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Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate : From Policy Practice to Social Justice,9780495006237
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Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate : From Policy Practice to Social Justice

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780495006237

ISBN10:
0495006238
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/24/2007
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
List Price: $124.66

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Summary

In Bruce S. Jansson's Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate, you'll go beyond just learning about policy by learning what to do with policy. Jansson's groundbreaking text provides you with a toolbox of strategies for conducting policy practice. You'll learn the essential skills in actually promoting change to social welfare policy.

Table of Contents

Becoming Motivated to Become a Policy Advocate and a Leaderp. 1
Joining a Tradition of Social Reformp. 2
Diversity and Policy Advocacyp. 2
Advancing the Public Interest at Home and Abroadp. 8
Using an Ecological Perspectivep. 9
What Policy Practitioners and Advocates Seek to Changep. 9
What Are Policy Practice and Policy Advocacy?p. 14
Challenges Encountered by Policy Advocatesp. 15
Joining a Tradition of Policy Advocacyp. 20
Joining the Reform Tradition Within Social Workp. 23
Policy Devolution, Technology, Globalization, and Policy Advocacyp. 24
Becoming an Effective Policy Advocatep. 25
Developing a Visionp. 25
Seeking Opportunities for Policy Advocacyp. 25
Taking Sensible Risksp. 26
Balancing Flexibility with Planningp. 26
Being Appropriately Assertivep. 27
Developing Multiple Skillsp. 27
Being Persistentp. 28
Tolerating Uncertaintyp. 28
Becoming a Policy Advocatep. 28
Combining Pragmatism with Principlesp. 29
The Rewards of Policy Advocacyp. 29
Changing the Composition of Decision Makersp. 30
Getting Startedp. 31
Becoming Leadersp. 32
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 36
Notesp. 37
Suggested Readingsp. 37
Articulating Four Rationales for Participating in Policy Advocacyp. 39
The Ethical Rationale for Policy Advocacyp. 40
Beneficence and Professional Practicep. 40
Policy-Sensitive and Policy-Related Practicep. 41
Moving Toward Policy Advocacyp. 43
Policy Advocacy and Powerless Groupsp. 47
Policy Advocacy for Vulnerable Populationsp. 51
Other Ethical Principles in Policy Advocacyp. 54
Other Types of Ethical Reasoningp. 55
Toward an Eclectic Approach to Ethical Reasoningp. 56
Returning to Ideologyp. 58
The Analytic Rationale for Policy Advocacyp. 61
Choosing Sides: Controversy and Researchp. 63
The Political Rationale for Policy Advocacyp. 67
Interlocking Rationales for Policy Advocacyp. 70
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 73
Notesp. 74
Suggested Readingsp. 75
Surmounting Cynicism by Developing Policy-Advocacy Skillsp. 77
Obtaining Skills and Competencies for Policy Advocacyp. 78
A Policy Practice Frameworkp. 79
The Policy Contextp. 79
Perspectives of Stakeholders and Policy Advocatesp. 81
Patterns of Participationp. 83
The Six Tasks of Policy Practitionersp. 84
Four Skills That Policy Practitioners Needp. 86
Policy Competenciesp. 87
Styles of Policy Practicep. 87
Applications of Policy Tasks and Skillsp. 93
Building Agendasp. 93
Analyzing Problemsp. 94
Writing Proposalsp. 95
Enacting Policyp. 95
Implementing Policyp. 96
Assessing Policyp. 96
Analyzing Policy Practicep. 96
Ballot-Based Advocacyp. 102
The Variety of Policiesp. 102
Overcoming Discomfort with Powerp. 104
Social Policy's Role in Ecological Frameworksp. 105
Policy Practice as a Unifying Themep. 106
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 106
Notesp. 107
Suggested Readingsp. 108
The Ecological of Policy in the United States and in a Global Worldp. 109
Understanding the Ecology of Policy in Governmental, Electoral, Community, and Agency Settingp. 110
The Players in Legislative and Governmental Settingp. 111
Elected Officialsp. 112
Unelected Officials or Bureaucratsp. 119
Lobbyists and Interest Groupsp. 120
