Introduction and Data Collection | |

Using Statistics: Good Tunes | |

Basic Concepts of Statistics | |

The Growth of Statistics and Information Technology | |

How This Text Is Organized | |

The Importance of Collecting Data | |

Identifying Sources of Data | |

Types of Data | |

Levels of Measurement and Types of Measurement Scales | |

Summary | |

Introduction to Using Software | |

Presenting Data in Tables and Charts | |

Using Statistics: Comparing the Performance of Mutual Funds | |

Tables and Charts for Categorical Data | |

The Summary Table | |

The Bar Chart | |

The Pie Chart | |

The Pareto Diagram | |

Organizing Numerical Data | |

The Ordered Array | |

The Stem-and-Leaf Display | |

Tables and Charts for Numerical Data | |

The Frequency Distribution | |

The Relative Frequency Distribution and the Percentage Distribution | |

The Cumulative Distribution | |

The Histogram | |

The Polygon | |

The Cumulative Percentage Polygon (Ogive) | |

Cross Tabulations | |

The Contingency Table | |

The Side-by-Side Bar Chart | |

Scatter Diagrams and Time Series Plots | |

The Scatter diagram | |

The Time series plot | |

Misusing Graphs and Ethical Issues | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Tables and Charts | |

Numerical Descriptive Measures | |

Using Statistics: Comparing the Performance of Mutual Funds | |

Measures of Central Tendency, Variation, and Shape | |

The Mean | |

The Median | |

The Mode | |

Quartiles | |

The Geometric Mean | |

The Range | |

The Interquartile Range | |

The Variance and Standard Deviation | |

The Coefficient of Variation | |

Shape | |

Visual Explorations: Exploring Descriptive Statistics | |

Microsoft Excel Descriptive Statistics Output | |

Minitab Descriptive Statistics Output | |

Descriptive Numerical Measures for a Population | |

The Population Mean | |

The Population Variance and Standard Deviation | |

The Empirical Rule | |

The Chebychev Rule | |

Computing Descriptive Numerical Measures from a Frequency Distribution | |

Exploratory Data Analysis | |

The Five-Number Summary | |

The Box-and-Whisker Plot | |

The Covariance and the Coefficient of Correlation | |

The Covariance | |

The Coefficient of Correlation | |

Pitfalls in Numerical Descriptive Measures and Ethical Issues | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Descriptive Statistics | |

Basic Probability | |

Using Statistics: The Consumer Electronics Company | |

Basic Probability Concepts | |

Sample Spaces and Events | |

Contingincy Tables and Venn Diagrams | |

Simple (Marginal) Probability | |

Joint Probability | |

General Addition Rule | |

Conditional Probability | |

Computing Conditional Probabilities | |

Decision Trees | |

Statistical Independence | |

Multiplication Rule | |

Bayes' Theorem | |

Counting Rules | |

Ethical Issues and Probability | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Basic Probability | |

Some Important Discrete Probability Distributions | |

Using Statistics: The Accounting Information System of the Saxon Plumbing Company | |

The Probability Distribution for a Discrete Random Variable | |

Expected Value of a Discrete Random Variable | |

Variance and Standard Deviation of a Discrete Random Variable | |

Covariance and Its Application in Finance | |

The Covariance | |

The Expected Value, Variance, and Standard Deviation of the Sum of Two Random Variables | |

Portfolio Expected Return and Portfolio Risk | |

Binomial Distribution | |

Poisson Distribution | |

Hypergeometric Distribution | |

CD ROM Topic : Using the Poisson Distribution to Approximate the Binomial Distribution | |

Summary | |

Using Software for the Covariance and for Discrete Probability Distributions | |

The Normal Distribution and Other Continuous Distributions | |

Using Statistics: Download Time for a Web Site Home Page | |

Continuous Probability Distributions | |

The Normal Distribution | |

Evaluating Normality | |

Evaluating the Properties | |

Constructing the Normal Probability Plot | |

The Uniform Distribution | |

The Exponential Distribution | |

The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution | |

Need for a Correction for Continuity Adjustment | |

Approximating the Binomial Distribution | |

Computing a Probability Approximation for an Individual Value | |

Summary | |

Using Software with Continuous Probability Distributions | |

Sampling Distributions | |

Using Statistics: The Oxford Cereal Company Packaging Process | |

Sampling Distributions | |

Sampling Distribution of the Mean | |

The Unbiased Property of the Sample Mean | |

Standard Error of the Mean | |

Sampling from Normally Distributed Populations | |

Sampling from Nonnormally Distributed Populations The Central Limit Theorem | |

Sampling Distribution of the Proportion | |

Types of Survey Sampling Methods | |

Simple Random Sample | |

Systematic Sample | |

Stratified Sample | |

The Cluster Sample | |

Evaluating Survey Worthiness | |

Survey Errors | |

Ethical Issues | |

CD ROM Topic Sampling from Finite Populations | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Sampling Distributions | |

