Preface | p. xv |
Introduction and Data Collection | p. 1 |
Why a Manager Needs to Know about Statistics | p. 2 |
The Growth and Development of Modern Statistics | p. 4 |
What Readers of This Textbook Need to Know about Microsoft Excel and PHStat or Minitab | p. 5 |
Why Data are Needed | p. 6 |
Sources of Data | p. 7 |
Types of Data | p. 10 |
Design of Survey Research | p. 15 |
Types of Sampling Methods | p. 17 |
Evaluating Survey Worthiness | p. 23 |
Presenting Data in Tables and Charts | p. 45 |
Organizing Numerical Data | p. 46 |
Tables and Charts for Numerical Data | p. 50 |
Graphing Bivariate Numerical Data | p. 58 |
Tables and Charts for Categorical Data | p. 61 |
Tabulating and Graphing Bivariate Categorical Data | p. 68 |
Graphical Excellence | p. 71 |
Numerical Descriptive Measures | p. 95 |
Exploring Numerical Data and Their Properties | p. 96 |
Measures of Central Tendency, Variation, and Shape | p. 97 |
Exploratory Data Analysis | p. 116 |
Obtaining Descriptive Summary Measures from a Population | p. 121 |
The Coefficient of Correlation | p. 126 |
Pitfalls in Numerical Descriptive Measures and Ethical Issues | p. 130 |
Obtaining Descriptive Summary Measures from a Frequency Distribution (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 131 |
Basic Probability | p. 145 |
Basic Probability Concepts | p. 147 |
Conditional Probability | p. 156 |
Bayes' Theorem | p. 164 |
Ethical Issues and Probability | p. 167 |
Some Important Discrete Probability Distributions | p. 173 |
The Probability Distribution for a Discrete Random Variable | p. 174 |
Covariance and Its Application in Finance | p. 177 |
Binomial Distribution | p. 182 |
Poisson Distribution | p. 190 |
Hypergeometric Distribution | p. 193 |
The Normal Distribution and Other Continuous Distributions | p. 205 |
The Normal Distribution | p. 206 |
Evaluating the Normality Assumption | p. 223 |
The Exponential Distribution | p. 231 |
Sampling Distributions | p. 241 |
Sampling Distribution of the Mean | p. 242 |
Sampling Distribution of the Proportion | p. 254 |
Sampling from Finite Populations (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 257 |
Confidence Interval Estimation | p. 263 |
Confidence Interval Estimation of the Mean ([sigma] Known) | p. 265 |
Confidence Interval Estimation of the Mean ([sigma] Unknown) | p. 269 |
Confidence Interval Estimation for the Proportion | p. 276 |
Determining Sample Size | p. 279 |
Applications of Confidence Interval Estimation in Auditing | p. 286 |
Confidence Interval Estimation and Ethical Issues | p. 294 |
Estimation and Sample Size Determination for Finite Populations (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 294 |
Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing: One-Sample Tests | p. 307 |
Hypothesis-Testing Methology | p. 308 |
Z Test of Hypothesis for the Mean ([sigma] Known) | p. 313 |
One-Tail Tests | p. 320 |
tTest of Hypothesis for the Mean ([sigma] Unknown) | p. 323 |
Z Test of Hypothesis for the Proportion | p. 329 |
X[superscript 2] Test of Hypothesis for the Variance or Standard Deviation | p. 332 |
The Power of a Test (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 336 |
Potential Hypothesis-Testing Pitfalls and Ethical Issues | p. 336 |
Two-Sample Tests with Numerical Data | p. 347 |
Comparing Two Independent Samples: t Tests for Differences in Two Means | p. 348 |
F Test for Difference in Two Variances | p. 357 |
Comparing Two Related Samples: t Test for the Mean Difference | p. 364 |
Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test for Differences in Two Medians | p. 372 |
Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test for the Median Difference (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 378 |
Analysis of Variance | p. 391 |
The Completely Randomized Design: One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 392 |
