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Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate : From Policy Practice to Social Justice,9780534355203
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Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate : From Policy Practice to Social Justice

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534355203

ISBN10:
053435520X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/17/1998
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole

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Summary

Go beyond the ordinary, with Bruce Jansson's groundbreaking look at the ins-and-outs of conducting policy-practice. BECOMING AN EFFECTIVE POLICY ADVOCATE gives you hands-on experience building the skills that will empower you to implement policy reform as an effective social work practitioner Jansson includes case studies and examples that illustrate how and why policy is important as well as a toolbox of strategies to help you implement policy reform over the course of your own career. And to enhance your course experience, this text features access to ThomsonNOW, an integrated online suite of services and resources that will help you save time, focus your study, and get the grade you want!

Table of Contents

PART 1 Policy Practice and Policy Advocacy: The Fourth Dimension of Social Work Practice 1(120)
Why Engage in Policy Practice and Policy Advocacy?
3(26)
Joining a Tradition of Policy Advocacy
4(2)
Joining the Reform Tradition within Social Work
6(1)
Policy Devolution, Technology, and Policy Advocacy
6(1)
Diversity and Policy Advocacy
7(3)
What are Policy Practice and Policy Advocacy?
10(3)
What Policy Practitioners and Policy Advocates Seek to Change
13(6)
Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate
19(10)
Developing a Vision
19(1)
Seeking Opportunities for Policy Advocacy
20(1)
Taking Sensible Risks
21(1)
Balancing Flexibility with Planning
22(1)
Developing Multiple Skills
22(1)
Being Persistent
23(1)
Tolerating Uncertainty
23(1)
Becoming a Policy Advocate
24(1)
Combining Pragmatism with Principle
24(1)
The Rewards of Policy Advocacy
24(2)
Chapter Summary
26(1)
Suggested Readings
27(1)
Notes
27(2)
Ethical, Analytic, and Political Rationales for Engaging in Policy Advocacy
29(32)
The Ethical Rationale for policy Advocacy
29(13)
Beneficence and Professional Practice
29(2)
Policy-Sensitive and Policy-Related Practice
31(2)
Moving toward Policy Advocacy
33(2)
Policy Advocacy and Powerless Groups
35(3)
Fairness and Policy Advocacy for Out-Groups
38(4)
The Merits of Government Intervention
42(5)
Other Ethical Principles in Policy Advocacy
43(2)
Other Types of Ethical Reasoning
45(2)
Toward an Eclectic Approach to Ethical Reasoning
47(1)
The Analytic Rationale for Policy Advocacy
47(6)
Choosing Sides: Controversy and Advocacy
50(3)
The Political Rationale for Policy Advocacy
53(3)
Interlocking Rationales for Policy Advocacy
56(1)
Chapter Summary
57(1)
Suggested Readings
58(1)
Notes
58(3)
A Policy Practice Framework for Policy Advocates: Skills, Tasks, and Actions
61(28)
A Policy Practice Framework
61(8)
The Policy Context
62(1)
Patterns of Participation
63(1)
The Six Tasks of Policy Practitioners
64(1)
Four Skills That Policy Practitioners Need
65(1)
Policy Competencies
66(3)
Styles of Policy Practice
69(2)
Applications of Policy Tasks and Skills
71(3)
Building Agendas
71(1)
Analyzing Problems
72(1)
Writing Proposals
72(1)
Enacting Policy
73(1)
Implementing Policy
73(1)
Assessing Policy
74(1)
Analyzing Policy Practice
74(1)
Describing Policy Practice: A Case Example
75(5)
The Context
75(1)
The Policy Tasks
76(1)
Using Skills to Accomplish Policy Tasks
77(3)
The Diversity of Policies
80(1)
Overcoming Discomfort with Power
81(2)
Social Policy's Role in Ecological Frameworks
83(1)
Policy Practice as a Unifying Theme
83(1)
Chapter Summary
84(3)
Suggested Readings
87(1)
Notes
88(1)
The Big Picture: Policy Practice in Governmental, Community, and Agency Settings
89(32)
The Players in Legislative and Governmental Settings
89(12)
Elected Officials
90(7)
Unelected Officials (Bureaucrats)
97(2)
Lobbyists and Interest Groups
99(1)
Connections between Interest Groups, Legislators, and Bureaucrats
100(1)
Public Opinion
100(1)
The Mind-Sets of Elected Officials
101(3)
The Environment of Public Servants: Elected Officials
101(1)
Shortcuts: Aides, Lobbyists, and Priorities
102(1)
The Calculus of Choice
103(1)
The Mind-Sets of Nonelected Officials
104(2)
Political Appointees
104(1)
Civil Servants
105(1)
Strategy in Legislative Settings
106(1)
