About the Authors | p. xv |

Preface | p. xvii |

Introduction | p. 1 |

What Is Structural Equation Modeling? | p. 2 |

History of Structural Equation Modeling | p. 4 |

Why Conduct Structural Equation Modeling? | p. 6 |

Structural Equation Modeling Software Programs | p. 8 |

Summary | p. 10 |

References | p. 11 |

Data Entry and Data Editing Issues | p. 13 |

Data Entry | p. 14 |

Data Editing Issues | p. 18 |

Measurement Scale | p. 18 |

Restriction of Range | p. 19 |

Missing Data | p. 20 |

LISREL-PRELIS Missing Data Example | p. 21 |

Outliers | p. 27 |

Linearity | p. 27 |

Nonnormality | p. 28 |

Summary | p. 29 |

References | p. 31 |

Correlation | p. 33 |

Types of Correlation Coefficients | p. 33 |

Factors Affecting Correlation Coefficients | p. 35 |

Level of Measurement and Range of Values | p. 35 |

Nonlinearity | p. 36 |

Missing Data | p. 38 |

Outliers | p. 39 |

Correction for Attenuation | p. 39 |

Nonpositive Definite Matrices | p. 40 |

Sample Size | p. 41 |

Bivariate, Part, and Partial Correlations | p. 42 |

Correlation versus Covariance | p. 46 |

Variable Metrics (Standardized versus Unstandardized) | p. 47 |

Causation Assumptions and Limitations | p. 48 |

Summary | p. 49 |

References | p. 51 |

SEM Basics | p. 55 |

Model Specification | p. 55 |

Mode] Identification | p. 56 |

Model Estimation | p. 59 |

Model Testing | p. 63 |

Model Modification | p. 64 |

Summary | p. 67 |

References | p. 69 |

Model Fit | p. 73 |

Types of Model-Fit Criteria | p. 74 |

LISREL-SIMPLIS Example | p. 77 |

Data | p. 77 |

Program | p. 80 |

Output | p. 81 |

Model Fit | p. 85 |

Chi-Square (X^{2}) | p. 85 |

Goodness-of-Fit Index (GFI) and Adjusted Goodness-of-Fit Index (AGFI) | p. 86 |

Root-Mean-Square Residual Index (RMR) | p. 87 |

Model Comparison | p. 88 |

Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) | p. 88 |

Normed Fit Index (NFI) and Comparative Fit Index (CFI) | p. 88 |

Model Parsimony | p. 89 |

Parsimony Normed Fit Index (PNFI) | p. 90 |

Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) | p. 90 |

Summary | p. 91 |

Parameter Fit | p. 92 |

Power and Sample Size | p. 93 |

Model Fit | p. 94 |

Power | p. 94 |

Sample Size | p. 99 |

Model Comparison | p. 108 |

Parameter Significance | p. 111 |

Summary | p. 113 |

Two-Step Versus Four-Step Approach to Modeling | p. 114 |

Summary | p. 116 |

Chapter Footnote | p. 118 |

Standard Errors | p. 118 |

Chi-Squares | p. 118 |

References | p. 120 |

Regression Models | p. 125 |

Overview | p. 126 |

An Example | p. 130 |

Model Specification | p. 130 |

Model Identification | p. 131 |

Model Estimation | p. 131 |

Model Testing | p. 133 |

Model Modification | p. 134 |

Summary | p. 135 |

Measurement Error | p. 136 |

Additive Equation | p. 137 |

Chapter Footnote | p. 138 |

Regression Model with Intercept Term | p. 138 |

LISREL-SIMPLIS Program (Intercept Term) | p. 138 |

References | p. 139 |

Path Models | p. 143 |

An Example | p. 144 |

Model Specification | p. 147 |

Model Identification | p. 150 |

Model Estimation | p. 151 |

Model Testing | p. 154 |

Model Modification | p. 155 |

Summary | p. 156 |

Appendix: LISREL-SIMPLIS Path Model Program | p. 156 |

Chapter Footnote | p. 158 |

Another Traditional Non-SEM Path Model-Fit Index | p. 158 |

LISREL-SIMPLIS program | p. 158 |

References | p. 161 |

Confirmatory Factor Models | p. 163 |

An Example | p. 164 |

Model Specification | p. 166 |

Model Identification | p. 167 |

Model Estimation | p. 169 |

Model Testing | p. 170 |

Model Modification | p. 173 |

Summary | p. 174 |

Appendix: LISREL-SIMPLIS Confirmatory Factor Model Program | p. 174 |

References | p. 177 |

Developing Structural Equation Models: Part I | p. 179 |

Observed Variables and Latent Variables | p. 180 |

Measurement Model | p. 184 |

Structural Model | p. 186 |

Variances and Covariance Terms | p. 189 |

Two-Step/Four-Step Approach | p. 191 |

Summary | p. 192 |

References | p. 193 |

Developing Structural Equation Models: Part II | p. 195 |

An Example | p. 195 |

Model Specification | p. 197 |

Model Identification | p. 200 |

Model Estimation | p. 202 |

Model Testing | p. 203 |

Model Modification | p. 205 |

Summary | p. 207 |

Appendix: LISREL-SIMPLIS Structural Equation Model Program | p. 207 |

References | p. 208 |

Reporting SEM Research: Guidelines and Recommendations | p. 209 |

Data Preparation | p. 212 |

Model Specification | p. 213 |

Model Identification | p. 215 |

Model Estimation | p. 216 |

Model Testing | p. 217 |

Model Modification | p. 218 |

