Preface | p. XV |

Introduction | p. 1 |

What Do You Mean, "Statistics"? | p. 2 |

Clue to the future | p. 4 |

What's in It for Me? | p. 4 |

Some Terminology | p. 5 |

Problems and Answers | p. 8 |

Scales of Measurement | p. 9 |

Statistics and Experimental Design | p. 12 |

Experimental Design Variables | p. 13 |

Statistics and Philosophy | p. 15 |

Statistics: Then and Now | p. 16 |

Helpful Features of This Book | p. 16 |

Concluding Thoughts for This Introductory Chapter | p. 19 |

Additional Help for Chapter 1 | p. 21 |

Key Terms | p. 21 |

Transition passage to descriptive statistics | p. 23 |

Frequency Distributions and Graphs | p. 24 |

Simple Frequency Distributions | p. 26 |

Error detection | p. 27 |

Grouped Frequency Distributions | p. 28 |

Graphs of Frequency Distributions | p. 30 |

Describing Distributions | p. 34 |

The Line Graph | p. 36 |

More on Graphics | p. 36 |

A Moment to Reflect | p. 37 |

Additional Help for Chapter 2 | p. 38 |

Key Terms | p. 39 |

Central Tendency and Variability | p. 40 |

Measures of Central Tendency | p. 41 |

Finding Central Tendency of Simple Frequency Distributions | p. 44 |

Error detection | p. 46 |

Error detection | p. 47 |

When to Use the Mean, Median, and Mode | p. 47 |

Determining Skewness from the Mean and Median | p. 49 |

The Weighted Mean | p. 50 |

Variability | p. 52 |

The Range | p. 53 |

Interquartile Range | p. 54 |

The Standard Deviation | p. 55 |

The Standard Deviation as a Descriptive Index of Variabiiity | p. 56 |

Error detection | p. 57 |

Error detection | p. 59 |

Error detection | p. 61 |

S as an Estimate of [sigma] | p. 61 |

Error detection | p. 64 |

Clue to the future | p. 65 |

The Variance | p. 65 |

Clue to the future | p. 55 |

Estimating Answers | p. 66 |

Additional Help for Chapter 3 | p. 68 |

Key Terms | p. 68 |

Other Descriptive Statistics | p. 69 |

Using z Scores to Describe Individuals | p. 70 |

Clue to the future | p. 72 |

Boxplots | p. 73 |

Error detection | p. 75 |

Effect Size Index | p. 76 |

The Descriptive Statistics Report | p. 79 |

Additional Help for Chapter 4 | p. 82 |

Key Terms | p. 82 |

Transition passage to bivariate distributions | p. 83 |

Correlation and Regression | p. 84 |

Bivariate Distributions | p. 86 |

Positive Correlation | p. 87 |

Negative Correlation | p. 89 |

Zero Correlation | p. 91 |

Clue to the future | p. 91 |

The Correlation Coefficient | p. 92 |

Error detection | p. 93 |

Clue to the future | p. 96 |

Error detection | p. 96 |

Scatterplots | p. 97 |

Interpretations of r | p. 98 |

Uses of r | p. 100 |

Strong Relationships but Low Correlations | p. 103 |

Error detection | p. 106 |

Other Kinds of Correlation Coefficients | p. 106 |

Linear Regression | p. 107 |

Making Predictions from a Linear Equation | p. 107 |

The Regression Equation-A Line of Best Fit | p. 108 |

Error detection | p. 112 |

Additional Help for Chapter 5 | p. 116 |

Key Terms | p. 116 |

What Would You Recommend? Chapters 1-5 | p. 116 |

Transition passage to inferential statistics | p. 118 |

Theoretical Distributions Including the Normal Distribution | p. 119 |

Probability | p. 120 |

A Rectangular Distribution | p. 121 |

Clue to the future | p. 122 |

A Binomial Distribution | p. 122 |

Comparison of Theoretical and Empirical Distributions | p. 124 |

The Normal Distribution | p. 125 |

Error detection | p. 132 |

Clue to the future | p. 138 |

Comparison of Theoretical and Empirical Answers | p. 138 |

Other Theoretical Distributions | p. 139 |

Additional Help for Chapter 6 | p. 140 |

Key Terms | p. 140 |

Samples, Sampling Distributions, and Confidence Intervals | p. 141 |

Random Samples | p. 143 |

Biased Samples | p. 146 |

Research Samples | p. 146 |

Sampling Distributions | p. 147 |

Clue to the future | p. 148 |

The Sampling Distribution of the Mean | p. 148 |

Central Limit Theorem | p. 149 |

Constructing a Sampling Distribution When [sigma] Is Not Available | p. 155 |

The t Distribution | p. 156 |

Confidence Interval about a Sample Mean | p. 159 |

Clue to the future | p. 159 |

Error detection | p. 160 |

Categories of Inferential Statistics | p. 163 |

Additional Help for Chapter 7 | p. 164 |

Key Terms | p. 165 |

Transition passage to hypothesis testing | p. 166 |

Hypothesis Testing and Effect Size: One-Sample Designs | p. 167 |

The Logic of Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing (NHST) | p. 168 |

Clue to the future | p. 171 |

Using the t Distribution for Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing | p. 172 |

