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Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control System,9780131104426
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Automotive Fuel and Emissions Control System

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780131104426

ISBN10:
013110442X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $99.00
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Summary

This up-to-date comprehensive book, written by two experts in the field, covers all topics in this subject and is correlated to the ASE and NATEF Tasks Lists for the Engine Performance test (A8) and advanced-level Engine Performance test (L1). Student-friendly, it includes numerous 'tech tips' and 'guru tips' that break up the text material. All new technical terms are bolded and defined at first use. Topics include: safety, hazardous materials, engine operation and condition diagnoses, gasoline and automotive fuels, turbo/supercharging, electrical and electronic fundamentals, computer principles and operations, fuel pumps, fuel injectors, ignition systems, temperature and oxygen sensors, EVAP systems, EGR systems, catalytic converters, and more. An invaluable reference work for the automotive service technician, this book is a must-have for those taking the ASE and NATEF certification exams.

Table of Contents

Service Information, Tools, and Safety
1(32)
Objectives
1(1)
Vehicle Identification
1(1)
Vehicle Safety Certification Label
2(1)
VECI Label
2(1)
Calibration Codes
2(1)
Casting Numbers
2(1)
Service Information
3(1)
Threaded Fasteners
4(1)
Metric Bolts
5(1)
Grades of Bolts
5(1)
Tensile Strength
5(3)
Nuts
8(1)
Washers
8(1)
Electrical Tools
8(1)
Basic Hand Tool List
9(6)
Tool Sets and Accessories
15(1)
Brand Name versus Proper Term
16(1)
Safety Tips for Using Hand Tools
16(1)
Air and Electrically Operated Tools
17(2)
Safety Tips for Technicians
19(3)
Safety in Lifting (Hoisting) a Vehicle
22(2)
Jacks and Safety Stands
24(1)
Drive-On Ramps
25(1)
Electrical Cord Safety
25(1)
Jump Starting and Battery Safety
25(1)
Fire Extinguishers
26(1)
Fire Blankets
27(1)
First Aid and Eye Wash Stations
27(6)
Summary
32(1)
Review Questions
32(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
32(1)
Environmental and Hazardous Materials
33(12)
Objectives
33(1)
Occupational Safety and Health Act
33(1)
Hazardous Waste
33(1)
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)
34(1)
Clean Air Act
35(1)
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
35(1)
The Dangers of Exposure to Asbestos
35(1)
Asbestos OSHA Standards
36(1)
Asbestos EPA Regulations
36(1)
Asbestos Handling Guidelines
36(1)
Used Brake Fluid
37(1)
Used Oil
37(1)
Disposal of Used Oil
37(1)
Used Oil Storage
38(1)
Solvents
38(1)
Solvent Hazardous and Regulatory Status
39(1)
Used Solvents
40(1)
Coolant Disposal
40(1)
Lead-Acid Battery Waste
40(1)
Battery Hazardous and Regulatory Status
41(1)
Battery Handling and Storage
41(1)
Fuel Safety and Storage
41(1)
Airbag Handling
42(1)
Used Tire Disposal
42(1)
Air-Conditioning Refrigerant Oil Disposal
42(3)
Summary
43(1)
Review Questions
43(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
43(2)
Gasoline Engine Operation
45(15)
Objectives
45(1)
Energy and Power
45(1)
4-Stroke Cycle Operation
45(2)
The 720° Cycle
47(1)
Engine Classification
47(3)
Engine Rotation Direction
50(1)
Bore
50(1)
Stroke
50(2)
Engine Displacement
52(2)
Compression Ratio
54(1)
The Crankshaft Determines the Stroke
54(1)
Torque
55(1)
Work
56(1)
Power
56(1)
Horsepower
56(1)
Horsepower and Altitude
57(3)
Summary
58(1)
Review Questions
58(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
58(2)
Diesel Engine Operation
60(16)
Objectives
60(1)
Diesel Engines
60(2)
Three Phases of Combustion
62(1)
Diesel Engine Construction
62(1)
Fuel Tank and Lift Pump
63(1)
Injection Pump
64(1)
