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At-Risk Youth : A Comprehensive Response,9780534345808
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At-Risk Youth : A Comprehensive Response

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780534345808

ISBN10:
0534345808
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/14/1997
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
List Price: $70.33
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Summary

This timely book addresses one of the biggest single problems facing society today -- at-risk behavior in one quarter of our nation's youth -- and provides strategies for prevention and treatment that can be implemented in the schools, in the homes, and by helping professionals in a variety of settings. Whether the term "at-risk" connotes a local school district's problems with child and adolescent suicide and school dropouts, the correction system's concerns about juvenile delinquency, or the health system?s concerns with teen pregnancy, child abuse, and AIDs, the individuals labeled at-risk need the ongoing help of professionals -- and this book can set the stage.

Table of Contents

PART 1 AT-RISK CHILDREN AND YOUTH: THE ECOLOGY OF PROBLEMS 1(92)
CHAPTER 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO AT-RISK ISSUES: THE TREE
3(17)
THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEMS
4(6)
Facts of an At-Risk Society
5(1)
Defining the Term At Risk
6(3)
Blame Poverty and Racism, Not the Victim
9(1)
CASE STUDY: THE ANDREWS FAMILY
10(3)
AT-RISK PROBLEMS AND ISSUES
13(2)
Cause or Effect?
13(1)
Vulnerable and Underserved
14(1)
THE AT-RISK TREE, A METAPHOR
15(3)
CONCLUSION
18(1)
FURTHER READINGS
18(2)
CHAPTER 2 ENVIRONMENTAL/SOCIETAL FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO RISK
20(18)
THE CHANGING ECONOMY AND POVERTY
22(4)
Job and Income Loss: Stagnation of the Working Poor
22(2)
Young Families
24(1)
Single Mothers
25(1)
CASE STUDY: THE BAKER FAMILY
26(3)
Homeless Families
28(1)
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS
29(2)
SES and Health Problems
30(1)
Parent-Child Relations and SES
31(1)
SES and At-Risk Categories
31(1)
AND THE RICH GET RICHER
31(1)
ENNUI AND PURPOSE
31(2)
Parenting Networks
32(1)
Training for Life
32(1)
MODEST PROPOSALS AND SUGGESTIONS: FAMILY/SCHOOL/COMMUNITY LINK
33(3)
Child Care
33(2)
Deficits in Skills
35(1)
Comprehensive Preschool Programs
35(1)
CONCLUSION
36(1)
FURTHER READINGS
36(2)
CHAPTER 3 FAMILY PROBLEMS OF AT-RISK CHILDREN AND YOUTH
38(22)
SOCIETAL CHANGES AFFECTING THE FAMILY
39(2)
Divorce
39(1)
The Erosion of Extended-Family Networks
40(1)
CHANGES WITHIN THE FAMILY
41(4)
The Family Life Cycle
41(2)
The Family System
43(2)
CASE STUDY: THE CARTER FAMILY
45(2)
FAMILY PROBLEMS AND PROBLEM FAMILIES
47(2)
Stressed Families
47(1)
Dysfunctional Families
48(1)
VULNERABLE AND UNDERSERVED FAMILIES
49(2)
Ethnic Minority Families
49(1)
Families of Gay and Lesbian Youth
50(1)
CHILD-REARING PRACTICES
51(8)
Three Dimensions of Child Rearing
51(1)
Parental Inconsistency
52(2)
Clusters of Child-Rearing Behaviors
54(5)
CONCLUSION
59(1)
FURTHER READINGS
59(1)
CHAPTER 4 SCHOOL ISSUES THAT RELATE TO AT-RISK CHILDREN AND YOUTH
60(18)
THE VALUE OF EDUCATION
61(3)
RESEARCH ON EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS
64(1)
Variables in Research on School Effects
64(1)
Definitional Issues in Research on School Effects
64(1)
SCHOOL CULTURE
65(1)
Student Climate
65(1)
CASE STUDY: THE DIAZ FAMILY
66(5)
Teacher Climate
70(1)
EDUCATIONAL STRUCTURE: SCHOOLS AND CLASSROOMS
71(3)
School Structure
71(1)
Classroom Structure
72(2)
PEER GROUP INFLUENCE
74(2)
CONCLUSION
76(1)
FURTHER READINGS
77(1)
CHAPTER 5 INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-RISK AND LOW-RISK CHILDREN AND YOUTH
78(15)
RESILIENCY AND INVULNERABILITY
80(3)
Development of Resiliency Skills
80(2)
Common Characteristics of Resiliont Youth
82(1)
SKILLS THAT CHARACTERIZE HIGH-RISK VERSUS LOW-RISK YOUTH
83(6)
Critical School Competencies
84(1)
Concept of Self and Self-Esteem
85(1)
Communication with Others
86(1)
Coping Ability
87(1)
Control
88(1)
THINGS TO DO TO INCREASE THE FIVE CS
89(1)
CONCLUSION
90(2)
FURTHER READINGS
92(1)
PART 2 AT-RISK CATEGORIES 93(108)
