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Basic and Clinical Endocrinology,9780071402972

Basic and Clinical Endocrinology

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Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780071402972

ISBN10:
0071402977
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/18/2003
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Medical
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Summary

The best-selling reference in endocrinology! Authoritative, concise, and current, this "all-in-one" text focuses on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of endocrine disorders. Written by recognized authorities and featuring more than 350 two-color illustrations, the Seventh Edition has been updated to reflect the latest in diagnostic testing and molecular biology as well as new approaches to medical management.

Table of Contents

Authorsp. xii
Prefacep. xvi
Introduction to Endocrinologyp. 1
The Endocrine Systemp. 2
Hormones: Endocrine, Paracrine, & Autocrine Actionsp. 3
Chemical Composition of Hormonesp. 3
Relationships between Hormones & Other Signaling Moleculesp. 4
Neurotransmitters & Hormonesp. 4
Vitamins & Hormonesp. 5
Oncogenes & Hormonesp. 5
The Immune System & Hormonesp. 5
Eicosanoids: Prostaglandins & Related Compoundsp. 6
Mechanisms of Hormone Actionp. 6
Hormone Receptorsp. 6
Hormone Effects on Receptor Activityp. 8
Classes of Hormone Actionp. 8
Classification of Hormone Action by Receptor Typep. 8
Classification of Hormone Action by Ligand Typep. 9
Mechanisms of Ligand Actionp. 10
Regulation of Hormone Responsivenessp. 11
Hormone Responses Can Be Self-Limitingp. 11
Different Signals Influence Hormone Responsivenessp. 11
Modulation of Hormone Levelsp. 12
Hormone Synthesisp. 12
Regulation of Hormone Productionp. 12
Hormone Transport in the Circulationp. 13
Transport of Hormones across the Membranep. 14
Metabolism & Elimination of Hormonesp. 14
Recombinant DNA, Genomics, Proteomics, & Endocrinologyp. 15
Sequencing of the Human Genomep. 16
Genomics & Patterns of Transcriptionp. 16
Proteomicsp. 16
Molecular Basis of Genetic Endocrine Diseasep. 17
Evolution of the Endocrine Systemp. 17
The Origins of Regulatory Chemicals & the Metabolic Codep. 18
Evolution of Hormones & Receptorsp. 18
Evolution of Multiple Hormone Response Systemsp. 19
Evolution of Endocrine Glandsp. 19
Integrative Networksp. 19
Endocrine & Nervous System Relationships: Neuroendocrinologyp. 19
Hypothalamic-Pituitary Relationshipsp. 20
Endocrine Organs & Hormone Productionp. 21
Actions of Hormonesp. 21
Hormone Releasep. 21
Fetal Developmentp. 21
Cell Growth & Cancerp. 21
Hormonal Effects on Intermediary Metabolismp. 22
Hormonal Effects on Mineral & Water Metabolismp. 22
Hormonal Effects on Cardiovascular & Renal Functionp. 22
Hormonal Effects on Skeletal Functionp. 23
Hormonal Effects on Reproductive Functionp. 23
Hormonal Effects on the Immune Systemp. 23
Hormonal Effects on the Central Nervous Systemp. 23
Selective Modulationp. 24
Disorders of the Endocrine Systemp. 24
Endocrine Hypofunctionp. 25
Endocrine Hyperfunctionp. 25
Defects in Sensitivity to Hormonesp. 26
Syndromes of Hormone Excess Due to Administration of Exogenous Hormonep. 27
Nonendocrine Problems Associated with Endocrine Diseasep. 28
Approach to the Patient with Endocrine Diseasep. 28
Evidence-Based Endocrinologyp. 28
History & Physical Examinationp. 29
Laboratory Studiesp. 29
Screening for Endocrine Diseasesp. 33
