9780813330051

Attitudes and Persuasion: Classic and Contemporary Approaches

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780813330051

  • ISBN10:

    081333005X

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1996-01-01
  • Publisher: Westview Pr
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Summary

This classic text surveys a number of different theoretical approaches to the related phenomena of attitude and belief change. These theories are grouped into seven major approaches, each presented and evaluated in a separate chapter. Each contributes in an important way to a complete understanding of the persuasion process. Appropriate for both upper level undergraduates and graduates in the social sciences.

Author Biography

Richard E. Petty and John T. Cacioppo are professors of psychology at Ohio State University. Richard E. Petty and John T. Cacioppo are professors of psychology at Ohio State University.

Table of Contents

Foreword xiii
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xvii
Introduction to Attitudes and Persuasion
3(36)
What is an Attitude?
6(1)
Why Do People Have Attitudes?
7(2)
How Are Attitudes Measured?
9(13)
Direct Procedures
9(7)
Indirect Procedures
16(6)
Direct versus Indirect Assessment of Attitudes
22(1)
Do Attitudes Predict Behaviors?
22(7)
What Kinds of Attitudes Predict Behaviors?
23(5)
What Other Variables Enhance Behavioral Prediction?
28(1)
How Is Attitude Change Studied Experimentally?
29(6)
Conceptual and Operational Levels of Research
30(1)
The Validity of the Attitude Change Experiment
31(3)
Evaluating a Theory
34(1)
The Approaches to Persuasion
35(1)
Retrospective
36(3)
Conditioning and Modeling Approaches
39(20)
Classical Conditioning
40(7)
Classical Conditioning of Attitudes
40(3)
Demand Characteristics and Contingency Awareness
43(4)
Operant Conditioning
47(4)
Operant Conditioning of Attitudes
47(2)
Two-factor Theory of Verbal Conditioning
49(2)
Observational Learning
51(3)
Vicarious Classical Conditioning
54(2)
Evaluation
56(1)
Retrospective
56(3)
The Message-learning Approach
59(36)
Skills Learning as a Model for Persuasion
59(1)
Determinants of Attitude Change in Persuasive Communications
60(33)
Source Factors
61(8)
Message Factors
69(11)
Recipient Factors
80(5)
Channel Factors
85(2)
The Persistence of Attitude Change
87(6)
Retrospective
93(2)
Judgmental Approaches
95(30)
Adaptation Level Approach
95(4)
The Social Judgment---Involvement Approach
99(11)
Communication Discrepancy
105(2)
Ego Involvement
107(2)
Evaluation of Social Judgment Theory
109(1)
The Variable Perspective Approach
110(12)
Indirect Influence
115(2)
Unresolved Issues in Perspective Theory
117(3)
Comparisons of Approaches: Perception versus Description
120(2)
Retrospective
122(3)
Motivational Approaches
125(38)
Cognitive Elements and Systems
125(1)
The Motive to Maintain Cognitive Consistency
126(1)
Balance Theory
127(6)
Terminology
127(1)
Determining Imbalance in a Cognitive System
128(1)
Consequences of Imbalance
128(1)
Empirical Research
129(4)
Congruity Theory
133(4)
The Domain of Congruity Theory
134(1)
Determining and Resolving Disequilibrium (Incongruity)
134(1)
The Mathematics of Congruity Theory
135(1)
Empirical Research
135(2)
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
137(15)
Effects of Cognitive Dissonance
138(1)
Effect of Disconfirming an Important Belief
139(1)
Dissonance and the Decision Process
140(2)
Insufficient Justification
142(3)
Necessary Conditions for Dissonance Arousal
145(3)
Temporal Characteristics of Dissonance Reduction
148(1)
The Nature of Cognitive Dissonance
148(4)
Impression Management Theory
152(3)
Psychological Reactance Theory
155(5)
What Does It Take to Arouse Reactance?
156(1)
Consequences of the Arousal of Reactance
157(3)
Retrospective
160(3)
Attributional Approaches
163(20)
Self-perception Theory
165(5)
The Foot-in-the-door Effect
167(2)
Overjustification Effects
169(1)
Effects of Internal Sensations on Self-perception and Attitudes: Dissonance versus Self-perception
170(4)
Effects of Ambiguous Internal Cues on Attitudes
174(3)
Emotional Plasticity
174(1)
Effects of Bogus Physiological Feedback
175(2)
Recipients' Attribution Regarding the Cause of a Communicator's Behavior
177(3)
Retrospective
180(3)
Combinatory Approaches
183(30)
Probabilogical Approaches to Belief Change
184(9)
The Theory of Reasoned Action
193(11)
Attitude
194(2)
Subjective Norm
196(1)
Behavioral Intention
197(1)
Behavior
198(2)
Summary of the Theory
200(1)
Changing Beliefs, Attitudes, Norms, Intentions, and Behaviors
200(4)
Information Integration Theory (Cognitive Algebra)
204(7)
Retrospective
211(2)
Self-persuasion Approaches
213(42)
The Role-playing Approach: Active Participation versus Passive Exposure
213(7)
The Persistence of Attitude Changes Produced by Role Playing
216(1)
Why Is Role Playing So Effective?
216(3)
Can Dissonance Theory Account for Role-playing Effects?
219(1)
Mere Thought as a Determinant of Attitude Polarization
220(5)
Empirical Research on Mere Thought
221(2)
Other Determinants of Mere Thought
223(2)
The Cognitive Response Approach to Persuasion
225(26)
Premessage Inductions That Produce Resistance to Persuasion
226(6)
Premessage Inductions That Affect the Motivation to Process a Message
232(6)
Effects of Message, Context, and Recipient Inductions
238(10)
The Postmessage Persistence of Persuasion
248(3)
Evaluation of Self-persuasion Approaches
251(1)
Retrospective
252(3)
Epilog: A General Framework for Understanding Attitude Change Processes
255(16)
Central versus Peripheral Routes to Attitude Change
255(7)
Anticipatory Attitude Changes
257(1)
The Relative Importance of Source and Message Factors in Persuasion
258(2)
The Relative Importance of Recipient and Message Factors in Persuasion
260(2)
The Elaboration Likelihood Model
262(6)
Motivation and Ability to Process the Message
263(2)
Motivation and Ability to Think about the Issue
265(1)
The Central Route: A Difficult Way to Change Attitudes
266(1)
The Peripheral Route: Attitude Change without Issue-relevant Thinking
267(1)
Retrospective
268(3)
References 271(30)
Author Index 301(8)
Subject Index 309

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