CHAPTER 6 SCHOOL DROPOUTS
95(19)
DEFINITIONAL ISSUES OF THE DROPOUT PROBLEM
96(1)
Literacy Standards
96(1)
Definition of Dropout
97(1)
SCOPE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROBLEM
97(2)
Differences Between Stayers and Leavers
98(1)
Exceptional Students
99(1)
VULNERABLE AND UNDERSERVED STUDENTS
99(1)
THE ROOTS OF THE DROPOUT PROBLEM
100(1)
THE CONSEQUENCES OF DROPPING OUT
101(2)
Economic Consequences
102(1)
Social Consequences
102(1)
IDENTIFICATION AND WARNING SIGNS
102(7)
SECOND-CHANCE PROGRAMS: ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION
109(3)
CONCLUSION
112(1)
FURTHER READINGS
113(1)
CHAPTER 7 SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION
114(19)
DEFINITIONAL DIFFICULTIES AND ASSESSMENT
116(2)
THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM
116(1)
Vulnerable and Underserved Youth
117(1)
SOME DETERMINANTS OF SUBSTANCE USE AND COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF USERS
118(5)
Social Correlates of Substance Use
118(1)
Personal Correlates of Substance Use
119(4)
Peer Influence on Substance Use
123(1)
CONSEQUENCES OF SUBSTANCE USE
123(2)
Physiological Consequences
123(1)
Physiological Consequences
124(1)
Legal Consequences
125(1)
INTERVENTION: PREVENTION AND TREATMENT STRATEGIES
125(6)
Prevention
126(1)
Community Treatment
127(1)
School Treatment
128(3)
CONCLUSION
131(1)
FURTHER READINGS
132(1)
CHAPTER 8 TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
133(25)
THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM
135(1)
PRECURSORS OF TEEN PREGNANCY: COMMON BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
136(4)
Adolescent Development
137(1)
Antecedent Characteristics
137(1)
Interpersonal Influences
138(1)
Media Influences
138(2)
CONSEQUENCES OF EARLY CHILDBEARING
140(2)
Socioeconomic Consequences
140(1)
Educational Consequences
140(1)
Health-Related Consequences
141(1)
Family Development
141(1)
AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
142(1)
Vulnerable and Underserved Youth
143(1)
PREVENTION AND TREATMENT STRATEGIES: GENERAL FRAMEWORK
143(3)
Family-Life Planning and Sex Education
144(1)
Access to Contraceptive Methods
145(1)
Increased Life Options
145(1)
PREVENTION AND TREATMENT STRATEGY: AN ADLERIAN MODEL
146(10)
Purposiveness of Behavior
147(1)
Goals of Misbehavior
147(4)
Corrective Procedures
151(3)
Natural and Logical Consequences
154(1)
Encouragement
155(1)
CONCLUSION
156(1)
FURTHER READINGS
157(1)
CHAPTER 9 DELINQUENCY AND PROBLEMS OF VIOLENCE
158(21)
THE SCOPE AND NATURE OF DELINQUENCY, ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR, AND VIOLENCE
160(2)
Family Violence
160(1)
School Problems
160(1)
Juvenile Crime
161(1)
Self-Inflicted Violence
161(1)
Gang Membership and Violence
161(1)
THE ORIGINS OF THE PROBLEM
162(5)
The Ecological Theory of Delinquency
162(2)
The Developmental Perspective on Delinquency
164(3)
ASSESSMENT OF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR: RISK FACTORS
167(3)
Risk Factors in the Family Environment
167(2)
Risk Factors in the School Environment
169(1)
Risk Factors in the Social Environment
169(1)
Risk Factors for Gang Involvement
170(1)
GENERAL INTERVENTION APPROACHES
170(2)
Family Intervention and Prevention
170(1)
School Intervention
171(1)
Community Intervention
172(1)
REALITY THERAPY
172(6)
Assumptions of Reality Therapy
173(1)
Theoretical Components of Reality Therapy
173(3)
The Seven Principles of Reality Therapy
176(2)
CONCLUSION
178(1)
FURTHER READINGS
178(1)
CHAPTER 10 YOUTH SUICIDE
179(22)
THE SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM
181(2)
Vulnerable and Underserved Youth
181(2)
CAUSES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUTH SUICIDE
183(5)
Interpersonal, Family, and Psychosocial Characteristics
183(2)
Intrapersonal and Psychological Characteristics
185(3)
IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES
188(2)
Interviews for Suicide Lethality
189(1)
Self-Report Inventories
189(1)
COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS OF SUICIDE
190(1)
WARNING SIGNS OF SUICIDE
191(2)
Behavioral Changes
191(1)
Verbal Messages
192(1)
Cognitive Preoccupations
192(1)
Depression
193(1)
PREVENTION
193(1)
EARLY INTERVENTION, CRISIS MANAGEMENT, AND POSTVENTION