Clinical Interpretation of Laboratory Testsp. 34
Treatment of Endocrine Diseasesp. 34
Uses of Hormones & Selective Modulators in Therapy of Nonendocrine Diseasep. 35
Hormone Synthesis & Releasep. 38
Compartmentation of Eukaryotic Cells in Relation to Hormone Synthesis & Releasep. 38
Overview of Hormone Biosynthesisp. 39
Membrane Vesicle-Mediated Hormone Exportp. 40
Hormone Export Not Mediated by Membrane Vesiclesp. 51
Metabolism, Transport, Elimination, & Regulation of Hormonesp. 56
Mechanisms of Hormone Actionp. 61
Receptorsp. 62
Neurotransmitter & Peptide Hormone Receptorsp. 63
G Protein-Coupled Receptorsp. 64
G Protein Transducersp. 65
G Protein Disordersp. 66
Effectorsp. 67
G Protein-Coupled Receptors & Human Diseasep. 68
Growth Factor Receptorsp. 70
Cytokine Receptorsp. 73
Guanylyl Cyclase-Linked Receptorsp. 73
Nuclear Action of Peptide Hormonesp. 74
Nuclear Receptorsp. 75
Steroid Receptor Familyp. 76
Thyroid Receptor Familyp. 77
Nongenomic Effects of the Steroid Hormonesp. 82
Steroid & Thyroid Hormone Receptor Resistance Syndromesp. 83
Endocrine Autoimmunityp. 85
Basic Immune Components & Mechanismsp. 86
Immune Recognition & Responsep. 87
Tolerancep. 90
Autoimmunity Is Multifactorialp. 95
Genetic Factors in Autoimmunityp. 95
Environmental Factors in Autoimmunityp. 96
Single Gland Autoimmune Syndromesp. 96
Autoimmune Aspects of Thyroid Diseasep. 97
Autoimmune Aspects of Type 1 Diabetesp. 98
Autoimmune Aspects of Other Endocrinopathiesp. 100
Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromesp. 103
Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome I (APS-I)p. 103
Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome II (APS-II)p. 103
Management of Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromesp. 104
Hypothalamus & Pituitary Glandp. 106
Hypothalamic Hormonesp. 111
Anterior Pituitary Hormonesp. 119
ACTH & Related Peptidesp. 119
Growth Hormonep. 120
Prolactinp. 125
Thyrotropinp. 126
Gonadotropins: Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormonep. 128
Endocrinologic Evaluation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axisp. 129
Evaluation of ACTHp. 129
Evaluation of Growth Hormonep. 131
Evaluation of Prolactinp. 132
Evaluation of TSHp. 132
Evaluation of LH & FSHp. 132
Problems in Evaluation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axisp. 133
Effects of Pharmacologic Agents on Hypothalamic-Pituitary Functionp. 133
Endocrine Tests of Hypothalamic-Pituitary Functionp. 133
Neuroradiologic Evaluationp. 136
Pituitary & Hypothalamic Disordersp. 136
Empty Sella Syndromep. 138
Hypothalamic Dysfunctionp. 139
Hypopituitarismp. 140
Pituitary Adenomasp. 147
Posterior Pituitaryp. 163
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH; Vasopressin)p. 163
Oxytocinp. 164
Control of Water Balancep. 164
Diabetes Insipidusp. 167
Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)p. 170
Growthp. 176
Normal Growthp. 176
Intrauterine Growthp. 176
The Placentap. 177
Classic Hormones of Growth & Fetal Growthp. 177
Growth Factors & Oncogenes in Fetal Growthp. 177
Insulin-Like Growth Factors, Receptors, & Binding Proteinsp. 177
Insulinp. 178
Epidermal Growth Factorp. 178
Fetal Origins of Adult Diseasep. 179
Postnatal Growthp. 179
Measurement of Growthp. 187
Skeletal (Bone) Agep. 191
Disorders of Growthp. 194
Short Stature Due to Nonendocrine Causesp. 194
Short Stature Due to Endocrine Disordersp. 198
The Diagnosis of Short Staturep. 210
Tall Stature Due to Nonendocrine Causesp. 211
Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndromep. 212