Connections Among Interest Groups, Legislators, and Bureaucratsp. 121
Public Opinionp. 121
Advocacy Groupsp. 121
The Electoral Processp. 122
Early Maneuveringp. 122
Running Campaignsp. 124
The Mindsets of Elected Officialsp. 125
The Environment of Public Servants: Elected Officialsp. 125
Shortcuts: Aides, Lobbyists, and Prioritiesp. 126
The Calculus of Choicep. 126
The Mindsets of Nonelected Officialsp. 128
Political Appointeesp. 128
Civil Servantsp. 128
Strategy in Legislative Settingp. 129
Advocating for Resourcesp. 129
The Law and Social Policyp. 130
The Political Economy of Social Agenciesp. 133
The Political of Programs and Social Work Unitsp. 137
Mapping Agencies' Policiesp. 138
The Players in Organizational Settingp. 142
The Organizational Chartp. 143
Budget Prioritiesp. 144
Boundary Spanners and Mission Enhancersp. 144
Informal Relationships among Organizational Membersp. 144
The Political Economy of Communitiesp. 145
Different Layers of Government and Policyp. 146
Maneuvering in a Multi-Layered Policy Ecologyp. 147
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 153
Notesp. 153
Suggested Readingsp. 155
Expanding Policy Advocacy Across National Bordersp. 156
Social Problems in an Interdependent Worldp. 156
Why Globalization Sometimes Harms Vulnerable Populations in the United Statesp. 157
Why an Economic Gap Developed Between Developing and Developed Nationsp. 161
Why Globalization Sometimes Harms Vulnerable Persons in Developing Nationsp. 165
Another Vulnerable Population: Migrants Within and Between Nationsp. 167
Globalization's Impact on the Environmentp. 170
Threats to Public Healthp. 172
Creating a Mono-Culture?p. 173
The Great Caveat: Globalization's Positive Effectsp. 173
Policy Advocacy for Populations Harmed by Globalizationp. 174
Policy Options in the United Statesp. 174
Policy Options to Help Vulnerable Populations Abroadp. 176
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 181
Notesp. 181
Committing to Problems and Solutions Through Building Agendas and Policy Analysisp. 183
Committing to an Issue: Building Agendasp. 184
Taking the First Stepp. 185
Why Agenda Building Is Neededp. 186
Legislaturesp. 186
Agenciesp. 188
Communitiesp. 189
Three Challenges in Agenda Buildingp. 189
The Diagnosing Stagep. 192
The Softening Stagep. 196
The Activating Stagep. 200
Couplingp. 203
Framing and Finding Titlesp. 203
Negotiating and Bargainingp. 203
Assembling Early Sponsors and Supportersp. 204
Routingp. 204
Media Coveragep. 204
Can Direct-Service Staff Help to Build Agendas?p. 205
Policy Advocacy for Powerless Populations and Unpopular Issuesp. 206
Electoral Processesp. 207
Developing Links with Advocacy Groupsp. 208
Using Multiple Skills in Agenda Buildingp. 209
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 214
Notesp. 214
Suggested Readingsp. 215
Analyzing Problems in the First Step of Policy Analysisp. 216
Putting It All Together: A Six-Step Policy Analysis Frameworkp. 216
A Six-Step Policy Analysis Frameworkp. 216
Do Policy Advocates Have to Analyze Problems?p. 220
Using a Flowchart to Analyze Some Social Problems in Step 1p. 222
Five Cells in a Flowchart Format in Step 1p. 223
Illustrating a Flow Chart with Welfare Reformp. 229
Analyzing the Causes of Social Problems in Step 1p. 234
Developing Interventions and Programs in Step 1p. 237
Developing Preventive Programs in Step 1p. 240
Measuring the Magnitude of Problems in Step 1p. 245
Locating Problems Spatiallyp. 247
Social Problems as Slippery Conceptsp. 248
When Are Social Problems Real, and When Are They Invented?p. 248
Many Social Problems Defy Simple Solutions, But Many People Favor Panaceasp. 249
Priorities Are Not Chosen Rationallyp. 250
Solving One Problem Can Create Othersp. 250
Variations in Problemsp. 251
Challenges for Policy Advocatesp. 252
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 252
Notesp. 255
Suggested Readingsp. 257
Developing Policy Proposals in the Second, Third, and Fourth Steps of Policy Analysisp. 258
Returning to the Six-Step Policy Analysis Frameworkp. 258
Intersecting Arenas and Stakeholdersp. 258
