91(2)
The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy
93(20)
The Carnot Cycle
93(2)
Entropy
95(2)
The Clausius--Clapeyron Equation
97(3)
Generalized Statement of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
100(2)
Exercises
102(11)
Radiative Transfer
113(40)
The Spectrum of Radiation
113(1)
Quantitative Description of Radiation
114(3)
Blackbody Radiation
117(5)
The Planck Function
117(1)
Wien's Displacement Law
118(1)
The Stefan-Boltzmann Law
119(1)
Radiative Properties of Nonblack Materials
120(1)
Kirchhoff's Law
121(1)
The Greenhouse Effect
121(1)
Physics of Scattering and Absorption and Emission
122(8)
Scattering by Air Molecules and Particles
123(3)
Absorption by Particles
126(1)
Absorption and Emission by Gas Molecules
127(3)
Radiative Transfer in Planetary Atmospheres
130(14)
Beer's Law
130(3)
Reflection and Absorption by a Layer of the Atmosphere
133(1)
Absorption and Emission of Infrared Radiation in Cloud-Free Air
134(4)
Vertical Profiles of Radiative Heating Rate
138(1)
Passive Remote Sensing by Satellites
139(5)
Radiation Balance at the Top of the Atmosphere
144(9)
Exercises
145(8)
Atmospheric Chemistry
153(56)
Composition of Tropospheric Air
153(4)
Sources, Transport, and Sinks of Trace Gases
157(5)
Sources
157(3)
Transport
160(2)
Sinks
162(1)
Some Important Tropospheric Trace Gases
162(7)
The Hydroxyl Radical
162(1)
Some Reactive Nitrogen Compounds
163(1)
Organic Compounds
164(1)
Carbon Monoxide
165(1)
Ozone
165(3)
Hydrogen Compounds
168(1)
Sulfur Gases
168(1)
Tropospheric Aerosols
169(7)
Sources
170(2)
Chemical Composition
172(1)
Transport
173(1)
Sinks
173(1)
Concentrations and Size Distributions
174(2)
Residence Times
176(1)
Air Pollution
176(6)
Some Sources of Pollutants
177(2)
Smogs
179(2)
Regional and Global Pollution
181(1)
Tropospheric Chemical Cycles
182(2)
The Nitrogen Cycle
182(1)
The Sulfur Cycle
183(1)
Stratospheric Chemistry
184(25)
Unperturbed Stratospheric Ozone
185(5)
Anthropogenic Perturbations to Stratospheric Ozone: The Ozone Hole
190(6)
Stratospheric Aerosols: Sulfur in the Stratosphere
196(2)
Exercises
198(11)
Cloud Microphysics
209(62)
Nucleation of Water Vapor Condensation
209(6)
Theory
210(4)
Cloud Condensation Nuclei
214(1)
Microstructures of Warm Clouds
215(3)
Cloud Liquid Water Content and Entrainment
218(3)
Growth of Cloud Droplets in Warm Clouds
221(11)
Growth by Condensation
221(3)
Growth by Collection
224(4)
Bridging the Gap between Droplet Growth by Condensation and Collision--Coalescence
228(4)
Microphysics of Cold Clouds
232(13)
Nucleation of Ice Particles; Ice Nuclei
232(4)
Concentrations of Ice Particles in Clouds; Ice Multiplication
236(2)
Growth of Ice Particles in Clouds
238(5)
Formation of Precipitation in Cold Clouds
243(2)
Classification of Solid Precipitation
245(1)
Artificial Modification of Clouds and Precipitation
245(7)
Modification of Warm Clouds
245(2)
Modification of Cold Clouds
247(3)
Inadvertent Modification
250(2)
Thunderstorm Electrification
252(7)
Charge Generation
252(2)
Lightning and Thunder
254(2)
The Global Electrical Circuit
256(3)
Cloud and Precipitation Chemistry
259(12)
Overview
259(1)
Transport of Particles and Gases
259(1)
Nucleation Scavenging
260(1)
Dissolution of Gases in Cloud Droplets
260(1)
Aqueous-Phase Chemical Reactions
261(1)
Precipitation Scavenging
261(1)
Sources of Sulfate in Precipitation
262(1)
Chemical Composition of Rain
262(1)
Production of Aerosol by Clouds
262(1)
Exercises
263(8)
Atmospheric Dynamics
271(42)
Kinematics of the Large-Scale Horizontal Flow
271(5)
Elementary Kinematic Properties of the Flow
