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What is included with this book?
Preface | p. XV |
Introduction | p. 1 |
What Do You Mean, "Statistics"? | p. 2 |
Clue to the future | p. 4 |
What's in It for Me? | p. 4 |
Some Terminology | p. 5 |
Problems and Answers | p. 8 |
Scales of Measurement | p. 9 |
Statistics and Experimental Design | p. 12 |
Experimental Design Variables | p. 13 |
Statistics and Philosophy | p. 15 |
Statistics: Then and Now | p. 16 |
Helpful Features of This Book | p. 16 |
Concluding Thoughts for This Introductory Chapter | p. 19 |
Additional Help for Chapter 1 | p. 21 |
Key Terms | p. 21 |
Transition passage to descriptive statistics | p. 23 |
Frequency Distributions and Graphs | p. 24 |
Simple Frequency Distributions | p. 26 |
Error detection | p. 27 |
Grouped Frequency Distributions | p. 28 |
Graphs of Frequency Distributions | p. 30 |
Describing Distributions | p. 34 |
The Line Graph | p. 36 |
More on Graphics | p. 36 |
A Moment to Reflect | p. 37 |
Additional Help for Chapter 2 | p. 38 |
Key Terms | p. 39 |
Central Tendency and Variability | p. 40 |
Measures of Central Tendency | p. 41 |
Finding Central Tendency of Simple Frequency Distributions | p. 44 |
Error detection | p. 46 |
Error detection | p. 47 |
When to Use the Mean, Median, and Mode | p. 47 |
Determining Skewness from the Mean and Median | p. 49 |
The Weighted Mean | p. 50 |
Variability | p. 52 |
The Range | p. 53 |
Interquartile Range | p. 54 |
The Standard Deviation | p. 55 |
The Standard Deviation as a Descriptive Index of Variabiiity | p. 56 |
Error detection | p. 57 |
Error detection | p. 59 |
Error detection | p. 61 |
S as an Estimate of [sigma] | p. 61 |
Error detection | p. 64 |
Clue to the future | p. 65 |
The Variance | p. 65 |
Clue to the future | p. 55 |
Estimating Answers | p. 66 |
Additional Help for Chapter 3 | p. 68 |
Key Terms | p. 68 |
Other Descriptive Statistics | p. 69 |
Using z Scores to Describe Individuals | p. 70 |
Clue to the future | p. 72 |
Boxplots | p. 73 |
Error detection | p. 75 |
Effect Size Index | p. 76 |
The Descriptive Statistics Report | p. 79 |
Additional Help for Chapter 4 | p. 82 |
Key Terms | p. 82 |
Transition passage to bivariate distributions | p. 83 |
Correlation and Regression | p. 84 |
Bivariate Distributions | p. 86 |
Positive Correlation | p. 87 |
Negative Correlation | p. 89 |
Zero Correlation | p. 91 |
Clue to the future | p. 91 |
The Correlation Coefficient | p. 92 |
Error detection | p. 93 |
Clue to the future | p. 96 |
Error detection | p. 96 |
Scatterplots | p. 97 |
Interpretations of r | p. 98 |
Uses of r | p. 100 |
Strong Relationships but Low Correlations | p. 103 |
Error detection | p. 106 |
Other Kinds of Correlation Coefficients | p. 106 |
Linear Regression | p. 107 |
Making Predictions from a Linear Equation | p. 107 |
The Regression Equation-A Line of Best Fit | p. 108 |
Error detection | p. 112 |
Additional Help for Chapter 5 | p. 116 |
Key Terms | p. 116 |
What Would You Recommend? Chapters 1-5 | p. 116 |
Transition passage to inferential statistics | p. 118 |
Theoretical Distributions Including the Normal Distribution | p. 119 |
Probability | p. 120 |
A Rectangular Distribution | p. 121 |
Clue to the future | p. 122 |
A Binomial Distribution | p. 122 |
Comparison of Theoretical and Empirical Distributions | p. 124 |
The Normal Distribution | p. 125 |
Error detection | p. 132 |
Clue to the future | p. 138 |
Comparison of Theoretical and Empirical Answers | p. 138 |
Other Theoretical Distributions | p. 139 |
Additional Help for Chapter 6 | p. 140 |
Key Terms | p. 140 |
Samples, Sampling Distributions, and Confidence Intervals | p. 141 |
Random Samples | p. 143 |
Biased Samples | p. 146 |
Research Samples | p. 146 |
Sampling Distributions | p. 147 |
Clue to the future | p. 148 |
The Sampling Distribution of the Mean | p. 148 |
Central Limit Theorem | p. 149 |
Constructing a Sampling Distribution When [sigma] Is Not Available | p. 155 |
The t Distribution | p. 156 |
Confidence Interval about a Sample Mean | p. 159 |
Clue to the future | p. 159 |
Error detection | p. 160 |
Categories of Inferential Statistics | p. 163 |
Additional Help for Chapter 7 | p. 164 |
Key Terms | p. 165 |
Transition passage to hypothesis testing | p. 166 |
Hypothesis Testing and Effect Size: One-Sample Designs | p. 167 |
The Logic of Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing (NHST) | p. 168 |
Clue to the future | p. 171 |
Using the t Distribution for Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing | p. 172 |
A Problem and the Accepted Solution | p. 174 |
The One-Sample t Test | p. 176 |