Tall Stature Due to Endocrine Disordersp. 212
The Thyroid Glandp. 215
Anatomy & Histologyp. 216
Physiologyp. 216
Structure of Thyroid Hormonesp. 216
Iodine Metabolismp. 216
Thyroid Hormone Synthesis & Secretionp. 219
Abnormalities in Thyroid Hormone Synthesis & Releasep. 224
Thyroid Hormone Transportp. 225
Metabolism of Thyroid Hormonesp. 227
Control of Thyroid Functionp. 232
The Action of Thyroid Hormonesp. 238
Physiologic Changes in Thyroid Functionp. 241
Thyroid Autoimmunityp. 243
Tests of Thyroid Functionp. 244
Tests of Thyroid Hormones in Bloodp. 244
Evaluation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axisp. 245
Iodine Metabolism & Biosynthetic Activityp. 245
Thyroid Imagingp. 247
Thyroid Ultrasonography or Magnetic Resonance Imagingp. 248
Thyroid Biopsyp. 249
Effects of Thyroid Hormones on Peripheral Tissuesp. 249
Measurement of Thyroid Autoantibodiesp. 250
Summary: Clinical Use of Thyroid Function Testsp. 250
Disorders of the Thyroidp. 251
Hypothyroidismp. 251
Hyperthyroidism & Thyrotoxicosisp. 260
Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndromesp. 272
Nontoxic Goiterp. 273
Thyroiditisp. 275
Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Thyroid Glandp. 278
Thyroid Nodules & Thyroid Cancerp. 279
Metabolic Bone Diseasep. 295
Cellular & Extracellular Calcium Metabolismp. 295
Parathyroid Hormonep. 296
Calcitoninp. 302
Vitamin Dp. 304
Integrated Control of Mineral Homeostasisp. 311
Medullary Thyroid Carcinomap. 311
Hypercalcemiap. 313
Disorders Causing Hypercalcemiap. 314
Treatment of Hypercalcemiap. 323
Hypocalcemiap. 324
Causes of Hypocalcemiap. 325
Treatment of Hypocalcemiap. 329
Bone Anatomy & Remodelingp. 330
Functions of Bonep. 330
Structure of Bonep. 330
Bone Remodelingp. 332
Osteoporosisp. 335
Treatment of Osteoporosisp. 338
Nonpharmacologic Aspects of Osteoporosis Managementp. 343
Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosisp. 343
Osteomalacia & Ricketsp. 345
Nephrotic Syndromep. 348
Hepatic Osteodystrophyp. 349
Drug-Induced Osteomalaciap. 349
Hypophosphatemic Disordersp. 349
Calcium Deficiencyp. 351
Primary Disorders of the Bone Matrixp. 351
Inhibitors of Mineralizationp. 352
Paget's Disease of Bone (Osteitis Deformans)p. 352
Renal Osteodystrophyp. 357
Glucocorticoids & Adrenal Androgensp. 362
Embryology & Anatomyp. 363
Biosynthesis of Cortisol & Adrenal Androgensp. 364
Circulation of Cortisol & Adrenal Androgensp. 371
Metabolism of Cortisol & Adrenal Androgensp. 371
Biologic Effects of Adrenal Steroidsp. 372
Glucocorticoidsp. 372
Adrenal Androgensp. 380
Laboratory Evaluationp. 380
Disorders of Adrenocortical Insufficiencyp. 384
Primary Adrenocortical Insufficiency (Addison's Disease)p. 384
Secondary Adrenocortical Insufficiencyp. 389
Diagnosis of Adrenocortical Insufficiencyp. 390
Treatment of Adrenocortical Insufficiencyp. 393
Prognosis of Adrenocortical Insufficiencyp. 395
Cushing's Syndromep. 395
Hirsutism & Virilismp. 408
Incidental Adrenal Massp. 408
Glucocorticoid Therapy for Nonendocrine Disordersp. 410
Endocrine Hypertensionp. 414
Hypertension of Adrenal Originp. 414
Synthesis, Metabolism, & Action of Mineralocorticoid Hormonesp. 414
Pathogenesis of Mineralocorticoid Hypertensionp. 416
Aldosterone & the Heartp. 417
Primary Aldosteronismp. 417
Syndromes Due to Excess Deoxycorticosterone Productionp. 422
Cushing's Syndromep. 424
Pseudohyperaldosteronismp. 425
Type II Pseudohypoaldosteronism (Arnold-Healy-Gordon Syndrome)p. 427
Hypertension of Renal Originp. 428
