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Becoming A Critical Thinker,9780618527830

Becoming A Critical Thinker

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780618527830

ISBN10:
0618527834
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $48.00
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Summary

The Fifth Edition ofBecoming a Critical Thinkerhas increased its market appeal by enhancing sections on persuasive communication and evaluating arguments, while continuing to stress concrete and practical applications of critical thinking in everyday situations. Coverage of technology has also been enhanced. The text breaks up critical thinking into a series of cumulative activities, taking a "student-as-consumer-of-information" perspective that encourages students to apply the skills outlined to their own lives. This unique approach has made this text a staple of many critical thinking courses. The Fifth Edition strengthens the connection between critical thinking and career preparation with new material throughout the text that focuses on communication and the evaluation of evidence in the workplace. Additionally, a new section in Chapter 6 called "Thinking Critically about Careers" addresses practical ways to apply critical thinking to career decisions. With the goals of improving students' sense of self-empowerment and their ability to communicate effectively in any situation, this text helps create a flow from the fundamentals of thinking to the exploration of arguments and evidence. A concise structure makes the text a useful supplement to any student success course. "Good Thinking" boxesfeature profiles of individuals that underscore the role of critical thinking in achievement. These boxes appear throughout the text and offer students a variety of role models to emulate. Exercisesencourage students to put strategies to practical use in their daily lives. Students are also asked to analyze and compare real arguments and viewpoints on contemporary topics as a way of expanding their own reasoning capabilities. Quizzesat the end of each chapter allow students to test their understanding of chapter concepts.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments v
To the Instructor xiii
Introduction: Strategies for Effective Learning xv
Good Thinking! The Story of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth xv
Plan your days xvi
Good Thinking! The Story of Art Fry xvi
View frustrations as opportunities xvi
Tackle unpleasant tasks immediately xvii
Chip away at big jobs xviii
Take charge of your mind xviii
Listen actively xix
Refuse to tolerate confusion xix
Study efficiently xix
Capture insights xx
Read for understanding xx
Keep a journal xxi
Turn these strategies into habits xxi
Fundamentals of Thinking
1(30)
What is intelligence?
2(1)
Good Thinking! The Story of Albert Einstein
3(1)
What is thinking?
4(1)
Key principles of thinking
5(5)
Truth is discovered, not created
5(2)
A statement can't be both true and false at the same time and in the same way
7(2)
All people make mistakes, even experts
9(1)
Good Thinking! The Story of Elizabeth Loftus
10(2)
Ideas can be examined without being embraced
11(1)
Feeling is no substitute for thinking
11(1)
Identifying facts and opinions
12(3)
Checking facts and testing opinions
15(6)
Consult everyday experience
17(1)
Consider the opinion's likely consequences
17(1)
Consider the implications
17(1)
Think of exceptions
18(1)
Think of counterexamples
18(1)
Reverse the opinion
19(1)
Look for relevant research
19(2)
Evaluating evidence
21(3)
Dare to change your mind
24(1)
Good Thinking! The Story of Stanton Samenow
24(2)
A comprehensive thinking strategy
26(4)
Step 1: Identify facts and opinions
27(1)
Step 2: Check the facts and test the opinion(s)
27(1)
Step 3: Evaluate the evidence
27(1)
Step 4: Make your judgment
27(3)
Quiz
30(1)
Persuasive Communication
31(26)
What is persuasion?
32(3)
Opportunities in the classroom
33(1)
Opportunities in the workplace
33(1)
Opportunities in the community
34(1)
Opportunities in relationships
34(1)
How is persuasion achieved?
35(1)
Respect your audience
35(1)
Understand your audience's viewpoint(s)
35(1)
Begin on a point of agreement
35(1)
Good Thinking! The Story of Dale Carnegie
36(2)
Acknowledge unpleasant facts and make appropriate concessions
36(1)
Apply the Golden Rule
37(1)
Keep your expectations modest
37(1)
Strategy for persuasive writing
38(3)
Step 1: State what you think about the issue and why you think it
38(1)
Step 2: Consider how those who disagree might react to your view
39(1)
Step 3: Arrange your ideas and write a draft of your presentation
39(1)
Step 4: Check your draft for matters of style
40(1)
Step 5: Check your draft for grammar, usage, punctuation, and spelling
40(1)
Good Thinking! The Story of George Orwell
41(1)
Overcoming errors in grammar
42(3)
Make your subjects and predicates agree
