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The Bedford Handbook; With 2003 MLA Update,9780312412807

The Bedford Handbook; With 2003 MLA Update

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780312412807

ISBN10:
0312412800
Format:
Trade Book
Pub. Date:
7/22/2003
Publisher(s):
Bedford/St. Martin's
List Price: $60.67

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Table of Contents

Preface for Instructors v
How to Use This Book and Its Web Site xxi
PART I The Writing Process
1(100)
Generate ideas and sketch a plan
2(28)
Assessing the writing situation
2(14)
Exploring your subject
16(8)
Settling on a tentative focus
24(2)
Sketching a tentative plan
26(4)
Rough out an initial draft
30(11)
Drafting an introduction that includes a thesis
32(7)
Filling out the body
39(1)
Attempting a conclusion
39(2)
Make global revisions; then revise sentences
41(31)
Approaching global revision in cycles
45(12)
Revising and editing sentences; proofreading
57(15)
Student Essay
62(10)
Build effective paragraphs
72(29)
Focusing on a main point
72(5)
Developing the main point
77(1)
Choosing a suitable pattern of organization
78(10)
Arranging information
88(3)
Making paragraphs coherent
91(8)
Adjusting paragraph length
99(2)
PART II Document Design
101(34)
Become familiar with the principles of document design
102(10)
Format options
102(2)
Headings
104(3)
Displayed lists
107(1)
Visuals
108(4)
Use standard academic and business formats
112(13)
Academic formats
112(3)
MLA Essay Format
113(2)
Business formats
115(10)
Business Letter
115(2)
Resumes
117(6)
Memo
123(2)
Create effective electronic documents
125(10)
Following the conventions of e-mail
125(3)
Sample E-Mail
126(2)
Creating effective Web sites
128(7)
Sample Web Page
129(6)
PART III Clear Sentences
135(68)
Prefer active verbs
136(6)
Active versus passive verbs
137(3)
Active versus be verbs
140(1)
Subject that names the actor
140(2)
Balance parallel ideas
142(7)
Parallel ideas in a series
143(1)
Parallel ideas presented as pairs
144(2)
Repetition of function words
146(3)
Add needed words
149(6)
In compound structures
150(1)
that
151(1)
In comparisons
151(2)
a, an, and the
153(2)
Untangle mixed constructions
155(6)
Mixed grammar
155(2)
Illogical connections
157(1)
is when, is where, and reason...is because
158(3)
Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers
161(11)
Limiting modifiers
161(1)
Misplaced phrases and clauses
162(1)
Awkwardly placed modifiers
163(1)
Split infinitives
164(2)
Dangling modifiers
166(6)
Eliminate distracting shifts
172(8)
Point of view (person, number)
172(2)
Verb tense
174(1)
Verb mood, voice
175(1)
Indirect to direct questions or quotations
176(4)
Emphasize key ideas
180(17)
Coordination and subordination
181(4)
Choppy sentences
185(3)
Ineffective or excessive coordination
188(3)
Subordination for emphasis
191(1)
Excessive subordination
191(2)
Other techniques
193(4)
Provide some variety
197(6)
Sentence openings
198(1)
Sentence structures
199(1)
Inverted order
200(1)
Adding a question or quotation
200(3)
PART IV Word Choice
203(36)
Tighten wordy sentences
204(7)
Redundancies
204(1)
Unnecessary repetition
205(1)
Empty or inflated phrases
205(2)
Simplifying the structure
207(1)
Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to single words
208(3)
Choose appropriate language
211(16)
Jargon
211(2)
Pretentious language, euphemisms, ``doublespeak''
213(4)
Obsolete and invented words
217(1)
Slang, regional expressions, nonstandard English
218(2)
Levels of formality
220(1)
Sexist language
221(5)
Offensive language
226(1)
Find the exact words
227(12)
Connotations
228(2)
Specific, concrete nouns
230(1)
Misused words
231(2)
Standard idioms
233(2)
Cliches
235(2)
Figures of speech
237(2)
PART V Grammatical Sentences
239(106)
Repair sentence fragments
240(11)
Subordinate clauses
243(1)
Phrases
244(1)
Other fragmented word groups
245(3)
Acceptable fragments
248(3)
Revise run-on sentences
251(12)
Correction with coordinating conjunction
255(1)
Correction with semicolon, colon, or dash
255(2)
Correction by separating sentences
257(1)
Correction by restructuring
258(5)
Make subjects and verbs agree
263(15)
Standard subject-verb combinations
263(3)
Words between subject and verb
266(1)
Subjects joined with and
267(1)