Diesel Injector Nozzles
65(1)
Diesel Injector Nozzle Operation
66(1)
Glow Plugs
66(2)
Engine-Driven Vacuum Pump
68(1)
Diesel Engine Advantages
68(1)
Diesel Engine Disadvantages
68(1)
Diesel Fuel
68(1)
Diesel Fuel Specific Gravity Testing
69(1)
Diesel Fuel Heaters
70(1)
Heated Intake Air
71(1)
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor
71(1)
Diesel Exhaust Smoke Diagnosis
71(1)
Scan Tool Diagnosis
72(1)
Compression Testing
72(1)
Glow Plug Resistance Balance Test
72(1)
Injector Pop Testing
73(1)
Diesel Emission Testing
73(3)
Summary
74(1)
Review Questions
75(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
75(1)
Gasoline and Alternative Fuels
76(23)
Objectives
76(1)
Gasoline
76(1)
Volatility
77(1)
Distillation Curve
77(1)
Normal and Abnormal Combustion
78(2)
Octane Rating
80(1)
Gasoline Grades and Octane Number
80(1)
Seasonally Blended Gasoline
81(1)
Octane Improvers
81(3)
Oxygenated Fuels
84(1)
Alcohol Additives---Advantages and Disadvantages
85(1)
Testing Gasoline for Alcohol Content
86(1)
Combustion Chemistry
86(1)
Air-Fuel Ratios
87(1)
High-Altitude Octane Requirements
88(1)
Valve Recession and Unleaded Fuel
88(1)
Reformulated Gasoline
88(1)
General Gasoline Recommendations
89(1)
Alternative Fuels
90(3)
Hybrid Electric Vehicles
93(1)
Fuel Cells
94(5)
Summary
97(1)
Review Questions
97(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
98(1)
Intake and Exhaust Systems
99(14)
Objectives
99(1)
Air Intake Filtration
99(1)
The Air Cleaner
100(1)
Engine Air Temperature Requirements
101(1)
Throttle-Body Injection Intake Manifolds
102(1)
Manifold Heat
103(1)
Port Fuel-Injection Intake Manifolds
104(1)
Plastic Intake Manifolds
105(1)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Passages
105(1)
Upper and Lower Intake Manifolds
106(1)
Exhaust Manifold Design
107(1)
Exhaust Manifold Gaskets
108(1)
Heat Risers
109(1)
Mufflers
109(4)
Summary
111(1)
Review Questions
111(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
112(1)
Turbocharging and Supercharging
113(11)
Objectives
113(1)
Airflow Requirements
113(2)
Supercharging Principles
115(1)
Superchargers
116(1)
Turbochargers
117(3)
Boost Control
120(2)
Turbocharger Failures
122(2)
Summary
122(1)
Review Questions
122(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
123(1)
Engine Condition Diagnosis
124(27)
Objectives
124(1)
Typical Engine-Related Complaints
124(1)
Engine Smoke Diagnosis
125(1)
The Driver Is Your Best Resource
126(1)
Visual Checks
126(2)
Engine Noise Diagnosis
128(2)
Oil Pressure Testing
130(1)
Oil Pressure Warning Lamp
131(1)
Compression Test
132(1)
Wet Compression Test
133(1)
Running Compression Test
133(1)
Cylinder Leakage Test
134(1)
Cylinder Power Balance Test
135(1)
Power Balance Test Procedure
135(1)
Vacuum Testing
135(4)
Exhaust Restriction Test
139(1)
Testing Back Pressure with a Vacuum Gauge
139(1)
Testing Back Pressure with a Pressure Gauge
139(1)
Timing Chain Slack Diagnosis
140(1)
Diagnosing Head Gasket Failure
141(1)
Dash Warning Lights
141(10)
Summary
149(1)
Review Questions
149(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
149(2)
Electrical and Electronic Fundamentals
151(24)
Objectives
151(1)
Electricity
151(5)
Circuits
156(1)
Circuit Failures
157(2)
Ohm's Law
159(2)
Voltage Drops as a Testing Method
161(1)
Capacitors or Condensers
161(1)
Magnetism
162(3)
Transistors
165(1)
Fuses and Circuit Protection Devices
166(1)
Terminals and Connectors
167(1)
Wiring Diagrams
168(1)
Switches
169(1)
Relay Terminal Identification
169(3)
Electrical Troubleshooting Guide
172(3)
Summary
173(1)
Review Questions
173(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
173(2)
Digital Meter and Scope Usage
175(33)
Objectives
175(1)
Test Lights
175(1)
Self-Powered Test Lights
176(1)
LED Test Light
176(1)
Logic Probe
176(1)
Digital Multimeters
177(1)
Measuring Amperes
177(3)
AC/DC Clamp-On Digital Multimeter