Confidence Interval Estimation | |

Using Statistics: Auditing Invoices at the Saxon Home Improvement Company | |

Confidence Interval Estimation of the Mean (Ãâ Known) | |

Confidence Interval Estimation of the Mean (Ãâ Unknown) | |

Student's t Distribution | |

The Concept of Degrees of Freedom | |

The Confidence Interval Statement | |

Confidence Interval Estimation for the Proportion | |

Determining Sample Size | |

Sample Size Determination for the Mean | |

Sample Size Determination for the Proportion | |

Applications of Confidence Interval Estimation in Auditing | |

Estimating the Population Total Amount | |

Difference Estimation | |

Confidence Interval Estimation and Ethical Issues | |

CD ROM Topic: Estimation and Sample Size Determination for Finite Populations | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Confidence Interval Estimation | |

Fundamentals of Hypothesis Testing | |

Using Statistics: The Oxford Cereal Company Packaging Process | |

Hypothesis-Testing Methodology | |

The Null and Alternative Hypotheses | |

The Critical Value of the Test Statistic | |

Regions of Rejection and Nonrejection | |

Risks in Decision Making using Hypothesis Testing Methodology | |

Z Test of Hypothesis for the Mean (Ãâ Known) | |

The Critical Value Approach to Hypothesis Testing | |

The p-Value Approach to Hypothesis Testing | |

A Connection between Confidence Interval Estimation and Hypothesis Testing One-Tailed Tests | |

One-Tail Tests | |

The Critical Value Approach | |

The p-Value Approach | |

t Test of Hypothesis for the Mean (Ãâ Unknown) | |

Z Test of Hypothesis for the Proportion | |

The Power of a Test | |

Potential Hypothesis-Testing Pitfalls and Ethical Issues | |

Summary | |

Using Software for One-Sample Tests of Hypothesis | |

Two-Sample Tests | |

Comparing The Means of Two Independent Samples | |

Z test for the Difference between Two Means | |

Pooled - Variance test for the Difference between Two Means | |

Confidence Interval Estimate for the Difference between the Means of two Independent Groups | |

Separate - Variance test for the Difference between Two Means | |

Comparing the Means of Two Related Populations | |

The Paired Test | |

Confidence Interval Estimate for the Mean Difference | |

Comparing Two Population Proportions | |

Z Test for the Difference between Two Proportions | |

Confidence Interval Estimate for the Difference between Two Proportions | |

F Test for the Difference between Two Variances | |

Finding Lower-Tail Critical Values | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis for Numerical Data | |

Analysis of Variance | |

Using Statistics: The Perfect Parachute Company | |

The Completely Randomized Design: One-Way Analysis of Variance | |

F Test for Differences in More than Two Means | |

Multiple Comparisons: The Tukey-Kramer Procedure | |

ANOVA Assumptions | |

Levene's Test for Homogeneity of Variance | |

The Randomized Block Design | |

Tests for the Treatment and Block Effects | |

Multiple Comparisons: The Tukey Procedure | |

The Factorial Design: Two-Way Analysis of Variance | |

Testing for Factor and Interaction Effects | |

Interpreting Interaction Effects | |

Multiple Comparisons: The Tukey Procedure | |

Summary | |

Using Software for ANOVA | |

Chi-Square Tests and Nonparametric Tests | |

Using Statistics: Guest Satisfaction at T. C. Resort Properties | |

Chi-Square Test for Differences between Two Proportions (Independent Samples) | |

Chi-Square Test for Differences among More than Two Proportions | |

Chi-Square Test of Independence | |

McNemar Test for the Difference between Two Proportions (Related Samples) | |

Chi-Square Test for a Variance or Standard Deviation | |

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Tests | |

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test for the Poisson Distribution | |

Chi-Square Goodness of Fit Test for the Normal Distribution | |

Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test: Nonparametric Analysis for Two Independent Populations | |

Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test: Nonparametric Analysis for Two Related Populations | |

Kruskal-Wallis Rank Test: Nonparametric Analysis for the One-Way Design | |

Friedman Rank Test: Nonparametric Analysis for the Randomized Block Design | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Chi-Square Tests and Nonparametric Tests | |