The Renin-Angiotensin Systemp. 428
The Renin-Angiotensin System & Hypertensionp. 431
Other Hormone Systems & Hypertensionp. 435
Insulinp. 435
Natriuretic Peptidesp. 436
Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factorp. 436
Endothelinp. 436
Kallikrein-Kinin Systemp. 437
Other Hormones & Autacoidsp. 437
Sympathetic Nervous Systemp. 437
Adrenal Medullap. 439
Historyp. 439
Anatomyp. 440
Hormones of the Adrenal Medullap. 441
Catecholaminesp. 441
Other Hormonesp. 451
Disorders of Adrenal Medullary Functionp. 451
Adrenal Medullary Hypofunctionp. 451
Adrenal Medullary Hyperfunctionp. 453
Pheochromocytomap. 453
Testesp. 478
Anatomy & Structure-Function Relationshipsp. 478
Testesp. 478
Accessory Structuresp. 480
Physiology of the Male Reproductive Systemp. 480
Gonadal Steroidsp. 480
Control of Testicular Functionp. 483
Evaluation of Male Gonadal Functionp. 484
Clinical Evaluationp. 484
Laboratory Tests of Testicular Functionp. 486
Pharmacology of Drugs Used to Treat Male Gonadal Disordersp. 488
Androgensp. 489
Gonadotropinsp. 490
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormonep. 490
Clinical Male Gonadal Disordersp. 490
Klinefelter's Syndrome (XXY Seminiferous Tubule Dysgenesis)p. 491
Bilateral Anorchia (Vanishing Testes Syndrome)p. 493
Cryptorchidismp. 494
Noonan's Syndrome (Male Turner's Syndrome)p. 496
Myotonic Dystrophyp. 497
Adult Leydig Cell Failure (Andropause)p. 499
Male Infertilityp. 500
Erectile Dysfunction (Impotence)p. 502
Gynecomastiap. 505
Testicular Tumorsp. 508
Female Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertilityp. 511
Embryology & Anatomyp. 511
Ovarian Steroidogenesisp. 514
Physiology of the Menstrual Cyclep. 514
Menstrual Disturbancesp. 522
Hypothalamic Amenorrheap. 522
Pituitary Amenorrheap. 525
Ovarian Amenorrheap. 528
Adrenal Causes of Amenorrheap. 535
Outflow Tract Disordersp. 538
Menopausep. 539
Oocyte Depletionp. 540
Endocrine System Changes with Agingp. 541
Menopausal Consequencesp. 542
Infertilityp. 544
Diagnosis of Infertilityp. 545
Management of the Infertile Couplep. 546
Contraceptionp. 547
Oral Contraceptivesp. 548
Contraception: Long-Acting Contraceptivesp. 555
Emergency Contraceptionp. 561
Abnormalities of Sexual Determination & Differentiationp. 564
Normal Sex Differentiationp. 564
Testicular & Ovarian Differentiationp. 569
Psychosexual Differentiationp. 576
Abnormal Sex Differentiationp. 576
Seminiferous Tubule Dysgenesis: Chromatin-Positive Klinefelter's Syndrome & Its Variantsp. 576
Syndrome of Gonadal Dysgenesis: Turner's Syndrome & Its Variantsp. 579
True Hermaphroditismp. 583
Female Pseudohermaphroditismp. 584
P450 Aromatase Deficiencyp. 589
Maternal Androgens & Progestogensp. 589
Male Pseudohermaphroditismp. 589
Unclassified Forms of Abnormal Sexual Development in Malesp. 599
Unclassified Forms of Abnormal Sexual Development in Femalesp. 601
Management of Patients with Intersex Problemsp. 601
Pubertyp. 608
Physiology of Pubertyp. 608
Delayed Puberty or Absent Puberty (Sexual Infantilism)p. 617
Precocious Puberty (Sexual Precocity)p. 628
The Endocrinology of Pregnancyp. 637
Conception & Implantationp. 637
Fetal-Placental-Decidual Unitp. 638
Polypeptide Hormonesp. 641
Steroid Hormonesp. 642
Maternal Adaptation to Pregnancyp. 643
Fetal Endocrinologyp. 647
Endocrine Control of Parturitionp. 649
Endocrinology of the Puerperiump. 650
Endocrine Disorders & Pregnancyp. 652
Pituitary Disordersp. 652
Pregnancy & Breast Cancerp. 653
Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancyp. 654
Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancyp. 655
Hypothyroidism in Pregnancyp. 656
Pancreatic Hormones & Diabetes Mellitusp. 658
The Endocrine Pancreasp. 658
Anatomy & Histologyp. 658
Hormones of the Endocrine Pancreasp. 660
Diabetes Mellitusp. 669
Classificationp. 669
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitusp. 669
Type 2 Diabetesp. 672
Other Specific Types of Diabetesp. 675
Clinical Features of Diabetes Mellitusp. 678
Type 1 Diabetesp. 678
Type 2 Diabetesp. 679
Urinalysisp. 679
Blood Glucose Testingp. 681
Serum Ketone Determinationsp. 682
Glycated Hemoglobin Assaysp. 682
Lipoproteins in Diabetesp. 683
Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitusp. 683
Oral Glucose Tolerance Testp. 684
Insulin Levelsp. 684
Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Testp. 685
Treatment of Diabetes Mellitusp. 689
Dietp. 689
Oral Agents for the Treatment of Hyperglycemiap. 690
Insulinp. 698
Steps in the Management of the Diabetic Patientp. 704
Acute Complications of Diabetes Mellitusp. 711
Hypoglycemiap. 711
Comap. 714
Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitusp. 723
Specific Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitusp. 725
Surgery in the Diabetic Patientp. 732
Diabetics Regulated by Diet Alonep. 732
Diabetics Taking Oral Hypoglycemic Agentsp. 732
Diabetics Taking Insulinp. 732
Diabetes Mellitus & Pregnancy (by John L. Kitzmiller, MD)p. 733
Prognosis for Patients with Diabetes Mellitusp. 741
Hypoglycemic Disordersp. 747
Pathophysiology of the Counterregulatory Response to Neuroglycopeniap. 747
Classification of Hypoglycemic Disordersp. 752
Clinical Presentation of Hypoglycemiap. 753
Specific Hypoglycemic Disordersp. 754
Symptomatic Fasting Hypoglycemia with Hyperinsulinismp. 754
Symptomatic Fasting Hypoglycemia without Hyperinsulinismp. 762
Nonfasting Hypoglycemia (Reactive Hypoglycemia)p. 763
Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolismp. 766
Atherosclerosisp. 766
Overview of Lipid Transportp. 767
Differentiation of Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolismp. 771
Clinical Descriptions of Primary & Secondary Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolismp. 774
The Hypertriglyceridemiasp. 774
Primary Hypertriglyceridemiap. 774
Secondary Hypertriglyceridemiap. 778
The Primary Hypercholesterolemiasp. 780
Familial Hypercholesterolemiap. 780
Familial Combined Hyperlipidemiap. 781
LP(a) Hyperlipoproteinemiap. 781
Familial Ligand-Defective APO Bp. 781
Cholesterol 7-[alpha]-Hydroxylase Deficiencyp. 781
Secondary Hypercholesterolemiap. 782
Hypothyroidismp. 782
Nephrosisp. 782
Immunoglobulin Disordersp. 782
Anorexia Nervosap. 782
Cholestasisp. 782
The Primary Hypolipidemiasp. 783
Primary Hypolipidemia Due to Deficiency of High-Density Lipoproteinsp. 783
Primary Hypolipidemia Due to Deficiency of APO B-Containing Lipoproteinsp. 784
Secondary Hypolipidemiap. 785
Other Disorders of Lipoprotein Metabolismp. 785
The Lipodystrophiesp. 785
Rare Disordersp. 786
Treatment of Hyperlipidemiap. 787
Dietary Factors in the Management of Lipoprotein Disordersp. 787
Drugs Used in Treatment of Hyperlipoproteinemiap. 789
Bile Acid Sequestrantsp. 789
Niacin (Nicotinic Acid)p. 789
Fibric Acid Derivativesp. 790
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitorsp. 790
Combined Drug Therapyp. 791
Possible Untoward Consequences of Lipid-Lowering Therapyp. 792
Obesity & Overweightp. 794
Controversies & Uncertainties Regarding the Pathogenesis of Obesityp. 804
