Preface | p. xv |

Introduction and Data Collection | p. 1 |

Why a Manager Needs to Know about Statistics | p. 2 |

The Growth and Development of Modern Statistics | p. 4 |

What Readers of This Textbook Need to Know about Microsoft Excel and PHStat or Minitab | p. 5 |

Why Data are Needed | p. 6 |

Sources of Data | p. 7 |

Types of Data | p. 10 |

Design of Survey Research | p. 15 |

Types of Sampling Methods | p. 17 |

Evaluating Survey Worthiness | p. 23 |

Presenting Data in Tables and Charts | p. 45 |

Organizing Numerical Data | p. 46 |

Tables and Charts for Numerical Data | p. 50 |

Graphing Bivariate Numerical Data | p. 58 |

Tables and Charts for Categorical Data | p. 61 |

Tabulating and Graphing Bivariate Categorical Data | p. 68 |

Graphical Excellence | p. 71 |

Numerical Descriptive Measures | p. 95 |

Exploring Numerical Data and Their Properties | p. 96 |

Measures of Central Tendency, Variation, and Shape | p. 97 |

Exploratory Data Analysis | p. 116 |

Obtaining Descriptive Summary Measures from a Population | p. 121 |

The Coefficient of Correlation | p. 126 |

Pitfalls in Numerical Descriptive Measures and Ethical Issues | p. 130 |

Obtaining Descriptive Summary Measures from a Frequency Distribution (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 131 |

Basic Probability | p. 145 |

Basic Probability Concepts | p. 147 |

Conditional Probability | p. 156 |

Bayes' Theorem | p. 164 |

Ethical Issues and Probability | p. 167 |

Some Important Discrete Probability Distributions | p. 173 |

The Probability Distribution for a Discrete Random Variable | p. 174 |

Covariance and Its Application in Finance | p. 177 |

Binomial Distribution | p. 182 |

Poisson Distribution | p. 190 |

Hypergeometric Distribution | p. 193 |

The Normal Distribution and Other Continuous Distributions | p. 205 |

The Normal Distribution | p. 206 |

Evaluating the Normality Assumption | p. 223 |

The Exponential Distribution | p. 231 |

Sampling Distributions | p. 241 |

Sampling Distribution of the Mean | p. 242 |

Sampling Distribution of the Proportion | p. 254 |

Sampling from Finite Populations (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 257 |

Confidence Interval Estimation | p. 263 |

Confidence Interval Estimation of the Mean ([sigma] Known) | p. 265 |

Confidence Interval Estimation of the Mean ([sigma] Unknown) | p. 269 |

Confidence Interval Estimation for the Proportion | p. 276 |

Determining Sample Size | p. 279 |

Applications of Confidence Interval Estimation in Auditing | p. 286 |

Confidence Interval Estimation and Ethical Issues | p. 294 |

Estimation and Sample Size Determination for Finite Populations (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 294 |

Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing: One-Sample Tests | p. 307 |

Hypothesis-Testing Methology | p. 308 |

Z Test of Hypothesis for the Mean ([sigma] Known) | p. 313 |

One-Tail Tests | p. 320 |

tTest of Hypothesis for the Mean ([sigma] Unknown) | p. 323 |

Z Test of Hypothesis for the Proportion | p. 329 |

X[superscript 2] Test of Hypothesis for the Variance or Standard Deviation | p. 332 |

The Power of a Test (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 336 |

Potential Hypothesis-Testing Pitfalls and Ethical Issues | p. 336 |

Two-Sample Tests with Numerical Data | p. 347 |

Comparing Two Independent Samples: t Tests for Differences in Two Means | p. 348 |

F Test for Difference in Two Variances | p. 357 |

Comparing Two Related Samples: t Test for the Mean Difference | p. 364 |

Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test for Differences in Two Medians | p. 372 |

Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test for the Median Difference (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 378 |

Analysis of Variance | p. 391 |

The Completely Randomized Design: One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 392 |

The Randomized Block Design | p. 407 |

The Factorial Design: Two-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 417 |