The Randomized Block Design | p. 407 |
The Factorial Design: Two-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 417 |
Kruskal-Wallis Rank Test for Differences in c Medians | p. 429 |
Friedman Rank Test for Differences in c Medians (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 434 |
Tests for Two or More Samples with Categorical Data | p. 449 |
Z Test for the Difference Between Two Proportions | p. 450 |
x[superscript 2] Test for the Difference Between Two Proportions | p. 456 |
x[superscript 2] Test for Differences in More Than Two Proportions | p. 463 |
x[superscript 2] Test of Independence | p. 471 |
Simple Linear Regression | p. 487 |
Types of Regression Models | p. 488 |
Determining the Simple Linear Regression Equation | p. 490 |
Measures of Variation | p. 498 |
Assumptions | p. 503 |
Residual Analysis | p. 504 |
Measuring Autocorrelation: The Durbin-Watson Statistic | p. 509 |
Inferences about the Slope and Correlation Coefficient | p. 514 |
Estimation of Mean Values and Prediction of Individual Values | p. 521 |
Pitfalls in Regression and Ethical Issues | p. 525 |
Computations in Simple Linear Regression | p. 529 |
Introduction to Multiple Regression | p. 549 |
Developing the Multiple Regression Model | p. 550 |
Residual Analysis for the Multiple Regression Model | p. 559 |
Influence Analysis | p. 561 |
Testing for the Significance of the Multiple Regression Model | p. 564 |
Inferences Concerning the Population Regression Coefficients | p. 566 |
Testing Portions of the Multiple Regression Model | p. 570 |
Logistic Regression | p. 577 |
Multiple Regression Model Building | p. 589 |
The Quadratic Regression Model | p. 590 |
Dummy-Variable Models | p. 599 |
Using Transformations in Regression Models | p. 608 |
Collinearity | p. 611 |
Model Building | p. 613 |
Pitfalls in Multiple Regression and Ethical Issues | p. 624 |
Time-Series Analysis | p. 635 |
The Importance of Business Forecasting | p. 636 |
Component Factors of the Classical Multiplicative Time-Series Model | p. 637 |
Smoothing the Annual Time Series | p. 639 |
Least-Squares Trend Fitting and Forecasting | p. 646 |
The Holt-Winters Method for Trend Fitting and Forecasting | p. 659 |
Autoregressive Modeling for Trend Fitting and Forecasting | p. 663 |
Choosing an Appropriate Forecasting Model | p. 672 |
Time-Series Forecasting of Monthly or Quarterly Data | p. 677 |
Pitfalls Concerning Time-Series Analysis | p. 685 |
Index Numbers (CD-ROM Topic) | p. 685 |
Decision Making | p. 695 |
The Payoff Table and Decision Trees | p. 696 |
Criteria for Decision Making | p. 700 |
Decision Making with Sample Information | p. 708 |
Utility | p. 713 |
Statistical Applications in Quality and Productivity Management | p. 721 |
Quality and Productivity: A Historical Perspective | p. 723 |
Deming's 14 Points: A Theory of Management | p. 723 |
The Theory of Control Charts | p. 726 |
Control Chart for the Proportion of Nonconforming Items--The p Chart | p. 728 |
The Red Bead Experiment: Understanding Process Variability | p. 734 |
Control Chart for An Area of Opportunity--The c Chart | p. 737 |
Control Charts for the Range and the Mean (X) | p. 741 |
Process Capability | p. 748 |
Appendices | p. 781 |
Review of Arithmetic, Alegbra, and Logarithms | p. 781 |
Summation Notation | p. 785 |
Statistical Symbols and Greek Alphabet | p. 791 |
CD-ROM Contents | p. 793 |
Tables | p. 807 |
More About PHStat2 | p. 839 |
Index | p. 843 |
CD-ROM Topics | |
Obtaining Descriptive Summary Measures | p. 1 |
Sampling from Finite Populations | p. 1 |
Estimation and Sample Size Determination for Finite Populations | p. 1 |
The Power of a Test | p. 1 |
Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test for the Median Difference | p. 1 |
Freidman Rank Test for Differences in C Medians | p. 1 |
Index Numbers | p. 1 |
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