Summary | p. 219 |

References | p. 220 |

Model Validation | p. 223 |

Key Concepts | p. 223 |

Multiple Samples | p. 223 |

Model A Computer Output | p. 226 |

Model B Computer Output | p. 227 |

Model C Computer Output | p. 228 |

Model D Computer Output | p. 229 |

Summary | p. 229 |

Cross Validation | p. 229 |

ECVI | p. 230 |

CVI | p. 231 |

Bootstrap | p. 234 |

PRELIS Graphical User Interface | p. 234 |

LISREL and PRELIS Program Syntax | p. 237 |

Summary | p. 241 |

References | p. 243 |

Multiple Sample, Multiple Group, and Structured Means Models | p. 245 |

Multiple Sample Models | p. 245 |

| p. 247 |

| p. 247 |

Multiple Group Models | p. 250 |

Separate Group Models | p. 251 |

Similar Group Model | p. 255 |

Chi-Square Difference Test | p. 258 |

Structured Means Models | p. 259 |

Model Specification and Identification | p. 259 |

Model Fit | p. 261 |

Model Estimation and Testing | p. 261 |

Summary | p. 263 |

Suggested Readings | p. 267 |

Multiple Samples | p. 267 |

Multiple Group Models | p. 267 |

Structured Means Models | p. 267 |

Chapter Footnote | p. 268 |

SPSS | p. 268 |

References | p. 269 |

Second-Order, Dynamic, and Multitrait Multimethod Models | p. 271 |

Second-Order Factor Model | p. 271 |

Model Specification and Identification | p. 271 |

Model Estimation and Testing | p. 272 |

Dynamic Factor Model | p. 274 |

Multitrait Multimethod Model (MTMM) | p. 277 |

Model Specification and Identification | p. 279 |

Model Estimation and Testing | p. 280 |

Correlated Uniqueness Model | p. 281 |

Summary | p. 286 |

Suggested Readings | p. 290 |

Second-Order Factor Models | p. 290 |

Dynamic Factor Models | p. 290 |

Multitrait Multimethod Models | p. 290 |

Correlated Uniqueness Model | p. 291 |

References | p. 291 |

Multiple Indicator-Multiple Indicator Cause, Mixture, and Multilevel Models | p. 293 |

Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) Models | p. 293 |

Model Specification and Identification | p. 294 |

Model Estimation and Model Testing | p. 294 |

Model Modification | p. 297 |

Goodness-of-Fit Statistics | p. 297 |

Measurement Equations | p. 297 |

Structural Equations | p. 298 |

Mixture Models | p. 298 |

Model Specification and Identification | p. 299 |

Model Estimation and Testing | p. 301 |

Model Modification | p. 302 |

Robust Statistic | p. 305 |

Multilevel Models | p. 307 |

Constant Effects | p. 313 |

Time Effects | p. 313 |

Gender Effects | p. 315 |

Multilevel Model Interpretation | p. 318 |

Intraclass Correlation | p. 319 |

Deviance Statistic | p. 320 |

Summary | p. 320 |

Suggested Readings | p. 324 |

Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause Models | p. 324 |

Mixture Models | p. 325 |

Multilevel Models | p. 325 |

References | p. 325 |

Interaction, Latent Growth, and Monte Carlo Methods | p. 327 |

Interaction Models | p. 327 |

Categorical Variable Approach | p. 328 |

Latent Variable Interaction Model | p. 331 |

Computing Latent Variable Scores | p. 331 |

Computing Latent Interaction Variable | p. 333 |

Interaction Model Output | p. 335 |

Model Modification | p. 336 |

Structural Equations-No Latent Interaction Variable | p. 336 |

Two-Stage Least Squares (TSLS) Approach | p. 337 |

Latent Growth Curve Models | p. 341 |

Latent Growth Curve Program | p. 343 |

Model Modification | p. 344 |

Monte Carlo Methods | p. 345 |

PRELIS Simulation of Population Data | p. 346 |

Population Data from Specified Covariance Matrix | p. 352 |

SPSS Approach | p. 352 |

SAS Approach | p. 354 |

LISREL Approach | p. 355 |

Covariance Matrix from Specified Model | p. 359 |

Summary | p. 365 |

Suggested Readings | p. 368 |

Interaction Models | p. 368 |

Latent Growth-Curve Models | p. 368 |

Monte Carlo Methods | p. 368 |

References | p. 369 |

Matrix Approach to Structural Equation Modeling | p. 373 |

General Overview of Matrix Notation | p. 373 |

Free, Fixed, and Constrained Parameters | p. 379 |

LISREL Model Example in Matrix Notation | p. 382 |

LISREL8 Matrix Program Output (Edited and Condensed) | p. 385 |

Other Models in Matrix Notation | p. 400 |

Path Model | p. 400 |

Multiple-Sample Model | p. 404 |

Structured Means Model | p. 405 |

Interaction Models | p. 410 |

PRELIS Computer Output | p. 412 |

LISREL Interaction Computer Output | p. 416 |

Summary | p. 421 |

References | p. 423 |

Introduction to Matrix Operations | p. 425 |

Statistical Tables | p. 439 |

Answers to Selected Exercises | p. 449 |

Author Index | p. 489 |

Subject Index | p. 495 |

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