9780470082126

Autonomous Software-Defined Radio Receivers for Deep Space Applications

by ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780470082126

  • ISBN10:

    0470082127

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-10-13
  • Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

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Summary

This book introduces the reader to the concept of an autonomous software-defined radio (SDR) receiver. Each distinct aspect of the design of the receiver is treated in a separate chapter written by one or more leading innovators in the field. Chapters begin with a problem statement and then offer a full mathematical derivation of an appropriate solution, a decision metric or loop-structure as appropriate, and performance results.

Author Biography

JON HAMKINS, PhD, is the Technical Supervisor of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Information Processing Group. Dr. Hamkins, a Senior Member of the IEEE, has been awarded several NASA Tech Briefs for his innovations in signal processing, coding theory, and optical communications.

MARVIN K. SIMON, PhD, is a Senior Research Engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. His research in modulation, coding, and synchronization has been instrumental in the design of many of NASA's deep space and near earth missions, for which he has been awarded dozens of patents and awards. This is Dr. Simon's twelfth book.

Table of Contents

Foreword xiii
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xvii
Contributors xix
Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview 1(18)
by Jon Hamkins and Marvin K. Simon
1.1 Preliminaries
3(5)
1.1.1 Signal Model
3(2)
1.1.2 Anatomy of the Received Signal
5(3)
1.2 Radio Receiver Architectures
8(4)
1.2.1 A Conventional Radio Receiver
8(2)
1.2.2 Electra
10(1)
1.2.3 An Autonomous Radio
10(2)
1.3 Estimators and Classifiers of the Autonomous Radio
12(2)
1.3.1 Carrier Phase Tracking
12(1)
1.3.2 Modulation Classification
13(1)
1.3.3 Signal-to-Noise Ratio Estimation
13(1)
1.3.4 Frequency Tracking
14(1)
1.4 An Iterative Message-Passing Architecture
14(2)
1.4.1 Messages from the Symbol-Timing Estimator
15(1)
1.4.2 Messages from the Phase Tracker
15(1)
1.4.3 Messages from the Modulation Classification
15(1)
1.4.4 Messages from the Decoder
15(1)
1.5 A Demonstration Testbed
16(1)
References
16(3)
Chapter 2: The Electra Radio 19(26)
by Edgar Satorius, Tom Jedrey, David Bell, Ann Devereaux, Todd Ely, Edwin Grigorian, Igor Kuperman, and Alan Lee
2.1 Electra Receiver Front-End Processing
20(5)
2.1.1 AGC
22(2)
2.1.2 ADC
24(1)
2.1.3 Digital Downconversion and Decimation
25(1)
2.2 Electra Demodulation
25(14)
2.2.1 Frequency-Acquisition and Carrier-Tracking Loop
27(3)
2.2.2 Navigation: Doppler Phase Measurement
30(1)
2.2.3 Symbol-Timing Recovery
30(3)
2.2.4 Viterbi Node Sync and Symbol SNR Estimation
33(6)
2.3 Electra Digital Modulator
39(3)
References
42(3)
Chapter 3: Modulation Index Estimation 45(18)
by Marvin K. Simon and Jon Hamkins
3.1 Coherent Estimation
46(8)
3.1.1 BPSK
46(4)
3.1.2 M-PSK
50(4)
3.2 Noncoherent Estimation
54(2)
3.3 Estimation in the Absence of Knowledge of the Modulation, Data Rate, Symbol Timing, and SNR
56(5)
3.4 Noncoherent Estimation in the Absence of Carrier Frequency Knowledge
61(2)
Chapter 4: Frequency Correction 63(22)
by Dariush Divsalar
4.1 Frequency Correction for Residual Carrier
63(9)
4.1.1 Channel Model
64(1)
4.1.2 Optimum Frequency Estimation over an AWGN Channel
64(1)
4.1.3 Optimum Frequency Estimation over a Raleigh Fading Channel
65(1)
4.1.4 Open-Loop Frequency Estimation.
66(1)
4.1.5 Closed-Loop Frequency Estimation
67(5)
4.2 Frequency Correction for Known Data-Modulated Signals
72(6)
4.2.1 Channel Model
72(2)
4.2.2 Open-Loop Frequency Estimation
74(1)
4.2.3 Closed-Loop Frequency Estimation
