CART

(0) items

Beginning Behavioral Research : A Conceptual Primer,9780130915177
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!
FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

Beginning Behavioral Research : A Conceptual Primer

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780130915177

ISBN10:
0130915173
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

Related Products


  • Beginning Behavioral Research : A Conceptual Primer
    Beginning Behavioral Research : A Conceptual Primer
  • Beginning Behavioral Research : A Conceptual Primer
    Beginning Behavioral Research : A Conceptual Primer
  • Beginning Behavioral Research A Conceptual Primer
    Beginning Behavioral Research A Conceptual Primer
  • Beginning Behavioral Research A Conceptual Primer Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package
    Beginning Behavioral Research A Conceptual Primer Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package





Summary

This successful introduction to behavioral research methods—written by two leaders in the field—provides step by step guidance through the processes of planning an empirical study, analyzing and interpreting data, and reporting findings and conclusions. It encourages learners to be analytical and critical, not only in interpreting research findings, but also in investigating what is behind the claims and conclusions in news reports of scientific results. While the primary emphasis is on behavioral and social research, a strong effort is made to connect these disciplines with the empirical reasoning used in other fields in order to underscore the unity of science. Chapter topics cover concepts in five key areas: getting started, observation and measurement, design and implementation, describing and hypothesis testing, and statistical tests. For individuals of diverse interests and backgrounds with a common goal of learning the ins and outs of behavioral research methods.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Part I Getting Started
The Scientific Outlook
I
Preview Questions
1(1)
Why Study Research Methods?
1(3)
Peirce's Methods of ``Fixing Belief''
4(2)
What Is Empirical Reasoning?
6(1)
Empirical Reasoning in Behavioral Science
7(2)
The Rhetoric of Science
9(1)
Other Shared Features of the Scientific Method
10(2)
What Is Behavioral Science?
12(1)
Broad Research Approaches
13(2)
Descriptive Research
15(1)
Relational Research
15(1)
Experimental Research
16(1)
Orienting Attitudes of the Scientist
17(2)
Summary of Ideas
19(1)
Key Terms
20(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
21(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
21(1)
Answers to Review Questions
22(1)
Strategies of Discovery
23(34)
Preview Questions
23(1)
The Stages of Discovery
23(2)
Using an Intensive Case Study
25(2)
Making Sense of a Paradoxical Incident
27(1)
Using Metaphors and Analogies
28(1)
Resolving Conflicting Results
29(3)
Improving on Older Ideas
32(1)
Screndipity
33(2)
The Research Proposal
35(1)
Finding and Using Reference Materials
36(5)
Defining Terms and Variables
41(2)
A Summary Illustration
43(1)
Theories and Hypotheses
44(2)
Molding Ideas Into Acceptable Hypotheses
46(2)
Constructs and Variables
48(1)
Examples of Independent Variables
48(2)
Examples of Dependent Variables
50(1)
Discovery as Exploration
51(2)
Summary of Ideas
53(1)
Key Terms
54(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
55(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
55(1)
Answers to Review Questions
56(1)
Ethical Considerations
57(24)
Preview Questions
57(1)
What Are Ethical Guidelines?
57(2)
Respect for Persons and Their Autonomy
59(2)
Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
61(3)
Justice
64(1)
Trust
65(1)
Fidelity and Scientific Integrity
66(1)
Deception
67(1)
Milgram's Use of Deception
68(2)
Is Deception Ever Justified?
70(1)
Debriefing Participants
71(2)
The Use of Animals in Research
73(2)
Ethics of Writing and Reporting
75(1)
Avoiding Plagiarism
76(1)
Summary of Ideas
77(1)
Key Terms
78(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
78(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
79(1)
Answers to Review Questions
79(2)
Part II Observation and Measurement
Systematic Observational Methods
81(24)
Preview Questions
81(1)
The Researcher as Observer
81(2)
Naturalistic Observation
83(1)
Participant-Observer Research
84(2)
Ethnographic Research
86(4)
Content Analysis of Archival Data
90(2)
The Laboratory Study
92(2)
Examples of Rival Interpretations
94(2)
The Field Experiment
96(1)
Reactive and Nonreactive Observation
97(1)
Unobtrusive Observation
98(2)
Using Judges as Observers
