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Awakening : An Introduction to the History of Eastern Thought,9780130989086
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Awakening : An Introduction to the History of Eastern Thought

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780130989086

ISBN10:
0130989088
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

For introductory courses in Asian Philosophy and Asian Religions, and a supplement for courses in World Religions, Comparative Religions, Comparative Philosophy, and Asian History. This text provides the historical development of the major Eastern traditions of religious and philosophical thought. The text is chronological and is filled with anecdotes, analogies, definitions, comparisons, and supporting quotes from primary and secondary sources.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
PART I HINDUISM 1(122)
India Before the Vedas
2(14)
The Land of India
2(2)
Dravidian India
4(2)
The Theory of the Aryan Conquest
6(5)
Varna: The Caste System
11(1)
The Brahmin Caste
12(2)
Notes
14(1)
Study Questions
15(1)
The Vedas
16(16)
Veda and the Vedas
16(2)
The Vedic Fire Sacrifice
18(3)
The Vedic Pantheon
21(6)
An Overview of Vedic Cosmology
27(3)
Notes
30(1)
Study Questions
30(2)
The Upanishads
32(24)
Introduction to the Upanishads
32(4)
Key Elements of the Upanishads
36(16)
An Overview of Vedanta Cosmology
52(3)
Notes
55(1)
Study Questions
55(1)
The Bhagavad Gita
56(20)
The Bhagavad Gita and the Mahabharata
57(4)
Development of the Bhagavad Gita
61(13)
Notes
74(1)
Study Questions
74(2)
An India Overview
76(47)
The Orthodox Darshanas
77(9)
The Heterodox Darshanas
86(8)
The Devotional Movement
94(11)
The Muslim Era
105(9)
The Modern Era
114(7)
Notes
121(1)
Study Questions
121(2)
PART II NON-BUDDHIST SYSTEMS OF CHINA AND JAPAN 123(68)
Confucius and Cofucianism
124(28)
Confucius
127(10)
Mencius
137(3)
Other Voices from the Period of a Hundred Philosophers
140(5)
Later Developments in the Evolution of Confucianism
145(6)
Notes
151(1)
Study Questions
151(1)
Daoism
152(24)
The Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching)
153(9)
Zhuang Zi (Chuang Tzu)
162(4)
Religious Daoism
166(9)
Notes
175(1)
Study Questions
175(1)
Shinto
176(15)
The Shinto Creation Myth
178(2)
The Shinto Shrine and Festival
180(5)
Historical Development of Shinto
185(3)
Notes
188(1)
Study Questions
189(2)
PART III BUDDHISM 191(225)
The Life of Buddha
192(20)
The Palace Youth
193(7)
The Sadhu Years
200(2)
The Awakening
202(4)
The Teaching Years
206(5)
Notes
211(1)
Study Questions
211(1)
The Basic Teaching of Buddha
212(28)
The Doctrine of Anatman
215(8)
The Four Noble Truths
223(10)
The Noble Eightfold Path
233(6)
Notes
239(1)
Study Questions
239(1)
Theravada Buddhism
240(14)
The Early Centuries
241(1)
Ashoka
242(5)
Theravada Buddhism
247(6)
Study Questions
253(1)
Mahayana Buddhism
254(28)
Diversity and Religious Elements in Mahayana
259(2)
The Nature of Buddha
261(4)
The Doctrine of Shunyata
265(6)
The Bodhisattva
271(4)
Artistic Expression in Early Mahayana
275(5)
Notes
280(1)
Study Questions
280(2)
Buddhism in Tibet
282(39)
The Establishment of Buddhism in Tibet
287(3)
The General Character of Buddhism in Tibet
290(14)
A Historical Overview of Buddhism in Tibet
304(16)
Notes
320(1)
Study Questions
320(1)
Early Buddhism in China
321(15)
Tiantai Buddhism (T'ien-t'ai)
325(2)
Huayan Buddhism (Hua-yen)
327(1)
Pure Land Buddhism
328(6)
Notes
334(1)
Study Questions
334(2)
Chan: The Origins of Zen Buddhism in China
336(40)
Bodhidharma
340(10)
Huineng (Hui-Neng)
350(10)
After Huineng
360(14)
Notes
374(1)
Study Questions
375(1)
Zen in Japan
376(40)
Japan Before Zen
376(4)
Rinzai and Soto Zen
380(12)
The Zen Monastery
392(14)
Zen and the Arts
406(8)
Notes
414(1)
Study Questions
415(1)
Index 416

Excerpts

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION We humans struggle to make sense out of a world that often seems chaotic and meaningless. In every age men and women--at least some men and women--have sought to go beyond the appearances of everyday life and discover a transcendent truth in which reality is seen as it really is. Such an experience is often called "awakening"--it is the opening of consciousness to the light of perfect understanding. This great quest has been an important part of the history of both East and West, and in both worlds much attention has been given to uncovering a fundamental principle of unity that underlies the manifold expressions of nature. There has, however, been a difference in emphasis. Speaking very broadly, the West has emphasized the rational and scientific approach, whereas the East, again speaking very broadly, has tended to emphasize the introspective approach, an intuitive opening of consciousness that goes beyond the limits of the rational mind. Such a state of consciousness, in which the underlying oneness of Being is personally experienced, is known as the "unitive state." The search for a way of life that will result in this kind of awakening is at the heart of the history of Eastern thought. This book tells the story of that search. It is a search that unfolds slowly over nearly four millennia. And, of course, it is still unfolding today; the present age is merely the cutting edge. There is something especially exciting about the present age, though. As the global village takes form, the traditions of East and West are coming together. Who can imagine what wondrous offspring may result from this marriage? The evolution of Eastern thought grows from many roots. Those of India and China are especially strong and deep, reaching back before the beginnings of recorded history. We will take up this study at the source of the tradition, in India. It is appropriate to begin in India because so much of the spiritual and philosophical foundation of Eastern thought is to be found there. And, it was out of the amazingly fertile Hindu tradition that Buddhism was born. From India, Buddhism would spread to all parts of the Eastern world, sometimes merging with other evolving traditions to create new directions of growth. In China, Buddhism would confront the already established traditions of Confucianism and Daoism, and in Japan, the ancient tradition of Shinto. These too are important parts of this study. The history of the development of Eastern thought is far too vast to be reduced to the pages of any single volume. The purpose of this work, therefore, is not to tell everything; that would be impossible. Rather, in this book my primary aim is to help you form a comprehensive overview of the subject, a "Big Picture." In the pages that follow I will introduce you to this important part of the story of humankind's search for awakening. It is my goal to include all that is essential to a broad understanding of the subject and to clarify all major concepts no matter how complex they may be, in a way that is clear and engaging. It is my deepest hope that you, the reader, will come away from this book hungry for more, and that you will choose to become a lifelong student of this fascinating subject. PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION In recent years the study of Eastern philosophical and spiritual traditions has become a very active field. Ongoing research is constantly generating new interpretations and understandings. And, my own involvement in the field has continued to grow as well. Out of this, a new edition ofAwakeninghas emerged. It improves on the original by having a more accessible overall organization, by incorporating up-to-date scholarship, and by the addition of an expanded treatment of several topics, including the subject of Tantra, which encompasses a whole new section in this edition. In addition, I have used only my own photo


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