180(1)
Measuring Voltage
181(1)
Measuring Resistance
182(2)
Electrical Unit Prefixes
184(1)
How to Read Digital Meters
185(2)
RMS versus Average
187(1)
Resolution, Digits, and Counts
187(1)
Accuracy
188(1)
Analog versus Digital Storage Oscilloscope
189(1)
Oscilloscope Display Grid
189(1)
Setting the Time Base
189(2)
Setting the Volts Per Division
191(1)
DC Coupling
191(1)
AC Coupling
191(1)
Pulse Trains
192(1)
Using Scope Leads
192(3)
Measuring Battery Voltage with a Scope
195(13)
Summary
206(1)
Review Questions
207(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
207(1)
Computer Fundamentals
208(13)
Objectives
208(1)
Computer Control
208(1)
The Four Basic Computer Functions
208(4)
Digital Computers
212(2)
Computer Input Sensors
214(1)
Computer Outputs
215(1)
Module Communication
215(1)
SAE Communication Classifications
216(1)
Module Communication Diagnosis
216(2)
OBD-II Data Link Connector
218(3)
Summary
219(1)
Review Questions
219(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
219(2)
Temperature Sensors
221(13)
Objectives
221(1)
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensors
221(1)
Stepped ECT Circuits
222(1)
Testing the Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
223(5)
Intake Air Temperature Sensor
228(1)
Testing the Intake Air Temperature Sensor
229(1)
Transmission Fluid Temperature Sensor
230(1)
Temperature Sensor Diagnostic Trouble Codes
231(3)
Summary
232(1)
Review Questions
232(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
232(2)
Throttle Position (TP) Sensors
234(11)
Objectives
234(1)
Throttle Position Sensors
234(1)
TP Sensor Computer Input Functions
235(1)
PCM Uses for the TP Sensor
235(1)
Testing the Throttle Position Sensor
236(1)
Testing a TP Sensor Using the Min/Max Function
237(1)
Testing the TP Sensor Using a Scan Tool
238(1)
TP Sensor Diagnostic Trouble Codes
239(6)
Summary
243(1)
Review Questions
243(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
243(2)
Map/Baro Sensors
245(10)
Objectives
245(1)
Air Pressure---High and Low
245(1)
Principles of Pressure Sensors
245(2)
Construction of Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensors
247(2)
Ceramic Disc MAP Sensor
249(1)
PCM Uses of the MAP Sensor
250(1)
Barometric Pressure Sensor
251(1)
Testing the MAP Sensor
252(1)
Testing the MAP Sensor Using a Scan Tool
252(1)
Fuel-Rail Pressure Sensor
253(1)
MAP/BARO Diagnostic Trouble Codes
253(2)
Summary
253(1)
Review Questions
254(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
254(1)
Mass Air Flow Sensors
255(9)
Objectives
255(1)
Air Flow Sensors
255(1)
Analog and Digital MAF Sensors
256(1)
Mass Air Flow Sensor Types
256(1)
Karman Vortex Sensors
257(1)
PCM Uses for Air Flow Sensors
258(1)
Testing Mass Air Flow Sensors
259(5)
Summary
262(1)
Review Questions
263(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
263(1)
Oxygen Sensors
264(26)
Objectives
264(1)
Oxygen Sensors
264(2)
Zirconia Oxygen Sensors
266(1)
Titania Oxygen Sensor
267(1)
Wide-Band Oxygen Sensors
267(1)
Closed Loop and Open Loop
268(1)
PCM Uses of the Oxygen Sensor
268(2)
Testing an Oxygen Sensor Using a Digital Voltmeter
270(1)
Testing the Oxygen Sensor Using the Min/Max Method
271(1)
Testing an Oxygen Sensor Using a Scan Tool
271(2)
Testing an Oxygen Sensor Using a Scope
273(4)
Oxygen Sensor Waveform Analysis
277(1)
Hash
278(1)
Classifications of Hash
278(2)
Hash Interpretation
280(1)
Negative O2S Voltage
281(1)
False O2S Readings
281(1)
Post-Catalytic Converter Oxygen Sensor Testing
282(1)
Oxygen Sensor Inspection
282(2)
Oxygen Sensor-Related Diagnostic Trouble Codes
284(6)
Summary
288(1)
Review Questions
288(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
288(2)
Crankshaft and Camshaft Position Sensors
290(11)
Objectives
290(1)
Crankshaft and Camshaft Position Sensors
290(2)
Magnetic Position Sensor
292(3)
Hall-Effect Digital Sensors
295(1)