74(4)
4.3 Frequency Correction for Modulated Signals with Unknown Data
78(5)
4.3.1 Open-Loop Frequency Estimation
79(1)
4.3.2 Closed-Loop Frequency Estimation
80(3)
References
83(2)
Chapter 5: Data Format and Pulse Shape Classification 85(36)
by Marvin K. Simon and Dariush Divsalar
5.1 Coherent Classifiers of Data Format for BPSK
86(8)
5.1.1 Maximum-Likelihood Coherent Classifier of Data Format for BPSK
86(2)
5.1.2 Reduced-Complexity Data Format BPSK Classifiers
88(1)
5.1.3 Probability of Misclassification for Coherent BPSK
89(5)
5.2 Coherent Classifiers of Data Format for QPSK
94(4)
5.2.1 Maximum-Likelihood Coherent Classifier of Data Format for QPSK
94(2)
5.2.2 Reduced-Complexity Data Format QPSK Classifiers
96(1)
5.2.3 Probability of Misclassification for Coherent QPSK
97(1)
5.3 Noncoherent Classification of Data Format for BPSK
98(10)
5.3.1 Maximum-Likelihood Noncoherent Classifier of Data Format for BPSK
98(7)
5.3.2 Probability of Misclassification for Noncoherent BPSK
105(3)
5.4 Maximum-Likelihood Noncoherent Classifier of Data Format for QPSK
108(1)
5.5 Maximum-Likelihood Coherent Classifier of Data Format for BPSK with Residual and Suppressed Carriers
109(4)
5.6 Maximum-Likelihood Noncoherent Classifier of Data Format for BPSK with Residual and Suppressed Carriers
113(4)
5.7 Maximum-Likelihood Pulse Shape Classification
117(2)
References
119(2)
Chapter 6: Signal-to-Noise Ratio Estimation 121(72)
by Marvin K. Simon and Samuel Dolinar
6.1 Signal Model and Formation of the Estimator
123(6)
6.1.1 Sampled Version
123(3)
6.1.2 I&D Version
126(3)
6.2 Methods of Phase Compensation
129(2)
6.3 Evaluation of h±
131(1)
6.4 Mean and Variance of the SNR Estimator
132(13)
6.4.1 Exact Moment Evaluations
132(4)
6.4.2 Asymptotic Moment Evaluations
136(9)
6.5 SNR Estimation in the Presence of Symbol Timing Error
145(5)
6.5.1 Signal Model and Formation of the Estimator
146(3)
6.5.2 Mean and Variance of the SNR Estimator
149(1)
6.6 A Generalization of the SSME Offering Improved Performance
150(6)
6.7 A Method for Improving the Robustness of the Generalized SSME
156(2)
6.8 Special Case of the SSME for BPSK-Modulated Data
158(3)
6.9 Comparison with the Cramer–Rao Lower Bound on the Variance of SNR Estimators
161(4)
6.10 Improvement in the Presence of Frequency Uncertainty
165(6)
6.11 The Impact of the Ov3rsampling Factor on the Performance of the Modified SSME in the Presence of Symbol Timing Error
171(4)
6.12 Other Modulations
175(5)
6.12.1 Offset QPSK
175(4)
6.12.2 QAM
179(1)
6.13 The Time-Multiplexed SSME
180(8)
6.13.1 An Adaptive SSME
184(4)
References
188(2)
Appendix 6-A Derivation of Asymptotic Mean and Variance of SSME
190(3)
Chapter 7: Data Rate Estimation 193(34)
by Andre Tkacenko and Marvin K. Simon
7.1 Data Rate Estimation Based on the Mean of the SSME SNR Estimator
194(7)
7.1.1 Signal Model and Assumptions
194(2)
7.1.2 Relation of the SSME SNR Estimator to Data Rate Estimation
196(4)
7.1.3 SSME Data Rate Estimation Algorithm
200(1)
7.1.4 GLRT-Type SSME Data Rate Estimation Algorithm
201(1)
7.2 Effects of Symbol-Timing Error on Estimating the Data Rate
201(3)
7.2.1 Accounting for the Symbol-Timing Error
202(2)
7.3 Quantization of the Symbol-Timing Error
204(5)
7.3.1 All-Digital Implementation of the SSME-Based Data Rate Estimator
205(3)
7.3.2 SSME Data Rate/SNR/Symbol-Timing Error Estimation Algorithm
208(1)
7.3.3 GLRT-Type SSME Data Rate/SNR/Symbol-Timing Error Estimation Algorithm
209(1)
7.4 Simulation Results for the SSME-Based Estimation Algorithms
209(17)
7.4.1 Performance Metrics Used for Evaluating the Estimation Algorithms
210(3)
7.4.2 Behavior of the SSME-Based Data Rate Estimation Algorithms as a Function of SNR
213(7)
7.4.3 Behavior of the SSME-Based Data Rate Estimation Algorithms as a Function of Symbol-Timing Error
220(6)
References