A Problem and the Accepted Solution | p. 174 |

The One-Sample t Test | p. 176 |

An Analysis of Possible Mistakes | p. 178 |

The Meaning of p in p < .05 | p. 180 |

One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests | p. 181 |

Effect Size Index | p. 184 |

Other Sampling Distributions | p. 185 |

Using the t Distribution to Test the Significance of a Correlation Coefficient | p. 186 |

Clue to the future | p. 186 |

Why .05? | p. 188 |

Additional Help for Chapter 8 | p. 190 |

Key Terms | p. 190 |

Hypothesis Testing, Effect Size, and Confidence Intervals: Two-Sample Designs | p. 191 |

A Short Lesson on How to Design an Experiment | p. 192 |

NHST: The Two-Sample Example | p. 194 |

Degrees of Freedom | p. 196 |

Paired-Samples Designs and Independent-Samples Designs | p. 197 |

Clue to the future | p. 197 |

The t Test for Independent-Samples Designs | p. 200 |

Clue to the future | p. 203 |

The t Test for Paired-Samples Designs | p. 205 |

Error detection | p. 208 |

Significant Results and Important Results | p. 210 |

Effect Size Index | p. 211 |

Establishing a Confidence Interval about a Mean Difference | p. 213 |

Error detection | p. 214 |

Reaching Correct Conclusions | p. 215 |

Statistical Power | p. 217 |

Additional Help for Chapter 9 | p. 220 |

Key Terms | p. 220 |

What Would You Recommend? Chapters 6-9 | p. 221 |

Transition passage to more complex designs | p. 222 |

Analysis of Variance: One-Way Classification | p. 223 |

Rationale of ANOVA | p. 225 |

More New Terms | p. 232 |

Clue to the future | p. 232 |

Sums of Squares | p. 232 |

Error detection | p. 236 |

Mean Squares and Degrees of Freedom | p. 237 |

Error detection | p. 238 |

Calculation and Interpretation of F Values Using the F Distribution | p. 238 |

Schedules of Reinforcement-A Lesson in Persistence | p. 240 |

Comparisons among Means | p. 242 |

Assumptions of the Analysis of Variance | p. 245 |

Effect Size Index | p. 246 |

Additional Help for Chapter 10 | p. 249 |

Key Terms | p. 249 |

Analysis of Variance: One-Factor Repeated Measures | p. 250 |

A Data Set | p. 251 |

One-Factor Repeated-Measures ANOVA: The Rationale | p. 252 |

An Example Problem | p. 252 |

Tukey HSD Tests | p. 256 |

Type I and Type II Errors | p. 257 |

Some Behind-the-Scenes Information about Repeated-Measures ANOVA | p. 258 |

Additional Help for Chapter 11 | p. 261 |

Key Terms | p. 261 |

Analysis of Variance: Factorial Design | p. 262 |

Factorial Design | p. 263 |

Main Effects and Interaction | p. 267 |

Clue to the future | p. 272 |

A Simple Example of a Factorial Design | p. 273 |

Error detection | p. 277 |

Error detection | p. 279 |

Error detection | p. 281 |

Analysis of a 2 X 3 Design | p. 282 |

Comparing Levels within a Factor-Tukey HSD Tests | p. 289 |

Effect Size Indexes for Factorial ANOVA | p. 290 |

Restrictions and Limitations | p. 291 |

Additional Help for Chapter 12 | p. 292 |

Key Terms | p. 292 |

Transition passage to nonparametric statistics | p. 293 |

CHI Square Tests | p. 294 |

Error detection | p. 295 |

The Chi Square Distribution and the Chi Square Test | p. 296 |

Chi Square as a Test of Independence | p. 297 |

Error detection | p. 299 |

Shortcut for Any 2 X 2 Table | p. 300 |

Effect Size Index for 2 X 2 Chi Square Data | p. 301 |

Chi Square as a Test for Goodness of Fit | p. 303 |

Chi Square with More Than One Degree of Freedom | p. 306 |

Small Expected Frequencies | p. 310 |

When You May Use Chi Square | p. 313 |

Error detection | p. 313 |

Additional Help for Chapter 13 | p. 316 |

Key Terms | p. 316 |

More Nonparametric Tests | p. 317 |

The Rationale of Nonparametric Tests | p. 318 |

Comparison of Nonparametric to Parametric Tests | p. 319 |

Clue to the future | p. 320 |

The Mann-Whitney U Test | p. 321 |

Error detection | p. 322 |

Error detection | p. 323 |

Error detection | p. 324 |

The Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks T Test | p. 327 |

The Wilcoxon-Wilcox Multiple-Comparisons Test | p. 333 |

Correlation of Ranked Data | p. 336 |

Error detection | p. 338 |

My Final Word | p. 339 |

Additional Help for Chapter 14 | p. 341 |

Key Terms | p. 342 |

What Would You Recommend? Chapters 10-14 | p. 342 |

Choosing Tests and Writing Interpretations | p. 344 |

A Review | p. 344 |

Future Steps | p. 345 |

Choosing Tests and Writing Interpretations | p. 346 |

Additional Help for Chapter 15 | p. 356 |

Key Terms | p. 356 |

Appendixes | |

Arithmetic and Algebra Review | p. 359 |

Grouped Frequency Distributions and Central Tendency | p. 373 |

Tables | p. 378 |

Glossary of Words | p. 399 |

Glossary of Symbols | p. 403 |

Glossary of Formulas | p. 405 |

Answers to Problems | p. 412 |

References | p. 465 |

Index | p. 471 |

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