Magnetic-Resistive Sensors
296(1)
Optical Sensors
297(1)
PCM uses of the Crankshaft and Camshaft Position Sensor
297(4)
Summary
299(1)
Review Questions
299(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
300(1)
Fuel Pumps, Lines, and Filters
301(30)
Objectives
301(1)
Fuel Delivery System
301(1)
Fuel Tanks
301(3)
Fuel Lines
304(4)
Electric Fuel Pumps
308(5)
Fuel Filters
313(2)
Fuel Pump Testing
315(6)
Fuel-Pump Current Draw Test
321(2)
Fuel-Pump Current Ramping
323(3)
Fuel-Pump Replacement
326(1)
Fuel Supply-Related Diagnostic Chart
327(4)
Summary
329(1)
Review Questions
329(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
329(2)
Evaporative Emission Control Systems
331(14)
Objectives
331(1)
Need for Evaporative Emission Control
331(1)
Vapor Canister Storage
332(1)
Vapor Purging
333(1)
Evaporative System Pressure
333(1)
Nonenhanced Evaporative Control Systems
333(1)
Enhanced Evaporative Control System
333(3)
Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery
336(1)
State Inspection EVAP Tests
336(1)
Diagnosing the EVAP System
337(1)
Locating Leaks in the System
337(1)
Evaporative System Monitor
338(2)
General Motors Enhanced EVAP
340(1)
Ford Enhanced EVAP
341(1)
DaimlerChrysler Leak Detection Pump System
342(1)
EVAP System-Related Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)
343(2)
Summary
343(1)
Review Questions
343(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
344(1)
Fuel-Injection Components and Operation
345(17)
Objectives
345(1)
Electronic Fuel-Injection Operation
345(1)
Speed Density Fuel-Injection Systems
346(2)
Mass Air Flow Fuel-Injection Systems
348(1)
Throttle-Body Injection
348(2)
Port Fuel Injection
350(2)
Gasoline Direct Injection
352(1)
Fuel-Pressure Regulator
352(2)
Vacuum-Biased Fuel-Pressure Regulator
354(1)
Electronic Returnless Fuel System
354(1)
Mechanical Returnless Fuel System
354(1)
Demand Delivery System (DDS)
355(1)
Fuel Injectors
355(2)
Central Port Injection
357(1)
Fuel-Injection Modes of Operation
357(1)
Idle Control
358(1)
Stepper Motor Operation
359(3)
Summary
360(1)
Review Questions
361(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
361(1)
Fuel-Injection System Diagnosis and Service
362(32)
Objectives
362(1)
Port Fuel-Injection Pressure Regulator Diagnosis
362(2)
Diagnosing Electronic Fuel-Injection Problems Using Visual Inspection
364(1)
Scan Tool Vacuum Leak Diagnosis
365(1)
Port Fuel-Injection System Diagnosis
365(2)
Testing for an Injector Pulse
367(1)
Checking Fuel-Injector Resistance
368(1)
Measuring Resistance of Grouped Injectors
368(3)
Pressure-Drop Balance Test
371(1)
Injector Voltage Drop Test
371(1)
Exhaust Gas Balance Test
372(1)
Scope Testing Fuel Injectors
372(1)
Injector Current Ramping
373(4)
Idle Air Speed Control Diagnosis
377(2)
Fuel-Injection Service
379(4)
Fuel-System Scan Tool Diagnostics
383(11)
Summary
392(1)
Review Questions
392(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
392(2)
Ignition System Components and Operation
394(22)
Objectives
394(1)
Ignition System Operation
394(1)
Ignition Coils
394(3)
Primary Circuit Operation
397(5)
Distributor Ignition
402(4)
Waste-Spark Ignition Systems
406(1)
Ignition Control Circuits
407(2)
Compression Sensing Ignition
409(1)
Coil-on-Plug Ignition
410(1)
Ion-Sensing Ignition
411(1)
Ignition Timing
412(1)
Initial Timing
412(1)
Knock Sensors
412(1)
Spark Plugs
413(3)
Summary
414(1)
Review Questions
415(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
415(1)
Ignition System Diagnosis and Service
416(37)
Objectives
416(1)
Checking for Spark
416(1)
Ignition Troubleshooting Procedure
417(1)
Ignition Coil Testing Using an Ohmmeter
418(1)
Pickup Coil Testing
418(1)
Current Ramping Ignition Coils
419(3)
Testing Magnetic Sensors
422(1)
Testing Hall-Effect Sensors
422(1)
Testing Optical Sensors
423(2)
Distributor Indexing
425(1)
Ignition System Diagnosis Using Visual Inspection