Identifying Recurring Policy Issues and Policy Options in Steps 2, 3, and 4p. 260
Establishing a Mission in Steps 2, 3, and 4p. 261
Designing the Structure of Service in Steps 2, 3, and 4p. 261
Planning the Extent of Devolution and the Resource Path in Steps 2, 3, and 4p. 263
Defining Services in Steps 2, 3, and 4p. 271
Rationing Scarce Resources in Steps 2, 3, and 4p. 274
Addressing Agency Network Issues in Steps 2, 3, and 4p. 276
Addressing Community Factors in Steps 2, 3, and 4p. 278
Guiding and Overseeing Policy Implementation in Steps 2, 3, and 4p. 278
Assessing Implemented Policies in Steps 2, 3, and 4p. 279
An Overview of the Proposal to Fund Shelters for Battered Womenp. 279
The Anatomy of Policy Proposalsp. 280
Trade-Offs: Systematically Comparing Policy Options in Step 3p. 280
Identifying Options in Step 2p. 280
Selecting and Weighing Criteria in Step 3p. 282
Creating a Decision-Making Matrix in Step 3p. 283
Qualitative Rankingsp. 285
Using Different Policy Skills in Tandem in Steps 2, 3, and 4p. 287
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 292
Notesp. 293
Suggested Readingsp. 294
Presenting and Defending Policy Proposalsp. 296
Ideology and Policy Positionsp. 297
Proposals and Ideologyp. 297
Electoral Politics and Proposalsp. 299
Combative Persuasionp. 300
Adversarial Debatesp. 300
Coercive Messagesp. 304
Negotiations: Hardball and Win-Win Optionsp. 306
Adversarial or Friendly Communication: Which Is Preferable?p. 307
Persuading Specific Audiencesp. 309
Determining Objectivesp. 309
Diagnosing Audiencesp. 310
Strategies of Persuasionp. 311
Selecting a Mediump. 312
Using a Sequence of Presentationsp. 313
Selecting a Formatp. 313
Developing an Effective Presentation Stylep. 316
Tactics for Specific Audiencesp. 317
Other Tactical Choicesp. 318
Assembling a Strategyp. 319
The Hostile Audiencep. 319
The Sympathetic Audience with Some Hostile Membersp. 320
The Expert Audiencep. 320
Interpersonal Discussionsp. 320
Gaining Support for Grant Proposalsp. 321
Writing an Imaginative Titlep. 321
Giving a Compelling Rationalep. 322
Drawing on Research Findingsp. 322
Setting Clear Objectivesp. 322
Including an Evaluation Componentp. 322
Demonstrating Feasibilityp. 322
Establishing Partnershipsp. 323
Demonstrating Supportp. 323
Developing a Realistic Budgetp. 323
Finding Fundersp. 323
Revising the Proposalp. 324
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 340
Notesp. 340
Suggested Readingsp. 341
Advocating for Changep. 343
Developing and Using Powerp. 344
In Defense of Politicsp. 345
Analytic and Political Approaches to Policy Advocacyp. 346
The Nature of Powerp. 351
Person-to-Person Powerp. 352
Power Resources that Stem from Policy Maneuveringp. 356
Substantive Powerp. 356
Power in Decision-Making Proceduresp. 358
Process Powerp. 359
Shaping Contexts Including Use of the Internetp. 361
Successful Power Usersp. 366
Power in Organizationsp. 366
Discretion, Compliance, and Whistle-Blowingp. 366
Defining Zones of Discretionp. 367
Issues of Compliancep. 368
Whistle-Blowingp. 368
Power Differentialsp. 369
Ethical Issuesp. 370
Developing and Using Power in Situations Where Advocates Are Disadvantaged as Compared to More Powerful Playersp. 372
Obtaining Power Resourcesp. 376
Building Personal Credibilityp. 377
Networkingp. 379
Power Challenges Encountered by Members of Vulnerable Populationsp. 381
Developing Assertivenessp. 382
Can Direct-Service Staff Use Power Resources?p. 384
Returning to New Orleansp. 384
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 386
Notesp. 386
Suggested Readingsp. 388
Developing Political Strategyp. 390
Establishing Some Objectivesp. 390
Determining a Positionp. 391
Selecting the Extent of Policy Changesp. 393
Selecting a Time Framep. 393
Grounding Strategy in Current Realitiesp. 393
The Power Distributionp. 393
Identifying Contextual Factorsp. 397
Past Stancesp. 397
Vested Interestsp. 398
Cohesion of Likely Opponents and Proponentsp. 398
Situational Realitiesp. 399
Adapting Strategy to the Settingp. 399
Developing Alternative Scenariosp. 400
Selecting a Strategyp. 400
Revising the Strategyp. 401
Seven Recurring Steps in Strategyp. 401
Organizing a Team or Coalitionp. 401