The Political Economy of Social Agencies
106(3)
The Political Economy of Programs and Social-Work Units
109(1)
Mapping Agencies' Policies
109(4)
The Players in Organizational Settings
113(3)
Overlay 1: The Organizational Chart
114(1)
Overlay 2: Budget Priorities
115(1)
Overlay 3: Boundary Spanners and Mission Enhancers
115(1)
Overlay 4: Informal Relationships among Organizational Members
116(1)
The Political Economy of Communities
116(1)
Chapter Summary
117(1)
Suggested Readings
117(1)
Notes
118(3)
PART 2 Preparatory Work: Building Agendas, Analyzing Problems, and Writing Proposals 121(136)
Building Agendas
123(24)
Taking the First Step
124(1)
Why Agenda Building is Needed
125(2)
Legislatures
125(1)
Communities
126(1)
Three Challenges in Agenda Building
127(11)
The Diagnosing Stage
129(3)
The Softening Stage
132(4)
The Activating Stage
136(2)
Can Direct-Service Staff Help to Build Agendas?
138(1)
Policy Advocacy for Powerless Populations and Unpopular Issues
139(1)
Developing Links with Advocacy Groups
140(4)
Chapter Summary
144(1)
Suggested Readings
145(1)
Notes
145(2)
Analyzing Problems
147(62)
Do Policy Advocates have to Analyze Problems?
147(3)
Using a Flowchart to Analyze Problems
150(4)
The Causes of Social Problems
154(3)
Developing Interventions and Programs
157(10)
Curative Strategies
157(2)
Preventive Programs
159(4)
Measuring the Magnitude of Problems
163(2)
Locating Problems Spatially
165(2)
Assessing Policy Reforms
167(1)
Social Problems as Slippery Concepts
168(4)
When Are Social Problems ``Real,'' and When Are they ``Invented''?
169(1)
Many Social Problems Defy Simple Solutions, but Many People Favor Panaceas
170(1)
Priorities are not Chosen Rationally
170(1)
``Solving'' One Problem can Create others
171(1)
Variations in Problems
171(1)
Challenges for Policy Advocates
172(1)
Chapter Summary
173(3)
Suggested Reading
176(1)
Notes
176(3)
Finding Policy Options
179(1)
Recurring Policy Issues and Policy Options
180(16)
Establishing a Mission
180(1)
Designing the Structure of Service
181(2)
Planning the Resource Path
183(5)
Defining Services
188(3)
Rationing Scarce Resources
191(2)
Addressing Agency Network Issues
193(2)
Addressing Community Factors
195(1)
Guiding and Overseeing Policy Implementation
196(1)
Assessing Implemented Policies
196(1)
An Overview of the Proposal to Fund Shelters for Battered Women
196(1)
The Anatomy of Policy Proposals
197(3)
Linking Policy Skills
200(1)
Intersecting Arenas and Stakeholders
200(2)
Chapter Summary
202(3)
Suggested Readings
205(1)
Notes
206(3)
Writing Policy Proposals
209(22)
Trade-Offs: Systematically Comparing Policy Options
210(6)
Identifying Options
210(1)
Selecting and Weighing Criteria
211(1)
Creating a Decision-Making Matrix
212(3)
Qualitative Ranking
215(1)
Using Multiple Skills in Constructing Proposals
216(1)
Writing Memos
216(4)
Gaining Support for Policy Proposals
220(8)
Writing an Imaginative Title
220(1)
Giving a Compelling Rationale
221(1)
Drawing on Research Findings
221(1)
Setting Clear Objectives
221(1)
Including an Evaluation Component
221(1)
Demonstrating Feasibility
221(1)
Establishing Partnerships
222(1)
Demonstrating Support
222(1)
Developing a Realistic Budget
222(1)
Finding Funders
222(2)
Revising the Proposal
224(4)
Putting It All Together
228(1)
Chapter Summary
229(1)
Suggested Readings
229(1)
Notes
229(2)
Policy Persuasion
231(26)
Persuading Specific Audiences
232(3)
Determining Objectives
232(1)
Diagnosing Audiences
233(1)
Tailoring Objectives to the Audience
234(1)
Strategies of Persuasion
235(7)
Selecting a Medium
235(1)
Using a Sequence of Presentations
235(1)
Selecting a Format
236(1)
Fine-Tuning a Presentation
236(3)
Developing an Effective Presentation Style
239(1)
Tactics for Specific Audiences
240(1)
Other Tactical Choices
240(2)
Assembling a Strategy
242(5)
The Hostile Audience
242(1)
The Sympathetic Audience with some Hostile Members
242(1)
The Expert Audience
243(1)
Interpersonal Discussions
243(4)
Combative Persuasion
247(5)
Adversarial Debates
247(3)
Coercive Messages
250(1)
Negotiations: Hardball and Win-Win Options
251(1)
Adversarial or Friendly Communication: Which Is Preferable?
252(2)
Chapter Summary
254(1)
Suggested Readings
254(1)
Notes
254(3)
PART 3 Policy Advocates and the Political Process 257(98)
Understanding ``Power'' and ``Politics''
259(26)
In Defense of Politics
259(2)
Analytic and Political Approaches to Policy Advocacy
261(4)
The Nature of Power
265(2)
Person-to-Person Power
267(1)
Substantive Power
268(2)
Using Indirect Power
270(4)
Power in Decision-Making Procedures
270(1)
Process Power
271(2)
Shaping Contexts
273(1)