42(1)
Choose correct pronoun case
42(1)
Avoid sentence fragements
43(1)
Avoid mixed constructions
43(1)
Make pronoun reference clear and accurate
44(1)
Distinguish adverbs from adjectives
44(1)
Choose proper comparatives and superlatives
44(1)
Overcoming errors in usage
45(2)
Strategy for persuasive speaking
47(2)
Step 4: Create note cards
47(1)
Step 5: Rehearse using a tape or video recorder
48(1)
Strategy for group discussion
49(6)
Quiz
55(2)
Becoming an Individual
57(30)
What is individuality?
58(1)
Good Thinking! The Story of Viktor Frankl
59(1)
Acknowledging influences
59(2)
Understanding attitudes
61(5)
Four empowering attitudes
66(3)
Attitude 1: There's always room for improvement
66(1)
Attitude 2: Criticism, including self-criticism, has value
67(1)
Attitude 3: Effort is the key to success
67(1)
Attitude 4: Other people are as important as I am
68(1)
Recognizing manipulation
69(3)
Biased reporting
69(1)
Dishonest appeals to emotion
70(1)
Stacking the deck
71(1)
Suppressing dissent
71(1)
Repetition
72(1)
Resisting manipulation
72(5)
Step 1: Be prepared
72(1)
Step 2: Ask questions
73(2)
Step 3: Be imaginative
75(2)
Good Thinking! The Story of Nellie Bly
77(2)
Step 4: Check sources
78(1)
Habits for individuality
79(7)
Be wary of first impressions
79(1)
Be honest with yourself
80(1)
Fight confusion
80(1)
Produce many ideas
80(2)
Acknowledge complexity
82(1)
Look for connections among subjects
82(1)
Consider other viewpoints
82(1)
Base your judgment on evidence
83(3)
Quiz
86(1)
Evaluating Arguments
87(30)
What is an argument?
88(1)
Conducting library research
89(1)
Good Thinking! The Melvil Dewey Story
90(1)
Conducting Internet research
91(3)
Use a search engine
91(1)
Develop a resource list
91(3)
Conducting an interview
94(1)
Avoiding plagiarism
95(2)
Revisiting evidence
97(2)
Anecdotes and cases-in-point
97(1)
Published reports
98(1)
Eyewitness testimony
98(1)
Expert testimony
98(1)
Good Thinking! The Story of Walter Reed
99(2)
Experiments
100(1)
Statistical studies
100(1)
Surveys
100(1)
Research reviews
100(1)
Evaluating complex arguments
101(6)
Step 1: Identify facts and opinions
101(3)
Step 2: Check the facts and test the opinions
104(1)
Step 3: Conduct research
105(1)
Step 4: Evaluate the evidence
105(2)
Step 5: Make your judgment
107(1)
A caution about bias
107(9)
Quiz
116(1)
Recognizing Errors in Thinking
117(28)
Three kinds of errors
118(1)
Errors of perception
118(2)
``Mine is better'' thinking
118(1)
Selective perception
119(1)
Gullibility and skepticism
119(1)
Good Thinking! The Story of Paul Vitz
120(3)
Bias
121(1)
Pretending to know
122(1)
Either/or thinking
122(1)
Errors of judgment
123(2)
Double standard
123(1)
Irrelevant criterion
124(1)
Overgeneralizing or stereotyping
124(1)
Good Thinking! The Story of Carol Tavris
125(9)
Hasty conclusion
126(1)
Unwarranted assumption
126(2)
Failure to make a distinction
128(1)
Oversimplification
129(5)
Errors of reaction
134(4)
Explaining away
134(1)
Shifting the burden of proof
134(1)
Attacking the person
135(1)
Straw man
135(3)
Errors can multiply
138(5)
Quiz
143(2)
Applying Your Thinking Skills
145(54)
Thinking critically about everyday problems
146(4)
Step 1: Be alert for problems
147(1)
Step 2: Express the problem
147(1)
Step 3: List possible solutions
148(1)
Step 4: Select and refine your best solution
148(2)
Thinking critically about relationships
150(2)
Good Thinking! The Story of Aaron Feuerstein
152(4)
Guidelines for successful relationships
153(3)
Thinking critically about careers
156(3)
A sensible approach
158(1)
Thinking critically about ethical judgments
159(4)
A better basis for judgment
162(1)
Good Thinking! the Story of Chiara Lubich
163(4)
Applying the criteria
164(1)
A sample case
164(3)
Thinking critically about commercials
167(5)
Bandwagon
168(1)
Glittering generality
168(1)
Empty comparison
168(1)
Meaningless slogan
168(1)
Testimonial
169(1)
Transfer
169(1)
Stacking the deck
169(1)
Misleading statement
170(2)
Thinking critically about print advertising
172(3)
Thinking critically about television programming
175(7)
Thinking critically about movies
182(3)
Characters
183(1)
Setting
183(1)
Plot
183(1)
Theme
183(2)
Thinking critically about music
185(2)
Thinking critically about magazines
187(3)
Thinking critically about newspapers
190(3)
Thinking critically about the Internet
193(3)
Whose site is this?
193(1)
What function does the site serve?
193(1)
Which statements are fact and which are opinion?
193(1)
Where can statements of fact be confirmed?
194(1)
How widely shared is this opinion? What do authorities on the subject think of it?
194(1)
Is the reasoning behind the opinion logical?
194(1)
Does the evidence support the opinion?
195(1)
Quiz
196(3)
Epilogue 199(1)
Make the end a beginning 199(2)
Works Cited 201(2)
Bibliography 203(4)
Index 207(4)
About the Author 211


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