Survey of Treatment Approaches & Their Efficacyp. 806
Dietary Therapiesp. 806
Surgical Treatment of Obesityp. 807
Pharmacologic Therapiesp. 807
Other Conditions Affected by Treatment of Obesity or Overweightp. 810
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitusp. 810
Hyperlipidemiap. 812
Polycystic Ovarian Syndromep. 812
Hypertensionp. 812
Gallstonesp. 812
Osteoarthritis & Other Weight-Sensitive Statesp. 812
A Systematic Approach to the Treatment of Obesityp. 813
Humoral Manifestations of Malignancyp. 814
Ectopic Hormone & Receptor Syndromesp. 814
Hypercalcemia of Malignancyp. 815
Ectopic Cushing's Syndromep. 819
Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH (SIADH) Secretionp. 822
Non-Islet Cell Tumors & Hypoglycemiap. 823
Other Hormones Secreted by Tumorsp. 824
Oncogenic Osteomalaciap. 825
Gut Hormonesp. 826
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasiap. 829
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN 1)p. 829
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN 2)p. 834
Other Disorders Characterized by Multiple Endocrine Organ Involvementp. 840
Geriatric Endocrinologyp. 842
Thyroid Function & Diseasep. 842
Disorders of the Thyroid Glandp. 843
Carbohydrate Intolerance & Diabetes Mellitusp. 847
Aging & the Physiology of Carbohydrate Intolerancep. 847
Diabetes Mellitusp. 847
Nonketotic Hyperosmolar Comap. 849
Osteoporosis & Calcium Homeostasisp. 850
Osteoporosisp. 850
Hyperparathyroidismp. 858
Changes in Water Balancep. 858
Hypernatremiap. 859
Hyponatremiap. 859
Hyporeninemic Hypoaldosteronismp. 859
Glucocorticoids & Stressp. 859
Disorders of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axisp. 860
Changes in Reproductive Function in Menp. 861
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasiap. 862
Endocrine Emergenciesp. 867
Myxedema Comap. 867
Thyroid Stormp. 869
Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysisp. 870
Amiodarone Induced Thyrotoxicosisp. 871
Acute Adrenal Insufficiencyp. 872
Pituitary Apoplexyp. 873
Diabetic Ketoacidosisp. 873
Nonketotic Hyperosmolar Comap. 878
Hypercalcemic Crisisp. 880
Acute Hypocalcemiap. 882
Hyponatremiap. 885
Diabetes Insipidusp. 888
AIDS Endocrinopathiesp. 893
Thyroid Disordersp. 893
Adrenal Disordersp. 895
Bone & Mineral Disordersp. 897
Gonadal Disordersp. 897
Pituitary Disordersp. 898
Pancreatic Disordersp. 898
Lipid Disordersp. 899
Conclusionp. 900
Endocrine Surgeryp. 902
Introductionp. 902
The Thyroid Glandp. 902
Developmental Thyroid Abnormalitiesp. 902
Hyperthyroidismp. 903
Thyroiditisp. 904
Nodular Goiterp. 904
Thyroid Nodulesp. 904
Thyroid Cancerp. 904
Conduct of Thyroidectomyp. 906
The Parathyroid Glandp. 908
Primary Hyperparathyroidismp. 908
Persistent & Recurrent Primary Hyperparathyroidismp. 910
Secondary Hyperparathyroidismp. 911
Special Consideration: Familial Hyperparathyroidismp. 911
Complications of Parathyroid Surgeryp. 911
The Adrenal (Suprarenal) Glandp. 911
Primary Hyperaldosteronismp. 911
Hypercortisolismp. 912
Sex Steroid Excessp. 912
Pheochromocytomap. 913
Adrenal Cortical Carcinomap. 913
Adrenal Incidentalomap. 913
Technique of Adrenalectomyp. 914
The Endocrine Pancreasp. 914
Insulinomap. 915
Gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome)p. 916
Vipoma (Verner-Morrison) Syndromep. 917
Glucagonomap. 917
Somatostatinomap. 917
Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Tumorsp. 917
Normal Hormone Reference Rangesp. 920
Indexp. 939
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