Subjects joined with or, nor, either. . .or, or neither. . .nor
268(1)
Indefinite pronouns
269(1)
Collective nouns
270(1)
Subject following verb
271(1)
Subject, not subject complement
272(1)
who, which, and that
273(2)
Words with plural form, singular meaning
275(1)
Titles of works, company names, words mentioned as words, gerund phrases
275(3)
Make pronouns and antecedents agree.
278(8)
Singular with singular, plural with plural (indefinite pronouns, generic nouns)
279(3)
Collective nouns
282(1)
Antecedents joined with and
283(1)
Antecedents joined with or, nor, either. . .or, or neither. . .nor
283(3)
Make pronoun references clear
286(6)
Ambiguous or remote reference
286(1)
Broad reference of this, that, which, and it
287(1)
Implied antecedents
288(1)
Indefinite use of they, it, and you
289(1)
who for persons, which or that for things
290(2)
Distinguish between pronouns such as I and me
292(11)
Subjective case for subjects and subject complements
293(1)
Objective case for objects
294(1)
Appositives
295(1)
Pronoun following than or as
296(1)
we or us before a noun
297(1)
Subjects and objects of infinitives
297(3)
Pronoun modifying a gerund
300(3)
Distinguish between who and whom
303(6)
In subordinate clauses
304(2)
In questions
306(2)
As subjects or objects of infinitives
308(1)
Choose adjectives and adverbs with care
309(9)
Adverbs as modifiers
310(2)
Adjectives as complements
312(2)
Comparatives and superlatives
314(2)
Double negatives
316(2)
Choose standard English verb forms
318(17)
Irregular verbs
319(3)
lie and lay
322(3)
-s (or -es) endings
325(5)
-ed endings
330(2)
Omitted verbs
332(3)
Use verbs in the appropriate tense and mood
335(10)
Verb tense
335(6)
Subjunctive mood
341(4)
PART VI ESL Trouble Spots
345(36)
Be alert to special problems with verbs
346(14)
Helping verbs and main verbs
346(6)
Verbs in conditional sentences
352(3)
Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives
355(4)
Two-word verbs
359(1)
Omitted verbs
360(1)
Use the articles a, an, and the appropriately
360(8)
When to use a (or an)
362(1)
When not to use a (or an)
362(3)
When to use the
365(1)
When not to use the
366(2)
Be aware of other potential trouble spots
368(13)
Omitted subjects, omitted there, it
368(2)
Repeated subjects
370(1)
Repeated objects, adverbs in adjective clauses
370(2)
Placement of adjectives and adverbs
372(4)
Confusion of present and past participles
376(2)
Prepositions showing time and place
378(3)
PART VII Punctuation
381(62)
The comma
382(18)
Independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction
382(1)
Introductory clauses or phrases
383(2)
Items in a series
385(1)
Coordinate adjectives
386(2)
Nonrestrictive elements
388(5)
Transitional and parenthetical expressions, absolute phrases, contrasted elements
393(2)
Nouns of direct address, the words yes and no, interrogative tags, mild interjections
395(1)
Expressions such as he said
396(1)
Dates, addresses, titles, numbers
396(1)
To prevent confusion
397(3)
Unnecessary commas
400(8)
Between compound elements that are not independent clauses
401(1)
After a phrase beginning an inverted sentence
401(1)
Before the first or after the last item in a series
402(1)
Between cumulative adjectives, an adjective and a noun, or an adverb and an adjective
402(1)
Before and after restrictive or mildly parenthetical elements
403(1)
Before essential adverbial concluding elements
404(1)
Between a verb and its subject or object
404(1)
Other misuses
405(3)
The semicolon
408(6)
Independent clauses not joined with a coordinating conjunction
409(1)
Independent clauses linked with a transitional expression
409(2)
Series containing internal punctuation
411(1)
Misuses
411(3)
The colon
414(4)
Before a list, an appositive, or a quotation introduced by an independent clause
415(1)
Between independent clauses
415(1)
Salutations, hours and minutes, proportions, titles and subtitles, bibliographic entries
416(1)
Misuses
416(2)
The apostrophe
418(5)
Possessive nouns
418(2)
Possessive indefinite pronouns
420(1)
Contractions
420(1)
Plural numbers, letters, abbreviations, and words mentioned as words
420(2)
Misuses
422(1)
Quotation marks
423(9)
Direct quotations
424(1)
Long quotations
424(2)
Quotation within a quotation
426(1)
Titles of works
426(1)
Words as words
427(1)
