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Becoming a Critical Thinker : A User Friendly Manual,9780205063451
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Becoming a Critical Thinker : A User Friendly Manual

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780205063451

ISBN10:
0205063454
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/13/2011
Publisher(s):
Pearson
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Summary

BECOMING A CRITICAL THINKER: A USER FRIENDLY MANUAL, 6/e trains students to distinguish high-quality, well-supported arguments from arguments with little or no evidence to support them. Additionally, it develops the skills required to effectively evaluate the many claims facing them as citizens, learners, consumers, and human beings, and also to be effective advocates for their beliefs.

Table of Contents

 

IN THIS SECTION:

1.) BRIEF
2.) COMPREHENSIVE

 


BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Contents

PREFACE  000

 

Chapter 1     Foundations of Arguments 2

Chapter 2     Values and Ethics  36

Chapter 3     Reality of assumptions  74

Chapter 4     Inductive arguments: Statistical and causal generalizations  120

Chapter 5     Inductive generalizations: Controlled studies and analogies  170

Chapter 6     Reasoning errors  224

Chapter 7     The power of language  274 

Chapter 8     Suggestion in media  320

Chapter 9     Fair-mindedness  400 

Chapter 10     Persuasive speaking  442

CREDITS 483

INDEX  000

 


COMPREHENSIVE TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Contents

PREFACE  000

 

Chapter 1     Foundations of Arguments 2

Who Is a Critical Thinker and When Do You Need to Be One?

The Structure of Argument  4

Individual or Class Exercise: Making a Decision      15

     Chapter Review  16

     Summary 16

     Checkup  16

     Exercises  17

          “Educational Ticket”  19

          “War on Drugs Fails: We Need New Approach”  19

          “Drugged Driving”  19

     Articles for Discussion  21

          “16-Year-Old Sailor Was Already Off Course” 21

          “LeBron James’ Decision a Cruel Blow to His Hometown”  25

          “Roundup: NBA Team Owner Backs LeBron James’ Decision”  27

“Onstage and Backstage: Two Jobs. One Actor. What Do You Choose?” 28

          “Talk-Show Host Angers Disabled Community”  29

          “Radio Show on Rights of  Disabled Defended”  30

     Ideas for Writing or Speaking  32

          “The Road Not Taken”  33

     Films for Analysis and Discussion  34

     Similar Films and Classics  34

 

Chapter 2     Values and Ethics  36

What Price Ethics and Can You Afford Not to Pay?

VALUE ASSUMPTIONS AND CONFLICTS  39

CLASS EXERCISE  42

ETHICS––AN IMPORTANT DIMENSION OF VALUES  44

IDEAL VALUES VERSUS REAL VALUES  47

ETHICS IN ARGUMENTATION  49

ETHICAL DECISION MAKING  50

     Chapter Review  55

     Summary  55

     Checkup  56

     Exercises  56

            “Salvation Army Turns Down $100,000 Donation”  60

     Articles for Discussion  60

          “You Make the Call: Is It Goo Baseball Strategy or a Weak Attempt to Win?”  61

          “Staffer Gets Subpoenaed”  63

          “National Public Radio”  64

          “Schools’ Peanut Bans Spark Backlash”  66

          “Texas College Admissions Law Under Fire: Kids in Top 10% Get in Automatically”  68

     Ideas for Writing or Speaking  70

     Films for Analysis and Discussion  72

     Similar Films and Classics  72

 

Chapter 3     Reality of assumptions  74

It’s Eleven O’Clock. Do You Know Where Your Assumptions Are?

REALITY ASSUMPTIONS  75

DETECTING REALITY ASSUMPTIONS  77

THE IMPORTANCE OF EXAMINING ASSUMPTIONS  83

DEDUCTIVE REASONING  88

USING TOULMIN’S METHOD TO UNDERSTAND DEDUCTION  93

THE USES OF DEDUCTIVE REASONING  95

     Chapter Review 105

     Summary  105

     Checkup  105

     Exercises 106

     Articles for Discussion  108

          “Forget What You Know About Good Study Habits”  108

          “Can Blacks Be Racist?”  112

          “Wasted Food, Discovered Souls”  114

          “Bearer of Bad News”  115

     Ideas for Writing or Speaking  116

     Films for Analysis and Discussion  117

     Similar Films and Classics  118

     Television Shows for Analysis and Discussion  000

 

Chapter 4     Inductive arguments: Statistical and causal generalizations  120

Prove It to Me—What Are the Statistics?