226(1)
Chapter 8: Carrier Synchronization 227(44)
by Marvin K. Simon and Jon Hamkins
8.1 Suppressed versus Residual Carrier Synchronization
229(1)
8.2 Hybrid Carrier Synchronization
230(3)
8.3 Active versus Passive Arm Filters
233(14)
8.4 Carrier Synchronization of Arbitrary Modulations
247(17)
8.4.1 MPSK
247(12)
8.4.2 QAM and Unbalanced QPSK
259(5)
8.4.3 π/4 Differentially Encoded QPSK
264(1)
References
264(2)
Appendix 8-A Cramer–Rao Bound on the Variance of the Error in Estimating the Carrier Phase of a BPSK Signal
266(5)
Chapter 9: Modulation Classification 271(50)
by Jon Hamkins and Marvin K. Simon
9.1 Preliminaries
272(2)
9.1.1 Signal Model
272(1)
9.1.2 Conditional-Likelihood Function
273(1)
9.2 Modulation Classifiers
274(4)
9.2.1 ML Classifiers
274(2)
9.2.2 Suboptimum Classifiers
276(2)
9.3 Threshold Optimization
278(3)
9.3.1 Suboptimality of Previously Derived Thresholds
278(1)
9.3.2 Empirical Threshold Optimization
279(2)
9.4 Complexity
281(2)
9.4.1 ML Classifier
281(1)
9.4.2 Coarse Integral Approximate ML Classifier
282(1)
9.4.3 qGLRT Classifier
282(1)
9.4.4 qLLR and nqLLR
282(1)
9.5 Classification Error Floor
283(1)
9.6 Numerical Results
284(5)
9.7 Unknown Symbol Timing
289(3)
9.8 BPSK/π/4-QPSK Classification
292(3)
9.8.1 ML Noncoherent Classifier Averaging over Data, then Carrier Phase
292(1)
9.8.2 ML Noncoherent Classifier Averaging over Carrier Phase, then Data
293(1)
9.8.3 Suboptimum Classifiers
294(1)
9.9 Noncoherent Classification of Offset Quadrature Modulations
295(13)
9.9.1 Channel Model and Conditional-Likelihood Function
296(3)
9.9.2 Classification of OQPSK versus BPSK
299(2)
9.9.3 Suboptimum (Simpler to Implement) Classifiers
301(5)
9.9.4 Classification of MSK versus QPSK
306(2)
9.10 Modulation Classification in the Presence of Residual Carrier Frequency Offset
308(1)
References
309(2)
Appendix 9-A Parameter Estimation for the GLRT
311(4)
Appendix 9-B ML Estimation of Carrier Phase for n/4-QPSK Modulation
315(6)
Chapter 10: Symbol Synchronization 321(70)
by Marvin K. Simon
10.1 MAP-Motivated Closed-Loop Symbol Synchronization
323(2)
10.2 The DTTL as an Implementation of the MAP Estimation Loop for Binary NRZ Signals at High SNR
325(3)
10.3 Conventional versus Linear Data Transition Tracking Loop
328(10)
10.3.1 The Loop S-Curve
331(2)
10.3.2 Noise Performance
333(2)
10.3.3 Mean-Squared Timing-Error Performance
335(3)
10.4 Simplified MAP-Motivated Closed-Loop Symbol Synchronizers for M-PSK
338(1)
10.5 MAP Sliding-Window Estimation of Symbol Timing
339(8)
10.5.1 A Brief Discussion of Performance and Its Bounds for Open- and Closed-Loop Symbol-Timing Techniques
341(2)
10.5.2 Formulation of the Sliding-Window Estimator
343(3)
10.5.3 Extension to Other Pulse Shapes
346(1)
10.6 Symbol Synchronization in the Absence of Carrier Phase Information
347(30)
10.6.1 Suboptimum Schemes
347(12)
10.6.2 The Noncoherent DTTL
359(18)
10.7 The Impact of Carrier Frequency Offset on Performance
377(9)
10.7.1 S-Curve Performance
381(3)
10.7.2 Noise Performance
384(1)
10.7.3 Mean-Squared Timing-Error Performance
384(1)
10.7.4 A Final Note
385(1)
10.8 Coarse Estimation of Symbol Timing for Use in SNR Estimation
386(3)
References
389(2)
Chapter 11: Implementation and Interaction of Estimators and Classifiers 391(20)
by Jon Hamkins and Hooman Shirani-Mehr
11.1 Signal Model
392(1)
11.2 Interaction of Estimator and Classifiers
393(2)
11.3 Coarse and Fine Estimators/Classifiers
395(13)
11.3.1 Modulation Index Estimation
395(2)
11.3.2 Frequency Correction
397(1)
11.3.3 Joint Estimation of Data Rate, Data Format, SNR, and Coarse Symbol Timing
398(2)
11.3.4 Modulation Classification
400(3)
11.3.5 Carrier Synchronization
403(3)
11.3.6 Symbol Synchronization
406(2)
Reference
408(3)
Acronyms and Abbreviations 411(6)
Index 417

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