194(5)
Crisis Management and Response
195(3)
Postvention and Follow-Up Treatment
198(1)
CONCLUSION
199(1)
FURTHER READINGS
199(2)
PART 3 PREVENTION, INTERVENTION, AND TREATMENT APPROACHES 201(113)
CHAPTER 11 A PREVENTION/EARLY INTERVENTION/TREATMENT FRAMEWORK AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
203(17)
A COMPREHENSIVE PREVENTION/EARLY INTERVENTION/TREATMENT FRAMEWORK
204(9)
Prevention, Treatment, and Risk
204(1)
History of Prevention Programs
205(1)
Description of the Framework
205(1)
The Risk Continuum
206(1)
The Approach Continuum
207(2)
The Prevention-Treatment Continuum
209(1)
Environmental Settings
209(4)
PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
213(2)
Cost
213(1)
Counselor/Psychologist/Teacher Interface
214(1)
ADDITIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
215(3)
Relationships
215(1)
Empowerment
216(1)
Social Activism
217(1)
CONCLUSION
218(1)
FURTHER READINGS
219(1)
CHAPTER 12 CORE COMPONENTS OF PROGRAMS FOR PREVENTION AND EARLY INTERVENTION
220(17)
LIFE SKILLS
221(3)
Overcoming Deficits in Life Skills
221(1)
Training in Life Skills
222(2)
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
224(2)
Training in Interpersonal Communication
224(1)
Assertiveness Skills
225(1)
STRATEGIES FOR COGNITIVE CHANGE
226(6)
Problem Solving and Decision Making
227(1)
Self-Management and Self-Control
228(2)
Cognitive Restructuring
230(2)
COPING WITH STRESS
232(3)
Beneficial Relaxation
232(1)
Progressive Relaxation
233(1)
Visual Imagery
234(1)
Affirmations
235(1)
CONCLUSION
235(1)
FURTHER READINGS
236(1)
CHAPTER 13 CHILD AND PEER INTERVENTIONS
237(20)
PREVENTION STRATEGY FOR CHILDREN: INTERPERSONAL COGNITIVE PROBLEM SOLVING (ICPS)
238(4)
Program Description
239(1)
Pre-Problem-Solving Skills
240(1)
Problem-Solving Skills
240(2)
PREVENTION STRATEGY FOR CHILDREN: TRAINING FOR OPTIMISM
242(4)
Optimism
243(1)
Basic Skills of Optimism
244(1)
Application for Dropouts and Problem Prevention
245(1)
PEER INTERVENTIONS: PEER AND CROSS-AGE TUTORING PROGRAMS
246(5)
Cost Effectiveness
246(1)
Readiness
246(1)
Preparation
247(1)
Sample Method: Pause, Prompt, and Praise
248(1)
Program Implementation
248(3)
PEER INTERVENTION: PEER MEDIATION
251(5)
Background
251(1)
Theoretical Assumptions
252(1)
Benefits to Students and to the School
252(1)
Training Staff Members
253(1)
Training Student Peer Mediators
253(1)
Implications
254(1)
The Ripple Effect
254(1)
Counseling Ramifications
255(1)
CONCLUSION
256(1)
FURTHER READINGS
256(1)
CHAPTER 14 FAMILY INTERVENTIONS
257(23)
FAMILY COUNSELING
259(9)
Referring the Family for Counseling
260(2)
The Nature of Family Counseling
262(1)
Approaches to Family Counseling
262(6)
ALTERNATIVES AND ADJUNCTS TO FAMILY COUNSELING
268(3)
Parent Education
268(2)
Parent Support Groups
270(1)
PARENT TRAINING
271(7)
Vulnerable and Underserved: Ethnic Minority Parent Training
272(2)
Parent Effectiveness Training
274(4)
CONCLUSION
278(1)
FURTHER READINGS
279(1)
CHAPTER 15 EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS
280(20)
EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS: COMMON FEATURES
281(1)
SCHOOLWIDE INTERVENTIONS
282(4)
Elementary-Level Interventions
282(1)
Students with Disabilities
283(1)
Middle-Level Interventions
283(2)
Secondary-Level Interventions
285(1)
INTERVENTIONS AT THE CLASSROOM LEVEL
286(7)
Direct Instruction
287(1)
Language Acquisition and Holistic Approaches
287(3)
Metacognitive Learning Strategies
290(1)
Interventions for Second-Language Learners
290(2)
Moral Discourse
292(1)
COOPERATIVE LEARNING AND PEER SUPPORT NETWORKS
293(5)
Positive Effects of Cooperative Learning Groups
294(1)
Peer Support Networks
295(3)
CONCLUSION
298(1)
FURTHER READINGS
299(1)
CHAPTER 16 LEGAL ISSUES
300(14)
THE LEGAL SYSTEM
301(5)
Criminal Law
301(1)
Civil Law
304(2)
SPECIFIC LEGAL CONCERNS
306(5)
Substance Use Problems
306(1)
Youth Sexuality
306(2)
Delinquency
308(1)
Youth Suicide
309(2)
LEGAL DO'S AND DON'TS IN WORK WITH AT-RISK YOUTH
311(1)
CONCLUSION
312(1)
FURTHER READINGS
313(1)
APPENDIX A CHILD AND YOUTH DEVELOPMENT RESOURCES 314(11)
APPENDIX B READING LIST FOR AT-RISK YOUTH 325(4)
REFERENCES 329(21)
NAME INDEX 350(6)
SUBJECT INDEX 356


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