INDUCTIVE REASONING  121

STATISTICAL EVIDENCE 125

THE MANY USES OF STATISTICS  125

HOW THE RESEARCH IS DONE  132

CHECKLIST FOR POLLS AND STATISTICAL STUDIES  135

USING SURVEYS AS EVIDENCE  136

STATISTICAL GENERALIZATIONS 139

THE REPORTING OF STATISTICAL STUDIES: TRUTHS, HALF-TRUTHS, AND DISTORTIONS  141

CAUSAL GENERALIZATIONS  142

HUME’S CONDITIONS FOR CAUSE AND EFFECT  148

TECHNICAL CAUSATION  149

MULTIPLE CAUSES  149

MILL’S ANALYSIS OF CAUSE AND EFFECT  152

USING DIFFERENCE AND SIMILARITY TOGETHER TO DETERMINE CAUSE  154

     Chapter Review 155

     Summary  155

     Checkup  156

     Exercises  156

          “What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer?” 157

          “Multiple Causes of Suicide”  157

          “Self-Segregation”  157

          “Why Do People Start to Smoke?”  158

Articles for Discussion  160

          “The Meth Epidemic”  160

        “Understanding Facebook Addiction: Why Is Social Networking So Addictive? How Did We Get Addicted?  162           “ISU Researcher Studies Consequences of ‘Hooking Up’”  164

        “Drugs, Gangs on the Rise in Schools: Survey Shows Increase in Gang Activity and Drug Use in Nation’s Schools”  165

     Ideas for Writing or Speaking  167

     Longer-Term Writing Assignment  168

     Films for Analysis and Discussion  169

     Similar Films and Classics  169

 

Chapter 5     Inductive generalizations: Controlled studies and analogies  170

Who Said So? And Who Are They Anyway?

RESEARCH DESIGN  172

CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING RESEARCH FINDINGS  173

CONTROVERSY IN RESEARCH FINDINGS  181

CHECKLIST FOR MAKING, EVALUATING, REPAIRING, AND REFUTING ARGUMENTS  187

USE OF AUTHORITY: EXPERT TESTIMONY  189 

PROBLEMS WITH EXPERT TESTIMONY  193

REASONING BY ANALOGY  201

     Chapter Review  204

     Summary  204

     Checkup  204

     Exercises  205

     Articles for Discussion  211

          “Food News Blues”  211

          “$27 Million to Change NYC Signs from All-Caps”  216

          “Could a Pill Help Fade Traumatic Memories?”   218

     Ideas for Writing or Speaking  221

     Films for Analysis and Discussion  223

     Similar Film Classics  223                                                                              

 

Chapter 6     Reasoning errors  224

I Know What I Think—Don’t Confuse Me with Facts

INADEQUATE REASONS AS FALLACIES  225

FALLACIES THAT MISLEAD  241

     Chapter Review  255

     Summary 255

     Checkup 255

     Exercises 255

     Key Terms  000

     Chapter Checkup  000

     Chapter Exercises  000

     Articles for Discussion  260

          “Ashamed of Strug’s Sacrifice”  261

          “Kerri Strug Made Reader Cheer”  261

          “Keep Women Off the Streets”  262

          “E-mail Chain Letters Deceive”  262

          “Sunday Times Reveals Some Eco-Celeb Shame”  264

          “Rwanda Is So Hot Right Now”  264

          “On Comparing Global Warming Denial to Holocaust Denial”  267

          “Does Facebook Make You Dumber? Study Shows Users of Social Networking Site Get Lower Grades”  269

     Ideas for Writing or Speaking 272

     Films for Analysis and Discussion  272

 

Chapter 7     The power of language  274

What’s in a Name?

DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION  276

THE POWER OF CONNOTATION  280

REIFICATION: WHEN WORDS TAKE ON MORE POWER THAN REALITY  284

MEANINGS ARE IN PEOPLE  287

THE PROBLEM OF VAGUENESS  291

AMBIGUITY IN LANGUAGE  293

DOUBLESPEAK, INCLUDING WEASEL WORDS  294

     Chapter Review  303

     Summary  303

     Checkup  304

     Exercises  304

     Articles for Discussion  308

          “What’s in a Name?”  308

          “Race-Based Team Names Not Tolerated in Wisconsin”  310

          “Jennifer Aniston, The R-Word and the Aftermath”  311

          “Weasel Words Rip My Flesh!”  314

     Ideas for Writing or Speaking  316

     Films for Analysis and Discussion  318

 

Chapter 8     Suggestion in media  320

Is What You See What You Get? Do You Really Want It?

SUGGESTION IN DAILY LIFE  322

TELEVISED SUGGESTION  326

SUGGESTION IN PRINT MEDIA 333

THE POWER OF MEDIA TO SHAPE INFORMATION  341

A BAG OF MARKETING AND ADVERTISING TRICKS  345

STORYTELLING AS PERSUASION  371

CITIZENS, CONSUMERS, AND RELATIONSHIPS IN AN AGE OF TECHNOLOGY  373

     Chapter Review 375

     Summary  375

     Checkup  375

     Exercises  376

     Articles for Discussion  381

          “U.S.  Mayor Uses Twitter to Help Snowbound”  381

          “Scents and Sensibility”  382

          “Five Fake Viral Video Campaigns: Great Gimmicks or Bad for Business?”  385

          “The Tyranny of E-Mail”  388

     Ideas for Writing or Speaking  395

     Films for Analysis and Discussion  398

     Similar Films and Classics 398

 

Chapter 9     Fair-mindedness  400

It’s You and Me, Kid, and I’m Not So Sure About You

HOW WE DEFEND OUR EGOS  402

CONFORMITY AND WAYS TO OVERCOME IT 407

EMOTIONAL REASONING AND RATIONAL RESPONSES  410

WAYS TO DEAL WITH EMOTIONAL REASONING  414

POINTS OF LOGICAL VULNERABILITY  415

ACTIVELY AND ACCURATELY LISTENING: DEVELOPING EMPATHY  418

THE ART OF LISTENING WELL  419

PRECAUTIONS ABOUT ACTIVE LISTENING 420

    

     Chapter Review 423

     Summary  423

     Checkup  423

     Exercises  424

     Articles for Discussion  427

          “Excerpts from How Doctors Think”  427

          “Create Your Own Path”  429

          “The Lock: They Argue and I Argue Back. But I Never Seem to Win. The Key: Listen—Just Listen, and You’ll Start to Win.”  431

          “It Happened”  432

          “For Women Only—What You Need to Know About the Inner Lives of Men”  434

          “Breakfast and Tousled Cornrows”  436

     Ideas for Writing or Speaking  439

     Films for Analysis and Discussion  440

     Similar Films and Classics  440

 

Chapter 10     Persuasive speaking  442

What’s Your Point? How Do You Sharpen It?

BEING AN ADVOCATE OF IDEAS: COMMUNICATING PUBLICLY  444

THE BEST WAYS TO DEAL WITH SPEECH FEAR  445

AUDIENCE ANALYSIS  446

THE THREE ELEMENTS OF A PERSUASIVE ARGUMENT: ETHOS, LOGOS, AND PATHOS  447

PROBLEM SOLVING AND COLLABORATIVE DECISION MAKING  463

THE PROBLEM-SOLVING METHOD  464

     Chapter Review 468

     Summary  468

     Checkup  468

     Exercises  469

     Articles for Discussion  473

          “Don’t Be Shy”  473

          “The Gettysburg Address”  476

     Ideas for Writing or Speaking  477

     Films for Analysis and Discussion  479

 

CREDITS 483

INDEX  000

 


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