Simple Linear Regression | |

Using Statistics: Forecasting Sales at the Sunflowers Clothing Stores | |

Types of Regression Models | |

The Least-Squares Method | |

Visual Explorations: Exploring Simple Linear Regression Coefficients | |

Predictions in Regression Analysis: Interpolation versus Extrapolation | |

Measures of Variation | |

Computing the Sum of Squares | |

The Coefficient of Determination | |

Standard Error of the Estimate | |

Assumptions | |

Residual Analysis | |

Evaluating the Assumptions | |

Measuring Autocorrelation: The Durbin-Watson Statistic | |

Residual Plots to Detect Autocorrelation | |

The Durbin-Watson Statistic | |

Inferences about the Slope and Correlation Coefficient Test for the Slope | |

F Test for the Slope | |

Confidence Interval Estimate for the Slope | |

t Test for the Correlation Coefficient | |

Estimation of Predicted Values | |

The Confidence Interval Estimate | |

The Prediction Interval | |

Pitfalls in Regression and Ethical Issues | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Simple Linear Regression | |

Introduction to Multiple Regression | |

Using Statistics: Predicting OmniPower Sales | |

Developing the Multiple Regression Model | |

Interpreting the Regression Coefficients | |

Predicting the Dependent Variable Y | |

R2, Adjusted R2, and the Overall F test 000 | |

Coefficients of Multiple Determination | |

Test for the Significance of the overall Multiple Regression Model | |

Residual Analysis for the Multiple Regression Model | |

Inferences Concerning the Population Regression Coefficients | |

Test of Hypothesis | |

Confidence Interval Estimation | |

Testing Portions of the Multiple Regression Model | |

Coefficient of Partial Determination | |

Using Dummy-Variables and Interaction Terms in Regression Models | |

Interactions | |

Logistic Regression | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Multiple Regression | |

Multiple Regression Model Building | |

Using Statistics: Predicting Standby Hours for Unionized Artists | |

The Quadratic Regression Model | |

Finding the Regression Coefficients and Predicting Y | |

Testing for the Significance of the Quadratic Effect | |

Testing the Quadratic Effect | |

The Coefficient of Multiple Determination | |

Using Transformations in Regression Models | |

The Square Root Transformation | |

The Log Transformation | |

Influence Analysis | |

Collinearity | |

Model Building | |

The Stepwise Regression Approach to Model Building | |

The Best-Subsets Approach to Model Building | |

Model Validation | |

Pitfalls in Multiple Regression and Ethical Issues | |

Pitfalls in Multiple Regression | |

Ethical Issues | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Multiple Regression Model Building | |

Time-Series Forecasting and Index Numbers | |

Using Statistics: Forecasting Revenues for Three Companies | |

The Importance of Business Forecasting | |

Component Factors of the Classical Multiplicative Time-Series Model | |

Smoothing the Annual Time Series | |

Moving Averages | |

Exponential Smoothing | |

Least-Squares Trend Fitting and Forecasting | |

The Linear Trend Model | |

The Quadratic Trend Model | |

The Exponential Trend Model | |

The Holt-Winters Method for Trend-Fitting and Forecasting | |

Autoregressive Modeling for Trend Fitting and Forecasting | |

Choosing an Appropriate Forecasting Model | |

Performing a Residual Analysis | |

Measuring the Magnitude of the Residual Error through Squared or Absolute Differences | |

Principle of Parsimony | |

Time-Series Forecasting of Monthly or Quarterly Data | |

Least-Squares Forecasting with Monthly or Quarterly Data | |

Index Numbers | |

The Price Index | |

Aggregate Price Indexes | |

Weighted Aggregate Price Indexes | |

Paasche Price Index | |

Some Common Price Indexes | |

Pitfalls Concerning Time-Series Analysis | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Time-Series Forecasting and Index Numbers | |

Decision Making | |

Using Statistics: Selecting Stocks | |

Payoff Tables and Decision Trees | |

Criteria for Decision Making | |

Expected Monetary Value | |

Expected Opportunity Loss | |

Return-to-Risk Ratio | |

Decision Making with Sample Information | |

Utility | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Decision Making | |

Statistical Applications in Quality and Productivity Management | |

Total Quality Management | |

Six SigmaÂ“ Management | |

The Theory of Control Charts | |

Control Chart for the Proportion of Nonconforming Items The p Chart | |

The Red Bead Experiment: Understanding Process Variability | |

Control Chart for an Area of Opportunity the c Chart | |

Control Charts for the Range and the Mean | |

The R Chart: A Control Chart for Dispersion | |

The Chart | |

Process Capability | |

Customer Satisfaction and Specification Limits | |

Capability Indices | |

CPL, CPU, Cpk | |

Summary | |

Using Software for Control Charts | |

Answers to Self-Test Problems | |

Answers to Even-Numbered Problems | |

Appendices | |

Review of Arithmetic and Algebra | |

Summation Notation | |

Statistical Symbols and Greek Alphabet | |

CD-ROM Contents | |

Tables | |

Configuring and Customizing Microsoft Excel For Use With This Text | |

PHStat2 User's Guide | |

Index | |

CD-ROM Topics | |

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