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Basic Methods of Structural Geology,9780130651785
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Basic Methods of Structural Geology

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780130651785

ISBN10:
0130651788
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/25/1988
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $106.00

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  • Basic Methods Of Structural Geology
    Basic Methods Of Structural Geology




Summary

Complete coverage of all the basic topics of structural geology.

Table of Contents

Contributing Authors v
Preface xiii
PART I ELEMENTARY TECHNIQUES 1(174)
Stephen Marshak
Gautam Mitra
Measurement of Attitude and Location
3(16)
Introduction
3(1)
Reference Frame
3(1)
Attitudes of Planes
4(3)
Attitudes of Lines
7(1)
Use of a Compass
8(6)
Locating Points with a Compass
14(5)
Exercises
17(2)
Interpretation and Construction of Contour Maps
19(26)
Introduction
19(1)
Elements of Contour Maps
19(3)
Interpretation of Topographic Maps
22(5)
Structure-Contour and Form-Line Contour Maps
27(3)
Isopach and Isochore Maps
30(2)
Construction of Contour Maps
32(13)
Exercises
35(10)
Geometric Methods I: Attitude Calculations
45(22)
Introduction
45(1)
Projections and Descriptive Geometry
45(2)
Three-Point Problems
47(2)
Calculation of Outcrop Trace from Attitude Data
49(1)
True and Apparent Dips
50(6)
Calculation of Linear Attitudes
56(11)
Exercises
60(7)
Geometric Methods II: Dimension Calculations
67(20)
Introduction
67(1)
Depth to a Plane
67(6)
Calculation of Layer Thickness
73(6)
Determination of Line Length
79(1)
Area of a Dipping Plane
80(1)
Descriptive-Geometry Analysis of Fault Offset
81(6)
Exercises
83(4)
Introduction to Stereographic Projections
87(18)
Introduction
87(1)
Concept of a Stereographic Projection
87(5)
The Stereonet
92(3)
Plotting Techniques
95(10)
Exercises
103(2)
Stereographic Poles and Rotations
105(26)
Introduction
105(1)
Pole to a Plane
105(2)
Angles between Lines and Planes
107(3)
Rotation
110(8)
Applications of Stereographic Rotations
118(13)
Exercises
124(7)
Calculation of Layer Attitude in Drill Holes
131(14)
Introduction
131(1)
Data from One Drill Hole
131(5)
Data from Two Drill Holes
136(4)
Data from Three Drill Holes
140(1)
Using Rotation for Drill-Hole Problems
141(4)
Exercises
143(2)
Equal-Area Projections and Structural Analysis
145(30)
Introduction
145(1)
Equal-Area Projections and the Schmidt Net
146(2)
Contouring of Equal-Area Plots
148(7)
Patterns of Point Data on Equal-Area Projections
155(2)
Analysis of Folding with an Equal-Area Net
157(2)
Analysis of Fabrics with an Equal-Area Net
159(16)
Exercises
171(4)
PART II SPECIAL TOPICS 175(210)
Stephen Marshak
Gautam Mitra
Interpretation of Geologic Maps
177(16)
Lucian B. Platt
Introduction
177(1)
Limitations of Map Scale
177(1)
Observing Local Details on a Map
178(1)
Understanding Intersections of Geologic Contacts
179(1)
Implications of Unit Thickness
180(1)
Steps in Analysis of Geologic Maps
181(4)
The Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses
185(1)
Summary
186(7)
Exercises
187(6)
Analysis of Data from Rock-Deformation Experiments
193(20)
Terry Engelder
Stephen Marshak
Introduction
193(1)
The Rock-Deformation Experiment
193(6)
Analysis of Rock Strength and Failure Criteria
199(3)
Analysis of Ductile Deformation
202(2)
Analysis of Rock Friction
204(5)
Frictional Properties of Fault Gouge