Successful Power Users
274(1)
Power in Organizations
274(3)
Discretion, Compliance, and Whistle-Blowing
274(1)
Defining Zones of Discretion
275(1)
Issues of Compliance
276(1)
Whistle-Blowing
277(1)
Exerting External Pressure
277(1)
Power Differentials
278(1)
Ethical Issues
279(1)
Chapter Summary
280(1)
Suggested Readings
281(1)
Notes
281(4)
Developing and Using Power
285(24)
Obtaining Power Resources
285(10)
Building Personal Credibility
286(7)
Networking
293(2)
Out-Group Members' Problems
295(1)
Developing Assertiveness
296(1)
Can Direct-Service Staff Use Power Resources?
297(1)
Group Process Skills
298(6)
Working with Task Groups
298(2)
What Successful Task Groups Need
300(2)
Forming Coalitions
302(1)
Establishing Networks
303(1)
Addressing Dysfunctional Group Processes
304(1)
Chapter Summary
305(1)
Suggested Readings
305(1)
Notes
306(3)
Developing Political Strategy
309(18)
Establishing Some Objectives
309(5)
Selecting the Extent of Policy Changes
314(1)
Selecting a Time Frame
314(1)
Grounding Strategy in Current Realities
314(6)
The Power Distribution
314(3)
Identifying Contextual Factors
317(1)
Situational Realities
318(1)
Predicting Future Developments
319(1)
Adapting Strategy to the Setting
319(1)
Building Scenarios to Construct Political Strategy
320(2)
Developing Alternative Scenarios
320(1)
Selecting a Strategy
321(1)
Revising a Strategy
321(1)
Seven Recurring Steps in Strategy
322(2)
Organizing a Team or Coalition
323(1)
Establishing Policy Goals
323(1)
Specifying a Proposal's Content and Getting Early Sponsors
323(1)
Establishing a Style
323(1)
Selecting Power Resources and Framing Strategy
323(1)
Implementing Strategy
324(1)
Revising the Strategy
324(1)
Chapter Summary
324(1)
Suggested Readings
325(1)
Notes
325(2)
Putting Political Strategy into Action
327(28)
Strategy in Legislative Settings
328(1)
Organizing Legislative Advocacy Projects from Scratch
328(11)
Organizing a Team or Coalition
328(1)
Establishing Policy Goals in a Legislative Context
329(1)
Specifying a Proposal's Content and Getting Early Sponsors
329(1)
Establishing a Style
330(1)
Selecting Power Resources and Framing Strategy
330(1)
Implementing Strategy
331(6)
Revising the Strategy
337(2)
Working in the Political Process Generally
339(6)
Strategy in Agency Settings
345(5)
Organizing a Team or Coalition
346(1)
Establishing Policy Goals in the Organizational Context
346(2)
Specifying a Proposal's Content
348(1)
Establishing a Style
349(1)
Selecting Power Resources and Framing Strategy
349(1)
Revising the Strategy
350(1)
Developing Strategy in Community Settings
350(2)
Organizing a Team or Coalition
350(1)
Establishing Policy Goals in the Community Context
351(1)
Specifying a Proposal's Content
351(1)
Establishing a Style
351(1)
Selecting Power Resources and Framing Strategy
352(1)
Revising the Strategy
352(1)
Chapter Summary
352(1)
Notes
353(2)
PART 4 After Enacting Policy 355(52)
Securing the Implementation of Policies
357(32)
A Framework for Implementing Policy
358(12)
Policy Innovations
359(3)
Oversight Organizations and Staff
362(1)
Primary Implementing Organizations
362(4)
Implementing Processes
366(1)
The Context of Implementation
367(3)
Actual Outputs: The Evaluation of Implemented Policies
370(1)
Reforming the Implementation Process
370(2)
Do Policy Advocates Ever Sabotage Policies?
372(1)
A Case Example of Implementation: The Patient Self-Determination Act of 1990
373(6)
Context of the Patient Self-Determination Act
374(2)
Oversight Organizations
376(1)
Implementing Process
376(3)
Perceptions of Policy Outcomes
379(1)
Advocates' Options for Reforming the Implementation of PSDA
379(3)
Changing the Content of the Policy
379(1)
Changing the Context
380(1)
Changing Actions of Oversight Agencies
380(1)
Changing Implementing Processes
380(1)
Securing Evaluations of Policy Outcomes
381(1)
Participating in Community-Based Advocacy Projects
381(1)
Using Multiple Skills when Reforming Implementation
382(2)
Chapter Summary
384(1)
Suggested Readings
385(1)
Notes
386(3)
Assessing Policy Implementation
389(18)
The Fundamental Logic of Policy Assessment
390(1)
Similarities between Assessing and Analyzing Policy
391(2)
Similarities between Policy Assessment and Policy Debates
393(2)
Tools for Countering Criticism
395(3)
Barriers to the Use of Policy and Program Evaluation
398(3)
Qualitative Evaluations
401(1)
Policy Advocates' Use of Data
402(1)
Why all Social Workers Should Assess Policies
402(1)
Chapter Summary
403(1)
Suggested Readings
404(1)
Notes
404(3)
Appendix 407(4)
Name Index 411(6)
Subject Index 417


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