100(1)
A Final Note
101(1)
Summary of Ideas
101(1)
Key Terms
102(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
102(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
103(1)
Answers to Review Questions
104(1)
Self-Report Methods
105(33)
Preview Questions
105(1)
Looking within One self
105(1)
Three Basic Considerations
106(2)
Open versus Closed Questions
108(1)
Projective Measures of Personality
109(2)
Structured Measures of Personality
111(1)
Numerical Scales
112(3)
Forced-Choice Scales
115(1)
Graphic Scales
116(1)
Rating Errors and Their Control
117(2)
The Semantic Differential
119(2)
The Likert Scale
121(1)
The Thurstone Scale
122(2)
Pilot-Testing Your Questionnaire
124(3)
Interviews versus Questionnaires
127(1)
Planning and Pilot-Testing the Interview
127(2)
The Critical Incident Technique
129(2)
Interviews by Telephone
131(1)
Memory and the Use of Behavioral Diaries
132(2)
Summary of Ideas
134(1)
Key Terms
135(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
136(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
136(1)
Answers to Review Questions
137(1)
Reliability and Validity
138(22)
Preview Questions
138(1)
Random and Systematic Error
138(1)
Test-Retest Reliability
139(2)
Internal-Consistency Reliability
141(2)
What Is Acceptable Reliability?
143(2)
Applications to Reliability of Judges
145(2)
Using a Table of Estimated Values
147(1)
Replication and Reliability
148(1)
Types of Validity
149(1)
Content Validity
149(1)
Criterion Validity
150(1)
Construct Validity
151(1)
Detailed Example: Crowne and Marlowe's Research
152(2)
Validity in Experimental Design
154(2)
Summary of Ideas
156(1)
Key Terms
157(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
158(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
158(1)
Answers to Review Questions
159(1)
Part III Design and Implementation
The Logic of Randomized Experiments
160(24)
Preview Questions
160(1)
A Basic Framework
160(2)
Random Assignment of Subjects
162(3)
Four Kinds of Causation
165(1)
Three Criteria of Efficient Causation
166(1)
Uncertainty of Causal Inference
167(1)
Mill's Methods and the Logic of Experimental Control
168(1)
Teasing Out Effects of Interest
169(1)
The Solomon Design
170(2)
Preexperimental Designs
172(2)
History, Maturation, Instrumentation, and Selection
174(1)
The Social Psychology of the Experiment
175(1)
Subject-Related Artifacts
175(2)
Experimenter Expectancy and Its Control
177(3)
Summary of Ideas
180(1)
Key Terms
180(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
181(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
182(1)
Answer to Review Questions
182(2)
Categories of Quasi-Experimental Research
184(23)
Preview Questions
184(1)
The Role of Quasi-Experimentation
184(2)
Nonequivalent-Groups Designs
186(1)
Inferring Causation
187(2)
The Identification of Moderator Variables
189(1)
Interrupted Time-Series Designs
190(4)
Single-Case Experimental Designs
194(2)
Alternative Single-Case Designs
196(1)
Correlational Designs
197(2)
Cross-Lagged Panel Designs
199(2)
Longitudinal Designs Using Cohorts
201(2)
Summary of Ideas
203(1)
Key Terms
204(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
205(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
205(1)
Answers to Review Questions
206(1)
Survey Designs and Subject Recruitment
207(25)
Preview Questions
207(1)
Selecting the Research Participants
207(2)
Basic Concepts in Survey Samples
209(2)
Simple Random Sampling
211(3)
Random Sampling Options
214(1)
Stratification in Sampling
215(1)
Area Probability Sampling
215(1)
Lessons Learned by George Gallup
216(2)
Point and Interval Estimates
218(1)
Benefits of Stratification
219(2)
Estimating the Basic Due to Nonresponse
221(2)
Improving the Rate of Response
223(1)
Characteristics of Typical Volunteer Subjects
223(3)
Implications for Research Conclusions
226(1)
Increasing Participation and Ethical Accountability
227(1)
Pilot Testing as a Final Step
228(1)
Summary of Ideas
228(1)
Key Terms
229(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
229(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
230(1)
Answers to Review Questions
231(1)
Part IV Describing and Hypothesis Testing
Summarizing the Data
232(21)
Preview Questions
232(1)
Statistical Procedures
232(1)
Visualizing Data
233(3)
Stem-and-Leaf Charts
236(1)
Percentiles and the Median
237(2)
Applying What We Have Learned
239(1)
The Mode and the Mean
240(1)
Dealing with Outliers
240(2)
The Crude and Extended Range
242(1)
The Variance and the Standard Deviation
243(2)
Descriptive and Inferential Formulas
245(1)
The Normal Distribution
246(1)
Standard Scores
247(1)
Comparing Standard Scores
248(1)