209(2)
Acknowledgments
211(2)
Additional Exercises
211(2)
Description of Mesoscopic Structures
213(36)
Gautam Mitra
Stephen Marshak
Introduction
213(1)
Folds
213(13)
Shear Zones, Faults, and Fault Zones
226(12)
Foliations
238(5)
Lineation
243(3)
Veins
246(3)
Analysis of Fracture Array Geometry
249(20)
Arthur Goldstein
Stephen Marshak
Introduction
249(1)
Characteristics of Joints
249(1)
Collection and Representation of Attitude Data on Joints
250(6)
Style, Age Analysis, and Interpretation of Joints
256(2)
Fault-Array Analysis
258(6)
Lineament-Array Analysis
264(1)
Acknowledgments
264(5)
Exercises
265(4)
Objective Methods for Constructing Profiles and Block Diagrams of Folds
269(34)
Steven Wojtal
Introduction
269(1)
Fold Styles and Section Lines
269(2)
Busk Method of Constructing Sections of Nonplunging Folds
271(6)
Kink-Style Construction of Nonplunging Folds
277(5)
Dip-Isogon Method of Constructing Fold Profiles
282(2)
Constructing Profiles of Nonparallel Folds by Orthographic Projection
284(2)
Constructing Profiles of Plunging Folds
286(6)
Constructing Block Diagrams
292(5)
Appendix: Use of a Computer for Down-Plunge Projections
297(6)
Exercises
297(6)
Introduction to Cross-Section Balancing
303(30)
Stephen Marshak
Nicholas Woodward
Introduction
303(1)
Terminology of Fold-Thrust Belts
304(5)
Concept of a Balanced Cross Section
309(5)
Drawing a Deformed-State Cross Section
314(3)
Restoring a Cross Section
317(3)
Evaluating and Improving a Section
320(4)
Depth-to-Detachment and Regional Shortening Calculations
324(1)
Applications of Balanced Cross Sections
325(1)
Acknowledgments
325(8)
Exercises
326(7)
Analysis of Two-Dimensional Finite Strain
333(28)
Carol Simpson
Introduction
333(1)
Displacement-Vector Patterns
333(2)
Strain Measurement
335(1)
Types of Homogeneous Strain
336(6)
Strain Markers
342(1)
Use of Originally Linear Strain Markers
343(2)
Use of Bilaterally Symmetrical Fossils
345(6)
Use of Originally Ellipsoidal Markers
351(8)
Concluding Remarks
359(1)
Acknowledgments
359(2)
Interpretation of Poly-Deformed Terranes
361(24)
Sharon Mosher
Mark Helper
Introduction
361(1)
Nomenclature
361(1)
Mapping and Data Analysis
362(1)
Superimposed Minor Folds
363(4)
Unraveling Multiple Fabrics
367(2)
Correlation of Structural Generations
369(5)
Possible Origins of Polyphase Structural Patterns
374(11)
Exercises
374(11)
PART III APPENDICES 385(42)
Appendix 1 Review of the key Concepts of Maps, Cross Sections, Diagrams, and photos
387(14)
A1-1 Introduction
387(1)
A1-2 Elements of Maps
387(7)
A1-3 Patterns of Simple Geologic Structures on Maps
394(3)
A1-4 Elements of Cross Sections and Profiles
397(1)
A1-5 Diagrams, Sketches, and Photos
398(2)
Exercises
400(1)
Appendix 2 Basic Trigonometry
401(2)
A2-1 Fundamental Identities
401(1)
A2-2 Law of Sines and Law of Cosines
402(1)
Appendix 3 Suggestions for Mapping Geologic Structures
403(4)
A3-1 Introduction
403(1)
A3-2 Matching Mapping Technique to the Problem
403(1)
A3-3 Aspects of Mapping Strategy
404(3)
Appendix 4 Templates for Plotting Geologic Data
407(20)
A4-1 Equal-Angle (Wulff) Net
409(2)
A4-2 Equal-Area (Schmidt) Net
411(2)
A4-3 Rose Diagram Grid
413(2)
A4-4 Lambert Polar Equal-Area Net
415(2)
A4-5 Kalsbeek Counting Net
417(2)
A4-6 Grid for Use with a Schmidt Counter
419(2)
A4-7 Schmidt Counter
421(2)
A4-8 Orthographic Net
423(2)
A4-9 Hyperbolic Net
425(2)
References 427(10)
Index 437


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