Kruskal-Wallis Rank Test for Differences in c Medians | p. 429 |

Friedman Rank Test for Differences in c Medians (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 434 |

Tests for Two or More Samples with Categorical Data | p. 449 |

Z Test for the Difference Between Two Proportions | p. 450 |

x[superscript 2] Test for the Difference Between Two Proportions | p. 456 |

x[superscript 2] Test for Differences in More Than Two Proportions | p. 463 |

x[superscript 2] Test of Independence | p. 471 |

Simple Linear Regression | p. 487 |

Types of Regression Models | p. 488 |

Determining the Simple Linear Regression Equation | p. 490 |

Measures of Variation | p. 498 |

Assumptions | p. 503 |

Residual Analysis | p. 504 |

Measuring Autocorrelation: The Durbin-Watson Statistic | p. 509 |

Inferences about the Slope and Correlation Coefficient | p. 514 |

Estimation of Mean Values and Prediction of Individual Values | p. 521 |

Pitfalls in Regression and Ethical Issues | p. 525 |

Computations in Simple Linear Regression | p. 529 |

Introduction to Multiple Regression | p. 549 |

Developing the Multiple Regression Model | p. 550 |

Residual Analysis for the Multiple Regression Model | p. 559 |

Influence Analysis | p. 561 |

Testing for the Significance of the Multiple Regression Model | p. 564 |

Inferences Concerning the Population Regression Coefficients | p. 566 |

Testing Portions of the Multiple Regression Model | p. 570 |

Logistic Regression | p. 577 |

Multiple Regression Model Building | p. 589 |

The Quadratic Regression Model | p. 590 |

Dummy-Variable Models | p. 599 |

Using Transformations in Regression Models | p. 608 |

Collinearity | p. 611 |

Model Building | p. 613 |

Pitfalls in Multiple Regression and Ethical Issues | p. 624 |

Time-Series Analysis | p. 635 |

The Importance of Business Forecasting | p. 636 |

Component Factors of the Classical Multiplicative Time-Series Model | p. 637 |

Smoothing the Annual Time Series | p. 639 |

Least-Squares Trend Fitting and Forecasting | p. 646 |

The Holt-Winters Method for Trend Fitting and Forecasting | p. 659 |

Autoregressive Modeling for Trend Fitting and Forecasting | p. 663 |

Choosing an Appropriate Forecasting Model | p. 672 |

Time-Series Forecasting of Monthly or Quarterly Data | p. 677 |

Pitfalls Concerning Time-Series Analysis | p. 685 |

Index Numbers (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 685 |

Decision Making | p. 695 |

The Payoff Table and Decision Trees | p. 696 |

Criteria for Decision Making | p. 700 |

Decision Making with Sample Information | p. 708 |

Utility | p. 713 |

Statistical Applications in Quality and Productivity Management | p. 721 |

Quality and Productivity: A Historical Perspective | p. 723 |

Deming's 14 Points: A Theory of Management | p. 723 |

The Theory of Control Charts | p. 726 |

Control Chart for the Proportion of Nonconforming Items--The p Chart | p. 728 |

The Red Bead Experiment: Understanding Process Variability | p. 734 |

Control Chart for An Area of Opportunity--The c Chart | p. 737 |

Control Charts for the Range and the Mean (X) | p. 741 |

Process Capability | p. 748 |

Appendices | p. 781 |

Review of Arithmetic, Alegbra, and Logarithms | p. 781 |

Summation Notation | p. 785 |

Statistical Symbols and Greek Alphabet | p. 791 |

CD-ROM Contents | p. 793 |

Tables | p. 807 |

More About PHStat2 | p. 839 |

Index | p. 843 |

CD-ROM Topics | |

Obtaining Descriptive Summary Measures | p. 1 |

Sampling from Finite Populations | p. 1 |

Estimation and Sample Size Determination for Finite Populations | p. 1 |

The Power of a Test | p. 1 |

Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test for the Median Difference | p. 1 |

Freidman Rank Test for Differences in C Medians | p. 1 |

Index Numbers | p. 1 |

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