Summary of Ideas
249(1)
Key Terms
250(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
250(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
251(1)
Answers to Review Questions
252(1)
Examining Relationships
253(20)
Preview Questions
253(1)
The Correlation Coefficient
253(2)
Visualizing the Correlation Coefficient
255(1)
Calculating the Person r
256(2)
Spearman Rank Correlation
258(3)
Point-Biserial Correlation
261(4)
Phi Coefficient
265(2)
A Final Note
267(1)
Summary of Ideas
267(1)
Key Terms
268(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
268(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
269(1)
Answers to Review Questions
270(3)
Statistical Significance and Practical Importance
273(22)
Preview Questions
273(1)
Use of Statistics and Probabilities
273(2)
The Null Hypothesis in Significance Testing
275(1)
Probability Revisited
276(1)
Type I and Type II Errors
277(1)
Risks of Gullibility and Blindness
278(2)
Finding the Significance of r
280(2)
Binomial Effect-Size Display (BESD)
282(3)
Please Don't Square the Effect Size!
285(1)
Statistical Power Analysis
286(2)
Constructing a Confidence Interval
288(2)
Summary of Ideas
290(1)
Key Terms
291(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
292(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
292(1)
Answers to Review Questions
293(2)
Part V Statistical Tests
The t Test
295(19)
Preview Questions
295(1)
Comparing Two Means
295(1)
Signal-to-Noise Ratios
296(2)
Comparing Independent Samples
298(2)
Using the t Table to Find p
300(2)
Measuring the Effect Size
302(2)
The Confidence Interval and the BESD
304(1)
Optimizing the t Test
305(1)
Comparing Related Samples
306(2)
Assumptions of the t Test
308(1)
Summary of Ideas
309(1)
Key Terms
310(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
310(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
311(1)
Answers to Review Questions
312(2)
The F Test
314(24)
Preview Questions
314(1)
F and t
314(1)
The Logic of ANOVA
315(2)
Dividing Up the Variance
317(1)
Computing the One-Way ANOVA
318(1)
The ANOVA Summary Table
319(2)
Using the F Table to Find p
321(2)
After the F, t Revisited
323(2)
Two-Way Designs
325(1)
Effects and the Factorial ANOVA
326(2)
The Concept of Error
328(1)
Computing the Two-Way ANOVA
329(3)
Repeated-Measures ANOVA Designs
332(1)
Summary of Ideas
333(1)
Key Terms
334(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
334(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
335(1)
Answers to Review Questions
336(2)
Chi-Square
338(16)
Preview Questions
338(1)
The Utility of Chi-Square
338(1)
Computing 2 x 2 Chi-Squares
339(3)
Finding the p Value, Effect Size, and Confidence Interval
342(1)
Phi and Chi-Square
343(1)
Larger Tables of Counts
344(2)
Interpreting Large Tables
346(1)
Taking the Margins into Account
347(2)
A Journey Begun
349(1)
Summary of Ideas
349(1)
Key Terms
350(1)
Multiple-Choice Questions for Review
350(1)
Discussion Questions for Review
351(1)
Answers to Review Questions
352(2)
Appendix A Reporting the Research in a Paper or Poster 354(29)
Communicating the Research Findings
354(1)
Getting Organized
355(1)
Sample Research Report
356(1)
Exhibit A. 1 Bruce Rind's Research Report
357(14)
Title Page
371(1)
Abstract
371(1)
Exhibit A.2 APA Manual's Style for Title Page of Manuscript to Be Submitted for Publication
372(1)
Introduction
373(1)
Method
374(1)
Results
374(1)
Discussion
375(1)
References
375(1)
End Material
376(1)
Writing and Revising
377(1)
Layout and Printing
377(1)
Creating a Poster
378(1)
Exhibit A.3 Template for Poster Consisting of Six Pages Based on Bruce's Study in Exhibit A.1
379(2)
Exhibit A.4 Bruce Rind's Poster Presentation Using the Template in Exhibit A.3
381(2)
Appendix B Statistical Tables 383(13)
B.1 z Values and Their Associated One-Tailed p Values
384(1)
B.2 t Values and Their Associated One-Tailed and Two-Tailed p Values
385(2)
B.3 FValues and Their Associated p Values
387(5)
B.4 X2 Values and Their Associated p Values
392(1)
B.5 r Values and Their Associated p Values
393(1)
B.6 Transformations of r to Fisher zr
394(1)
B.7 Transformations of Fisher zr to r
395(1)
Appendix C Introduction to Meta-Analysis and Contrast Analysis 396(13)
Utility of Meta-Analysis
396(1)
Importance of Effect Sizes
397(1)
Comparing Two Effect Sizes
398(2)
Combining Two Effect Sizes
400(1)
Comparing Two Significance Levels
400(1)
Combining Two Significance Values
401(1)
Detective-Like Probing of Reported Data
402(1)
Contrast Analysis
403(4)
The File Drawer Problem
407(2)
Glossary 409(14)
References 423(21)
Name Index 444(7)
Subject Index 451


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...