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Becoming a Critical Thinker: A User Friendly Manual,9780130289223

Becoming a Critical Thinker: A User Friendly Manual

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780130289223

ISBN10:
0130289221
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $45.00

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This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 1/1/2001.
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Summary

For courses in Critical Thinking, Informal Logic, Rhetoric, Argumentation, and English courses which cover the Argumentative Essay. This text trains students to distinguish high-quality, well-supported arguments from arguments with little or no evidence to support them. It develops the skills required to effectively evaluate the many claims facing them as citizens, learners, consumers, and human beings, and also to be effective advocates for their beliefs.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Foundations of Arguments
1(21)
What Is a Critical Thinker and When Do You Need to Be One?
The Structure of Argument
3(19)
The Issue
4(3)
The Conclusion
7(2)
The Reasons
9(4)
``War on Drugs Fails: We Need New Approach''
13(1)
``Cause, Not the Effect''
14(1)
``Nothing Positive in Airbag News''
14(2)
Highlights
16(1)
Checkup
16(1)
Articles for Discussion
17(1)
``Talk-Show Host Angers Disabled Community''
17(2)
``Radio Show on Rights of Disabled Defended''
19(2)
More Ideas for Writing or Speaking
21(1)
Values and Ethics
22(37)
What Price Ethics and Can You Afford Not to Pay?
``Question Man: Fictional Character You Admire Most?''
23(1)
Value Assumptions and Conflicts
24(10)
``Do Colleges Treat Asian-American Applicants Fairly?''
28(1)
``Affirmative Action Triumphs: The Untold Stories''
29(2)
``The Backlash of Affirmative Action''
31(2)
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
33(1)
Ethics---An Important Dimension of Values
34(6)
Libertarianism
35(1)
Utilitarianism
35(1)
Egalitarianism
36(1)
Judeo-Christian Principles
36(1)
Universal Ethical Norms or Universal Action-Guiding Principles
37(1)
``One Bandit's Ethic''
37(1)
``Staffer Gets Subpoenaed''
38(2)
Ideal Values Versus Real Values
40(2)
Ethics in Argumentation
42(1)
Ethical Decision Making
43(16)
``Common Rationalizations''
46(3)
``Ohio Reverend, Feeding Poor with Illegal Stamps, Faces Jail''
49(1)
Highlights
50(1)
Checkup
50(1)
Articles for Discussion
51(1)
``National Public Radio''
51(2)
``Music, to Wal-Mart's Ears, Should Be 'Clean'''
53(2)
``Student Markets Primer on the Art of Cheating''
55(2)
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
57(2)
Reality Assumptions
59(38)
It's Eleven O'Clock. Do You Know Where Your Assumptions Are?
Reality Assumptions
60(1)
Detecting Reality Assumptions
61(2)
The Need to Examine Assumptions
63(6)
``Acquittal Outrages Women''
67(2)
Deductive Reasoning
69(4)
Validity in Deductive Arguments: Using the Correct Form
70(3)
Truth in Deductive Arguments
73(2)
The Uses of Deductive Reasoning
75(7)
Using Deductive Reasoning to Discover Truth
76(3)
Using Deductive Reasoning to Combat Prejudice and Stereotyping
79(2)
Summary
81(1)
The Premise of Contention: Using Deduction to Understand Argument
82(15)
Highlights
84(1)
Checkup
85(1)
Articles for Discussion
85(1)
``Just Walk on By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space''
85(4)
``Is This the Promised Land?''
89(4)
``Wasted Food, Discovered Souls''
93(2)
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
95(1)
``The Ant and the Grasshopper''
96(1)
Inductive Arguments: Statistical And Causal Generalizations
97(42)
Prove It to Me: What Are the Statistics?
Inductive Reasoning
98(4)
Statistical Evidence
102(1)
The Use of Statistics
102(3)
``Sexual Diseases Are a Growing Scourge in the U.S.''
104(1)
How the Research is Done
105(6)
The Sample Must Be Large Enough
106(2)
The Sample Must Represent the Target Audience
108(1)
The Sample Must Be Random
108(1)
Questions to Ask About Statistical Reports
109(2)
Using Surveys as Evidence
111(1)
Statistical Generalizations
112(1)
``At a Lecture---Only 12 Percent Listen''
113(1)
The Reporting of Statistical Studies
113(2)
``Family Members, Not Strangers, Abduct Most Children''
14
Causal Generalizations
115(1)
``Ann Landers''
115(1)
Hume's Conditions for Cause and Effect
116(1)
Technical Causation
116(9)
Multiple Causes
118(3)
``Asian Women in U.S. Face Higher Cancer Risk''
121(1)
``Self-Segregation''
122(1)
``Curb Teen Smoking by Valuing Kids''
123(1)
Immediate Causes
124(1)
Mill's Analysis of Cause and Effect
125(2)
Method of Agreement
125(1)
Method of Difference
126(1)
Using Difference and Similarity Together to Determine Cause
127(12)
Highlights
128(1)
Checkup
128(1)
Articles for Discussion
129(1)
``Despite Options on Census, Many to Check 'Black' Only''
129(4)
``Researchers Practice the Science and Art of Public-Opinion Polling''
133(4)
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
137(1)
Longer-Term Writing Assignment
138(1)
Inductive Generalizations: Controlled Studies and Analogies