With other punctuation marks
427(3)
Misuses
430(2)
End punctuation
432(4)
Period
432(2)
Question mark
434(1)
Exclamation point
434(2)
Other punctuation marks: the dash, parentheses, brackets, the ellipsis mark, the slash
436(7)
The dash
436(1)
Parentheses
437(1)
Brackets
438(1)
The ellipsis mark
439(1)
The slash
440(3)
PART VIII Mechanics
443(34)
Abbreviations
444(4)
Titles with proper names
444(1)
Familiar abbreviations
445(1)
Conventional abbreviations
445(1)
Latin abbreviations
446(1)
Misuses
446(2)
Numbers
448(3)
Spelling out
448(1)
Using figures
449(2)
Italics (underlining)
451(5)
Titles of works
452(1)
Names of spacecraft, aircraft, ships, and trains
453(1)
Foreign words
453(1)
Words mentioned as words, letters mentioned as letters, and numbers mentioned as numbers
454(1)
Misuses
454(2)
Spelling
456(10)
The dictionary
456(4)
Words that sound alike
460(1)
Spelling rules
460(3)
Commonly misspelled words
463(3)
The hyphen
466(5)
Compound words
467(1)
Hyphenated adjectives
467(1)
Fractions and compound numbers
468(1)
With certain prefixes and suffixes
468(1)
To avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward double or triple letters
468(1)
Word division
469(2)
Capital letters
471(6)
Proper versus common nouns
471(2)
Titles with proper names
473(1)
Titles and subtitles of works
473(1)
First word of a sentence
474(1)
First word of a quoted sentence
474(1)
First word after a colon
475(1)
Abbreviations
475(2)
PART IX Critical Thinking
477(42)
Writing about texts
478(14)
Reading actively: annotating the text
479(4)
Sample Annotated Reading
479(4)
Sketching an outline of the text
483(1)
Summarizing
484(1)
Sample Summary
484(1)
Analyzing
485(7)
Sample Analysis
487(5)
Constructing reasonable arguments
492(14)
Examining your issue's social and intellectual contexts
492(1)
Viewing your audience as a panel of jurors
493(1)
Establishing credibility and stating your position
494(1)
Backing up your thesis with persuasive lines of argument
495(1)
Supporting your claims with specific evidence
496(2)
Anticipating objections; countering opposing arguments
498(1)
Building common ground
499(7)
Sample Argument Paper
500(6)
Evaluating arguments
506(13)
Distinguishing between reasonable and fallacious argumentative tactics
506(7)
Distinguishing between legitimate and unfair emotional appeals
513(2)
Judging how fairly a writer handles opposing views
515(4)
PART X Researched Writing
519(117)
Conducting research
521(25)
Posing questions worth exploring
521(3)
Mapping out a search strategy
524(3)
Searching a database or consulting a print index to locate articles
527(5)
Consulting the library's catalog to locate books
532(2)
Using the Web to find a variety of sources
534(7)
Considering other search tools
541(2)
Doing field research
543(3)
Evaluating sources
546(11)
Selecting sources worth your time and attention
546(5)
Reading with an open mind and a critical eye
551(3)
Assessing Web sources with special care
554(3)
Managing information; avoiding plagiarism
557(6)
Maintaining a working bibliography
557(2)
Keeping track of source materials
559(1)
Avoiding unintentional plagiarism
560(3)
Choosing a documentation style
563(6)
Selecting a style appropriate for your discipline
563(3)
Consulting a style manual
566(3)
Writing MLA Papers
Supporting a thesis
569(6)
Forming a thesis and sketching an outline
570(2)
Including your thesis in the introduction
572(1)
Providing organizational cues
573(1)
Drafting the paper in an appropriate voice
574(1)
Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism
575(5)
Using the MLA system for citing sources
575(1)
Avoiding plagiarism
576(4)
Integrating sources
580(11)
Using signal phrases to introduce quotations; limiting your use of quotations
581(5)
Using signal phrases to introduce most summaries and paraphrases
586(2)
Omitting a signal phrase, if you wish, with statistics and other facts
588(3)
Chart Reviewing an MLA paper: Global revisions
589(1)
Chart Reviewing an MLA paper: Use of sources
590(1)
MLA documentation style
591(41)
MLA in-text citations
593(11)
MLA list of works cited
604(27)
MLA information notes
631(1)
MLA manuscript format; sample MLA paper
632(4)
MLA manuscript format
632(4)
Sample research paper: MLA style
636


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