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Bedford Handbook 1999 MLA and APA Updates,9780312260637

Bedford Handbook 1999 MLA and APA Updates

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780312260637

ISBN10:
0312260636
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
10/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Bedford/st Martins
List Price: $46.15

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This is the 5th edition with a publication date of 10/1/1999.
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Table of Contents

Preface for Instructors v
How to Use This Book xix
PART I The Writing Process 1(136)
Generate ideas and sketch a plan
2(30)
Assessing the writing situation
2(16)
Exploring your subject
18(8)
Setting on a tentative focus
26(2)
Sketching a tentative plan
28(4)
Rough out an initial draft
32(9)
Drafting an introduction that includes a thesis
33(7)
Filling out the body
40(1)
Attempting a conclusion
40(1)
Make global revisions; then revise sentences
41(36)
Getting distance
43(5)
Approaching global revision in cycles
48(11)
Revising and editing sentences
59(5)
Proofreading the final manuscript
64(13)
Expository Student Essay: Explaining an insight
65(12)
Build effective paragraphs
77(32)
Focusing on a main point
78(5)
Developing the main point
83(1)
Choosing a suitable pattern of organization
84(10)
Arranging information
94(3)
Making paragraphs coherent
97(9)
Adjusting paragraph length
106(3)
Choose an appropriate document design
109(28)
Principles of document design
109(10)
Academic essay formats
119(3)
Model Mla Essay Format
120(2)
Business formats
122(5)
Business Letter
123(2)
Resume
125(1)
Memo
126(1)
E-mail
127(6)
Sample E-Mail
132(1)
Web pages
133(4)
Sample Web Page
135(2)
PART II Critical Thinking 137(44)
Writing about texts: Enter into a conversation with authors
138(19)
Acquainting yourself with an author
138(2)
Reading actively, with a pencil in hand
140(7)
Summarizing to demonstrate understanding
147(2)
Sample Summary
148(1)
Analyzing to demonstrate crirtical thinking
149(8)
Sample Analysis
152(5)
Construct reasonable arguments
157(24)
Planning a strategy
158(2)
Framing a thesis and stating major arguments
160(2)
Drafting an introduction
162(1)
Supporting each argument with specific evidence
163(3)
Anticipating objections; refuting opposing arguments
166(1)
Establishing common ground
167(1)
Avoding common mistakes in reasoning
168(13)
Sample Argument Paper
177(4)
PART III Clear Sentences 181(66)
Coordinate equal ideas; subordinate minor ideas
182(12)
Choppy sentences
186(3)
Ineffective or excessive coordination
189(3)
Subordination for emphasis
192(1)
Excessive subordination
192(2)
Balance parallel ideas
194(7)
Parallel ideas in a series
195(1)
Parallel ideas presented as pairs
196(2)
Repetition of function words
198(3)
Add needed words
201(6)
In compound structures
202(1)
that
202(1)
In comparisons
203(2)
a, an, and the
205(2)
Untangle mixed constructions
207(6)
Mixed grammar
207(2)
Illogical connections
209(1)
is when, is where, and reason... is because
210(3)
Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers
213(11)
Limiting modifiers
213(1)
Misplaced phrases and clauses
214(1)
Awkwardly placed modifiers
215(2)
Split infinitives
217(1)
Dangling modifiers
218(6)
Eliminate distracting shifts
224(7)
Point of view (person, number)
224(1)
Verb tense
225(1)
Verb mood, voice
226(1)
Indirect to direct questions or quotations
227(4)
Emphasize your point
231(9)
Active verbs
231(4)
Subject that names actor
235(2)
Special techniques
237(3)
Provide some variety
240(7)
Sentence openings
241(1)
Sentence structures
242(1)
Inverted order
243(1)
Adding a question or quotation
244(3)
PART IV Word Choice 247(36)
Tighten wordy sentences
248(8)
Redundancies
248(1)
Unnecessary repetition
249(1)
Empty or inflated phrases
249(2)
Simplifying the structure
251(3)
Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to single words
254(2)
Choose appropriate language
256(14)
Jargon
257(1)
Pretentious language, euphemisms, ``doublespeak''
258(4)
Obsolete, archaic, and invented words
262(1)
Slang, regional expressions, nonstandard English
262(2)
Levels of formality
264(1)
Sexist language
265(5)
Find the exact words
270(13)
Connotations
271(2)
Specific, concrete nouns
273(1)
Misused words
274(2)
Standard idioms
276(2)
Worn-out expressions (cliches)
278(1)
Figures of speech
279(4)
PART V Grammatical Sentences 283(106)
Repair sentence fragments
284(12)
Subordinate clauses
286(1)
Phrases
287(1)
Other fragmented word groups
288(3)
Acceptable fragments
291(5)