An Analysis of Possible Mistakes | p. 178 |
The Meaning of p in p < .05 | p. 180 |
One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests | p. 181 |
Effect Size Index | p. 184 |
Other Sampling Distributions | p. 185 |
Using the t Distribution to Test the Significance of a Correlation Coefficient | p. 186 |
Clue to the future | p. 186 |
Why .05? | p. 188 |
Additional Help for Chapter 8 | p. 190 |
Key Terms | p. 190 |
Hypothesis Testing, Effect Size, and Confidence Intervals: Two-Sample Designs | p. 191 |
A Short Lesson on How to Design an Experiment | p. 192 |
NHST: The Two-Sample Example | p. 194 |
Degrees of Freedom | p. 196 |
Paired-Samples Designs and Independent-Samples Designs | p. 197 |
Clue to the future | p. 197 |
The t Test for Independent-Samples Designs | p. 200 |
Clue to the future | p. 203 |
The t Test for Paired-Samples Designs | p. 205 |
Error detection | p. 208 |
Significant Results and Important Results | p. 210 |
Effect Size Index | p. 211 |
Establishing a Confidence Interval about a Mean Difference | p. 213 |
Error detection | p. 214 |
Reaching Correct Conclusions | p. 215 |
Statistical Power | p. 217 |
Additional Help for Chapter 9 | p. 220 |
Key Terms | p. 220 |
What Would You Recommend? Chapters 6-9 | p. 221 |
Transition passage to more complex designs | p. 222 |
Analysis of Variance: One-Way Classification | p. 223 |
Rationale of ANOVA | p. 225 |
More New Terms | p. 232 |
Clue to the future | p. 232 |
Sums of Squares | p. 232 |
Error detection | p. 236 |
Mean Squares and Degrees of Freedom | p. 237 |
Error detection | p. 238 |
Calculation and Interpretation of F Values Using the F Distribution | p. 238 |
Schedules of Reinforcement-A Lesson in Persistence | p. 240 |
Comparisons among Means | p. 242 |
Assumptions of the Analysis of Variance | p. 245 |
Effect Size Index | p. 246 |
Additional Help for Chapter 10 | p. 249 |
Key Terms | p. 249 |
Analysis of Variance: One-Factor Repeated Measures | p. 250 |
A Data Set | p. 251 |
One-Factor Repeated-Measures ANOVA: The Rationale | p. 252 |
An Example Problem | p. 252 |
Tukey HSD Tests | p. 256 |
Type I and Type II Errors | p. 257 |
Some Behind-the-Scenes Information about Repeated-Measures ANOVA | p. 258 |
Additional Help for Chapter 11 | p. 261 |
Key Terms | p. 261 |
Analysis of Variance: Factorial Design | p. 262 |
Factorial Design | p. 263 |
Main Effects and Interaction | p. 267 |
Clue to the future | p. 272 |
A Simple Example of a Factorial Design | p. 273 |
Error detection | p. 277 |
Error detection | p. 279 |
Error detection | p. 281 |
Analysis of a 2 X 3 Design | p. 282 |
Comparing Levels within a Factor-Tukey HSD Tests | p. 289 |
Effect Size Indexes for Factorial ANOVA | p. 290 |
Restrictions and Limitations | p. 291 |
Additional Help for Chapter 12 | p. 292 |
Key Terms | p. 292 |
Transition passage to nonparametric statistics | p. 293 |
CHI Square Tests | p. 294 |
Error detection | p. 295 |
The Chi Square Distribution and the Chi Square Test | p. 296 |
Chi Square as a Test of Independence | p. 297 |
Error detection | p. 299 |
Shortcut for Any 2 X 2 Table | p. 300 |
Effect Size Index for 2 X 2 Chi Square Data | p. 301 |
Chi Square as a Test for Goodness of Fit | p. 303 |
Chi Square with More Than One Degree of Freedom | p. 306 |
Small Expected Frequencies | p. 310 |
When You May Use Chi Square | p. 313 |
Error detection | p. 313 |
Additional Help for Chapter 13 | p. 316 |
Key Terms | p. 316 |
More Nonparametric Tests | p. 317 |
The Rationale of Nonparametric Tests | p. 318 |
Comparison of Nonparametric to Parametric Tests | p. 319 |
Clue to the future | p. 320 |
The Mann-Whitney U Test | p. 321 |
Error detection | p. 322 |
Error detection | p. 323 |
Error detection | p. 324 |
The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks T Test | p. 327 |
The Wilcoxon-Wilcox Multiple-Comparisons Test | p. 333 |
Correlation of Ranked Data | p. 336 |
Error detection | p. 338 |
My Final Word | p. 339 |
Additional Help for Chapter 14 | p. 341 |
Key Terms | p. 342 |
What Would You Recommend? Chapters 10-14 | p. 342 |
Choosing Tests and Writing Interpretations | p. 344 |
A Review | p. 344 |
Future Steps | p. 345 |
Choosing Tests and Writing Interpretations | p. 346 |
Additional Help for Chapter 15 | p. 356 |
Key Terms | p. 356 |
Appendixes | |
Arithmetic and Algebra Review | p. 359 |
Grouped Frequency Distributions and Central Tendency | p. 373 |
Tables | p. 378 |
Glossary of Words | p. 399 |
Glossary of Symbols | p. 403 |
Glossary of Formulas | p. 405 |
Answers to Problems | p. 412 |
References | p. 465 |
Index | p. 471 |
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