139(43)
Who Said So? Who Are They Anyway?
Research Design
141(1)
Criteria for Evaluating Research Findings
142(6)
Controversy in Research Findings
148(6)
``Study Implies Nicotine Prevents Alzheimer's''
150(2)
``Sickening Experiment on Human Subjects''
152(2)
Use of Authority: Expert Testimony
154(4)
``An Opinion with Substance''
157(1)
Problems with Expert Testimony
158(10)
``CBS News---48 Hours''
165(3)
Reasoning by Analogy
168(14)
Highlights
171(1)
Checkup
171(1)
Articles for Discussion
172(1)
``Food News Blues''
172(6)
``Study: Educational TV Truly Makes Kids Smarter''
178(2)
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
180(2)
Reasoning Errors
182(37)
I Know What I Think. Don't Confuse Me with Facts
Inadequate Reasons as Fallacies
183(18)
Faulty Analogies
183(4)
False Cause: Post Hoc Ergo Procter Hoc
187(2)
Ad Hominem: Attacking the Person
189(4)
The Slippery Slope
193(2)
Hasty Conclusions
195(6)
Fallacies that Mislead
201(9)
The Red Herring
201(1)
Ad Populum: Jumping on the Bandwagon
202(2)
Appeal to Tradition: ``We've Always Done It This Way''
204(1)
The False Dilemma
205(2)
Begging the Question
207(3)
What's My Fallacy?
210(9)
Game rules
210(1)
Scoring
210(1)
Highlights
211(1)
Checkup
211(1)
Articles for Discussion
212(1)
``Ashamed of Strug's Sacrifice''
212(1)
``Kerri Strug Made Reader Cheer''
213(1)
``Keep Women Off the Streets''
213(1)
``Who's to Say Who Earns Too Much?''
214(2)
``Sowell Column Got It All Wrong''
216(2)
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
218(1)
The Power of Language
219(34)
Talk Is Not Cheap. So Who Pays for It?
Denotation and Connotation
220(3)
The Power of Connotation
223(2)
Reification: When Words Take on More Power Than Reality
225(3)
Meanings are in People
228(4)
``Case Closed: Bladder Threat, Not Bomb''
229(2)
``Sure I'm Committed...Oops...Bye-Bye''
231(1)
The Problem of Vagueness
232(2)
Ambiguity in Language
234(2)
Doublespeak, Including Weasel Words
236(17)
Highlights
244(1)
Checkup
244(1)
Articles for Discussion
245(1)
``African-American' Is an Imprecise, Debatable Term''
245(2)
``What's in a Name?''
247(1)
``Free-Range? Sorting Out the Poultry Labels''
248(3)
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
251(2)
Suggestion in Media
253(37)
Is What You See What You Get? Do You Really Want It?
``The Lost Art of the Public Speech''
254(1)
Suggestion in Daily Life
255(1)
Televised Suggestion
256(8)
The Selection of Issues
256(2)
The Time Factor
258(1)
The Selection of Guest and Panel Members
259(1)
What Is Included or Excluded on a Set
260(1)
The Nonverbal Element of Clothing
261(1)
The Use of Language
262(1)
Camera Angles and Cuts
262(1)
Camera Distance and Framing
263(1)
Suggestion in Print Media
264(5)
The Use of Headlines
265(1)
``Report on Chocolate May Bring a Real High''
266(1)
The Balance of Reporting on an Issue
267(1)
Fairness in Editorial Essays and Letters
267(1)
Photo Composition
268(1)
The Power of Media to Shape Information
269(4)
``'Kids' Section Portrays Lorene Unfairly''
270(3)
Subliminal Persuasion
273(17)
Persuasion We Can Detect
274(1)
The Gestalt Principle
274(2)
Persuasion We Cannot Detect
276(1)
Highlights
277(1)
Checkup
277(1)
Articles for Discussion
278(1)
``Store Design and Consumer Behavior''
278(2)
``When Movies Go to War, Pentagon Tags Along''
280(1)
``Survey Comes Clean About Sex on Soap Operas''
281(2)
``Prelude to Vegas''
283(4)
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
287(3)
Fair-Mindedness
290(38)
It's You and Me, Kid, and I'm Not So Sure About You
How we Defend Our Egos
293(5)
Conformity and ways to Overcome it
298(3)
Areas where we have Trouble Being Rational
301(5)
Antidotes for Points of Logical Vulnerability
303(3)
Actively and Accurately Listening: Developing Empathy
306(1)
The Art of Listening Well
307(4)
Precautions About Active Listening
311(17)
Highlights
312(1)
Checkup
313(1)
Articles for Discussion
313(1)
``The Lock: They Argue and I Argue Back. But I Never Seem to Win. The Key: Listen---Just Listen, and You'll Start to Win''
314(1)
``It Happened''
315(2)
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
317(1)
Articles for Discussion
317(1)
``You Just Don't Understand''
317(3)
``Life on the Color Line''
320(2)
``Breakfast and Tousled Cornrows''
322(3)
Ideas for Writing or Speaking
325(3)
Persuasive Speaking
328(29)
What's Your Point? How Do You Sharpen It?
Being an Advocate of Ideas: Communicating Publicly
329(1)
The Best Ways to Deal With Fear of Public Speaking
330(1)
Audience Analysis
331(2)
The Three Elements of a Persuasive Argument: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos
333(24)
Ethos: Speaker Credibility
333(1)
Logos: Logical Organization and Credible Content
334(3)
``Organ Donation and Transplants''
337(4)
Pathos: Emotional Appeal
341(3)
Highlights
344(1)
Checkup
345(1)
Articles for Discussion
345(1)
``Speak for Yourself''
345(3)
``Changing a Man's Mind''
348(2)
``I Have a Dream''
350(3)
Ideas for Speaking or Writing
353(4)
Glossary 357(6)
Index 363


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