Revise run-on sentences
296(12)
Correction with coordinating conjunction
298(1)
Correction with semicolon, colon, or dash
299(1)
Correction by separating sentences
300(1)
Correction by restructuring
300(8)
Make subjects and verbs agree
308(15)
Standard subject-verb combinations
308(4)
Words between subject and verb
312(1)
Subjects joined with and
312(1)
Subjects joined with or, nor, either... or, or neither... nor
313(1)
Indefinite pronouns
314(1)
Collective nouns
315(2)
Subject following verb
317(1)
Subject, not subject complement
317(1)
who, which, and that
318(2)
Words with plural form, singular meaning
320(1)
Titles of works, company names, words mentioned as words, gerund phrases
320(3)
Make pronouns and antecedents agree
323(8)
Singular with singular, plural with plural (indefinite pronouns, generic nouns)
323(2)
Collective nouns
325(1)
Antecedents joined with and
326(1)
Antecedents joined with or, nor, either... or, or neither... nor
326(5)
Make pronoun references clear
331(6)
Ambiguous or remote reference
331(1)
Broad reference of this, that, which, and it
332(1)
Implified antecedents
333(1)
Indefinite use of they, it, and you
334(1)
who for persons, that or which for things
335(2)
Distinguish between pronouns such as I and me
337(9)
Subjective case for subjects and subject complements
338(1)
Objective case for objects
338(1)
Appositives
339(1)
Pronoun following than or as
340(1)
we or us before a noun
341(1)
Subjects and objects of infinitives
341(1)
Pronoun modifying a gerund
341(5)
Distinguish between who and whom
346(6)
In subordinate clauses
347(2)
In questions
349(3)
Choose adjectives and adverbs with care
352(7)
Adverbs as modifiers
353(1)
Adjectives as complements
354(2)
Comparatives and superlatives
356(2)
Double negatives
358(1)
Choose standard English verb forms
359(17)
Irregular verbs
360(4)
lie and lay
364(2)
-s (or -es) endings
366(5)
-ed endings
371(2)
Omitted verbs
373(3)
Use verbs in the appropriate tense, mood, and voice
376(13)
Verb tense
376(7)
Subjunctive mood
383(3)
Active and passive voice
386(3)
PART VI ESL Trouble Spots 389(36)
Be alert to special problems with verbs
390(15)
Helping verbs and main verbs
390(5)
Verbs in conditional sentences
395(3)
Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives
398(4)
Two-word verbs
402(2)
Omitted verbs
404(1)
Use the articles a, an, and the appropriately
405(8)
When to use a (or an)
406(1)
When not to use a (or an)
407(2)
When to use the
409(2)
When not to use the
411(2)
Be aware of other potential trouble spots
413(12)
Omitted subjects, omitted there, it
413(1)
Repeated subjects
414(1)
Repeated objects, adverbs in adjective clauses
415(2)
Placement of adjectives and adverbs
417(3)
Confusion of present and past participles
420(2)
Prepositions showing time and place
422(3)
PART VII Punctuation 425(62)
The comma
426(19)
Independent clauses joined by coordinating conjunction
426(1)
Introductory clauses or phrases
427(2)
Items in a series
429(1)
Coordinate adjectives
430(2)
Nonrestrictive elements
432(5)
Transitional and parenthetical expressions, absolute phrases, contrasted elements
437(2)
Nouns of direct address, the words yes and no, interrogative tags, mild interjections
439(1)
Expressions such as he said
440(1)
Dates, addresses, titles, numbers
440(1)
To prevent confusion
441(4)
Unnecessary commas
445(9)
Between compound elements that are not independent clauses
445(1)
After a phrase beginning an inverted sentence
446(1)
Before the first or after the last item in a series
446(1)
Between cumulative adjectives, an adjective and a noun, or an adverb and an adjective
446(1)
Before and after restrictive or mildly parenthetical elements
447(1)
Before essential adverbial concluding elements
448(1)
Between a verb and its subject or object
449(1)
Other misuses
449(5)
The semicolon
454(6)
Independent clauses not joined with a coordinating conjunction
454(1)
Independent clauses linked with a transitional expression
455(1)
Series containing internal punctuation
456(1)
Misuses
457(3)
The colon
460(3)
Before a list, an appositive, or a quotation introduced by an independent clause
460(1)
Between independent clauses
461(1)
Salutations, hours and minutes, proportions, titles and subtitles, bibliographic entries
461(1)
Misuses
461(2)
The apostrophe
463(5)
Possessive nouns
463(2)
Possessive indefinite pronouns
465(1)
Contractions
465(1)
Plurals of numbers mentioned as numbers, letters mentioned as letters, words mentioned as words, abbreviations
466(1)
Misuses
466(2)
Quotation marks
468(8)
Direct quotations
468(1)
Long quotations
469(1)
Quotation within a quotation