271(1)
Vorticity and Divergence
272(2)
Deformation
274(1)
Streamlines versus Trajectories
275(1)
Dynamics of Horizontal Flow
276(14)
Apparent Forces
276(3)
Real Forces
279(1)
The Horizontal Equation of Motion
280(1)
The Geostrophic Wind
281(1)
The Effect of Friction
281(1)
The Gradient Wind
282(1)
The Thermal Wind
283(3)
Suppression of Vertical Motions by Planetary Rotation
286(1)
A Conservation Law for Vorticity
286(3)
Potential Vorticity
289(1)
Primitive Equations
290(7)
Pressure as a Vertical Coordinate
291(1)
Hydrostatic Balance
291(1)
The Thermodynamic Energy Equation
291(2)
Inference of the Vertical Motion Field
293(2)
Solution of the Primitive Equations
295(1)
An Application of Primitive Equations
296(1)
The Atmospheric General Circulation
297(3)
The Kinetic Energy Cycle
298(2)
The Atmosphere as a Heat Engine
300(1)
Numerical Weather Prediction
300(13)
Exercises
304(9)
Weather Systems
313(62)
Extratropical Cyclones
313(27)
An Overview
313(5)
Fronts and Surface Weather
318(10)
Vertical Structure
328(6)
Air Trajectories
334(2)
In Search of the Perfect Storm
336(1)
Top--Down Influences
337(1)
Influence of Latent Heat Release
338(2)
Orographic Effects
340(4)
Lee Cyclogenesis and Lee Troughing
340(1)
Rossby Wave Propagation along Sloping Terrain
340(1)
Cold Air Damming
341(1)
Terrain-Induced Windstorms
342(1)
Orographic Influences on Precipitation
343(1)
Deep Convection
344(22)
Environmental Controls
345(4)
Structure and Evolution of Convective Storms
349(7)
Damaging Winds Associated with Convective Storms
356(7)
Mesoscale Convective Systems
363(3)
Tropical Cyclones
366(9)
Structure, Thermodynamics, and Dynamics
366(3)
Genesis and Life Cycle
369(1)
Storm Surges
370(1)
Exercises
371(4)
The Atmospheric Boundary Layer
375(44)
Turbulence
376(9)
Eddies and Thermals
376(2)
Statistical Description of Turbulence
378(1)
Turbulence Kinetic Energy and Turbulence Intensity
379(2)
Turbulent Transport and Fluxes
381(1)
Turbulence Closure
382(1)
Turbulence Scales and Similarity Theory
383(2)
The Surface Energy Balance
385(6)
Radiative Fluxes
385(1)
Surface Energy Balance over Land
386(1)
The Bulk Aerodynamic Formulae
387(3)
The Global Surface Energy Balance
390(1)
Vertical Structure
391(7)
Temperature
391(1)
Humidity
392(1)
Winds
393(2)
Day-to-Day and Regional Variations in Boundary-Layer Structure
395(1)
Nonlocal Influence of Stratification on Turbulence and Stability
396(2)
Evolution
398(6)
Entrainment
398(1)
Boundary-Layer Growth
399(2)
Cloud-Topped Boundary Layer over Land
401(1)
The Marine Boundary Layer
401(3)
Stormy Weather
404(1)
Special Effects
404(7)
Terrain Effects
404(4)
Sea Breezes
408(2)
Forest Canopy Effects
410(1)
Urban Effects
411(1)
The Boundary Layer in Context
411(8)
Exercises
413(6)
Climate Dynamics
419(48)
The Present-Day Climate
419(6)
Annual Mean Conditions
419(3)
Dependence on Time of Day
422(1)
Seasonal Dependence
423(2)
Climate Variability
425(18)
Internally Generated Climate Variability
429(2)
Coupled Climate Variability
431(8)
Externally Forced Climate Variability
439(4)
Climate Equilibria, Sensitivity, and Feedbacks
443(8)
Transient versus Equilibrium Response
446(1)
Climate Feedbacks
447(4)
Greenhouse Warming
451(7)
The Buildup of Greenhouse Gases
451(4)
Is Human-Induced Greenhouse Warming Already Evident?
455(2)
Projections of Future Human-Induced Greenhouse Warming
457(1)
Climate Monitoring and Prediction
458(9)
Exercises
460(7)
Constants and Conversions for Atmospheric Science 467(2)
Abbreviations Used in Captions 469(2)
Index 471


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