Establishing Policy Goalsp. 403
Specifying a Proposal's Content and Getting Early Sponsorsp. 403
Establishing a Stylep. 403
Selecting Power Resources and Framing Strategyp. 404
Implementing Strategyp. 405
Revising the Strategyp. 405
A Policy Advocacy Challenge: How to Block Ill-Advised Policy Proposalsp. 405
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 409
Notesp. 409
Suggested Readingsp. 410
Putting Political Strategy Into Actionp. 411
Strategy in Legislative Settingsp. 412
Organizing Legislative Advocacy Projectsp. 412
Organizing a Team or Coalitionp. 412
Establishing Policy Goals in a Legislative Contextp. 414
Writing a Policy Brief: Specifying a Proposal's Content and Getting Early Sponsorsp. 415
Establishing a Stylep. 419
Selecting Power Resources and Framing Strategyp. 419
Implementing Strategyp. 421
Revising the Strategyp. 429
Strategy in Agency Settingsp. 429
Organizing a Team or Coalitionp. 429
Establishing Policy Goals in the Organizational Contextp. 429
Specifying a Proposal's Contentp. 432
Establishing a Stylep. 432
Selecting Power Resources and Framing Strategyp. 433
Revising the Strategyp. 433
Developing Strategy in Community Settingsp. 433
Establishing Policy Goals in the Community Contextp. 433
Specifying a Proposal's Contentp. 434
Establishing a Stylep. 434
Selecting Power Resources and Framing Strategyp. 434
Revising the Strategyp. 435
A Primer on Task Groupsp. 435
Policy Advocates' Roles in Task Groupsp. 436
What Successful Task Groups Needp. 437
The Task Group's Missionp. 437
The Task Group's Leadershipp. 437
The Task Group's Developmental Needsp. 437
The Task Group's Proceduresp. 438
The Task Group's Structurep. 438
The Task Group's Deliberative and Interactional Processesp. 438
The Task Group's Staff and Resourcesp. 439
Forming Coalitionsp. 439
Establishing Networksp. 440
Addressing Dysfunctional Group Processesp. 440
An Advocacy Campaign in Sacramento, Californiap. 442
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 445
Notesp. 445
Engaging in Ballot-Based Policy Advocacyp. 447
Why Ballot-Based Policy Advocacy Is Importantp. 448
Policy Advocacy in the Electoral Processp. 453
Developing Population Profilesp. 453
Using Power Resources to Persuade Votersp. 456
Using One-on-One Power Resourcesp. 456
Using the Mediap. 457
Interacting with Opposing Candidates in Public Forumsp. 458
Developing Positions on Issues and Demonstrating Positive Personal Qualitiesp. 458
Conducting Negative Attacks on Opponentsp. 459
Getting Out the Votep. 460
Securing Endorsementsp. 461
Convincing Other Potential Candidates Not to Runp. 462
Gaining Support from Party, Trade Unions, and Other Groupsp. 462
Finding Resourcesp. 462
Creating a Campaign Organizationp. 464
Developing Campaign Strategyp. 465
Strategy Options at the Outset of a Campaignp. 465
Strategy During the Mid-Phase of a Campaignp. 465
Conducting Issue-Oriented Campaignsp. 467
Making Issue Campaigns and Electoral Politics Intersectp. 467
Participating in Electoral and Issue-Oriented Campaignsp. 469
Deciding to Run for Officep. 472
Selecting Other Public-Service Positionsp. 475
Why Social Policy Often Hinges on Electionsp. 478
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 483
Notesp. 484
Suggested Readingsp. 485
Troubleshooting and Assessing Policiesp. 487
Troubleshooting and Assessing Implemented Policiesp. 488
A Framework for Implementing Policyp. 489
The Context of Implementationp. 491
Policy Innovations or Major New Initiativesp. 496
Oversight Organizations and Staffp. 499
Primary Implementing Organizationsp. 501
Interorganizational Processesp. 503
Diagnosing Implementing Processesp. 507
Actual Outputs: The Evaluation of Implemented Policies (Policy Assessment)p. 508
Reforming the Implementation Processp. 509
Do Policy Advocates Ever Sabotage Policies?p. 511
Case Study of Implementationp. 512
Two Examples of Implementation Projects in New Orleans Post-Hurricane Katrinap. 522
Policy Assessmentp. 532
Chapter Summary: What You Can Now Dop. 533
Notesp. 533
Suggested Readingsp. 534
Name Indexp. 535
Subject Indexp. 538
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