470(1)
Titles of works
471(1)
Words as words
471(1)
With other punctuation marks
471(3)
Misuses
474(2)
End punctuation
476(4)
Period
476(2)
Question mark
478(1)
Exclamation point
478(2)
Other punctuation marks: the dash, parentheses, brackets, the ellipsis mark, the slash
480(7)
The dash
480(1)
Parentheses
481(1)
Brackets
482(1)
The ellipsis mark
483(1)
The slash
484(3)
PART VIII Mechanics 487(32)
Abbreviations
488(4)
Titles with proper names
488(1)
Familiar abbreviations
489(1)
Conventional abbreviations
489(1)
Latin abbreviations
490(1)
Misuses
490(2)
Numbers
492(3)
Spelling out
492(1)
Using figures
493(2)
Italics (underlining)
495(4)
Titles of works
495(1)
Names of spacecraft, aircraft, ships, and trains
496(1)
Foreign words
497(1)
Words mentioned as words, letters mentioned as letters, and numbers mentioned as numbers
497(1)
Misuses
498(1)
Spelling
499(10)
The dictionary
499(3)
Words that sound alike
502(1)
Spelling rules
503(3)
Commonly misspelled words
506(3)
The hyphen
509(4)
Compound words
509(1)
Hyphenated adjectives
509(1)
Fractions and compound numbers
510(1)
With certain prefixes and suffixes
510(1)
To avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward double or triple letters
511(1)
Word division
511(2)
Capital letters
513(6)
Proper versus common nouns
513(2)
Titles with proper names
515(1)
Titles and subtitles of works
515(1)
First word of a sentence
516(1)
First word of a quoted sentence
517(1)
First word after a colon
517(1)
Abbreviations
518(1)
PART IX Researched Writing 519(122)
Conducting research
521(25)
Posing questions worth exploring
521(4)
Mapping out a search strategy
525(2)
Tracking down library sources
527(12)
Using Internet sources
539(5)
Doing field research
544(2)
Selecting and reading sources
546(8)
Reading selectively
546(3)
Maintaining a working bibliography
549(2)
Reading with a critical eye
551(3)
Managing information; avoding plagiarism
554(8)
Managing information systematically
555(3)
Avoiding unintentional plagiarism
558(4)
Planning and drafting the paper
562(7)
Forming a tentative thesis
563(1)
Sketching a rough outline
564(1)
Drafting the paper in your own voice
565(1)
Including your thesis in the introduction
566(2)
Providing organizational cues
568(1)
Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism
569(4)
Using a consistent system for citing sources
569(1)
Avoiding plagiarism
570(3)
Integrating information from sources
573(8)
Using signal phrases to introduce quotations; limiting your use of quotations
573(6)
Using signal phrases to introduce most summaries and paraphrases
579(2)
Omitting a signal phrase, if you wish, with statistics and other facts
581(1)
Revising your draft
581(3)
MLA documentation
584(28)
MLA in-text citations
585(6)
MLA information notes
591(2)
MLA list of works cited
593(19)
MLA format; two sample research papers
612(29)
MLA format
612(3)
Two sample research papers
615(26)
Sample Papers on a Political Issue
616(11)
Sample Paper on a Scholarly Controversy
627(14)
PART X Literature and Other Disciplines 641(86)
Writing about literature
642(33)
Reading actively
642(2)
Forming an interpretation
644(4)
Drafting a thesis and sketching an outline
648(3)
Supporting your interpretation; avoiding simple plot summary
651(3)
Integrating quotations from the work
654(5)
Observing the conventions
659(2)
Documenting secondary sources; avoiding plagiarism
661(14)
Sample Essay (Without Secondary Sources)
663(4)
Sample Essay (With Secondary Sources)
667(8)
Documenting sources across the curriculum
675(52)
Apa Style (Social Sciences)
675(1)
APA in-text citations
676(3)
APA list of references
679(8)
APA manuscript format
687(13)
Sample Paper
689(11)
Chicago Style (History and Humanities)
700(1)
Chicago-style footnotes or endnotes
700(9)
Chicago-style bibliography
709(8)
Chicago-style manuscript format
717(7)
Sample Pages
720(4)
Other Styles
724(1)
A list of style manuals
724(3)
PART XI Grammar Basics 727(46)
Parts of speech
728(17)
Nouns
728(2)
Pronouns
730(3)
Verbs
733(3)
Adjectives
736(1)
Adverbs
737(2)
Prepositions
739(1)
Conjunctions
740(1)
Interjections
741(4)
Sentence patterns
745(10)
Subjects
745(3)
Verbs, objects, and complements
748(5)
Pattern variations
753(2)
Subordinate word groups
755(13)
Prepositional phrases
756(2)
Subordinate clauses
758(5)
Verbal phrases
763(4)
Appositive phrases
767(1)
Absolute phrases
768(1)
Sentence types
768(5)
Sentence structures
768(3)
Sentence purposes
771(2)
Glossary of Usage 773(16)
Answers to Tutorials and Lettered Exercises 789
Index 1


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