425(1)
Testing for Poor Performance
426(1)
Testing for a No-Start Condition
427(1)
Ignition System Service
428(1)
Firing Order
428(1)
Distributor Cap and Rotor Inspection
428(1)
Spark Plug Wire Inspection
428(3)
Spark Plug Service
431(3)
Quick and Easy Secondary Ignition Tests
434(1)
Ignition Timing
435(4)
Scope-Testing the Ignition System
439(8)
Scope-Testing a Waste-Spark Ignition System
447(1)
Ignition System Troubleshooting Guide
448(5)
Summary
451(1)
Review Questions
451(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
451(2)
OBD II
453(14)
Objectives
453(1)
On-Board Diagnostics Generation-II (OBD-II) Systems
453(1)
Diagnostic Executive and Task Manager
454(1)
Monitors
454(1)
Diagnostic Trouble Code Priority
455(1)
OBD-II Monitor Information Summary
456(1)
Enabling Criteria
456(1)
OBD-II Drive Cycle
457(1)
OBD-II DTC Numbering Designation
458(2)
Freeze Frame and Failure Records
460(1)
MIL On/Off and Drive Cycles
461(1)
The Need for Fuel Trim
461(1)
Short-Term Fuel Trim
461(1)
Long-Term Fuel Trim
462(1)
Using Fuel Trim as a Diagnostic Aid
463(1)
Fuel Trim Cells
464(1)
Fuel Trim Cell Diagnosis
464(1)
Fuel Trim and Misfire Codes
464(1)
Generic OBD II
464(1)
Diagnosing Problems Using Mode Six
465(2)
Summary
465(1)
Review Questions
465(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
466(1)
Exhaust Emission Testing
467(19)
Objectives
467(1)
Exhaust Analysis Testing
467(3)
Exhaust Analysis and Combustion Efficiency
470(2)
HC Too High
472(1)
CO Too High
472(1)
Measuring Oxygen (O2) and Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
472(2)
Photochemical Smog Formation
474(1)
Testing for Oxides of Nitrogen
475(1)
Correcting High HC Emissions
475(1)
Correcting High CO Emissions
475(1)
Correcting High HC and CO Emissions
476(1)
Correcting High NOx Emissions
476(4)
Exhaust Gas Summary Chart
480(6)
Summary
484(1)
Review Questions
484(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
484(2)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Systems
486(11)
Objectives
486(1)
NOx Formation
486(1)
Controlling NOx
486(1)
EGR System Operation
487(1)
Positive and Negative Back Pressure EGR Valves
487(1)
Computer-Controlled EGR
488(1)
EGR Valve Position Sensors
489(1)
OBD-II EGR Monitoring Strategies
490(2)
Diagnosing a Defective EGR System
492(2)
EGR-Related OBD-II Diagnostic Trouble Codes
494(3)
Summary
495(1)
Review Questions
495(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
495(2)
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) and Air-Injection Reaction (Air) Systems
497(12)
Objectives
497(1)
Crankcase Ventilation
497(1)
PCV Valves
498(1)
Orifice-Controlled Systems
499(1)
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) System Diagnosis
500(2)
PCV Monitor
502(1)
PCV-Related Diagnostic Trouble Code
502(1)
Air-Pump System
502(1)
Air Distribution Manifolds and Nozzles
503(3)
Air-Pump System Diagnosis
506(1)
Air-Related Diagnostic Trouble Code
506(3)
Summary
507(1)
Review Questions
507(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
507(2)
Catalytic Converters
509(9)
Objectives
509(1)
Ceramic Monolith Catalytic Converter
509(2)
Catalytic Converter Warm-Up Test
511(1)
OBD-II Catalytic Converter Performance
511(1)
Converter Damaging Conditions
512(1)
Diagnosing Catalytic Converters
513(1)
OBD-II Catalytic Converter Monitor
514(2)
Catalytic Converter Replacement Guidelines
516(1)
Catalytic Converter Related Diagnostic Trouble Code
516(2)
Summary
516(1)
Review Questions
517(1)
ASE Certification-Type Questions
517(1)
Answers to Even-Numbered Ase Certification-Type Questions 518(1)
Appendix I Sample ASE Certification Test 519(9)
Appendix II Natef Correlation Chart 528(4)
Appendix III ASE Certification Test Correlation Chart 532(4)
English Glossary 536(8)
Spanish Glossary 544(8)
Index 552


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