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Behavior Management : Applications for Teachers,9780131106673
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Behavior Management : Applications for Teachers

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131106673

ISBN10:
0131106678
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

"For undergraduate and Special Ed or General Ed graduate courses in Special Ed. Behavior Management and Classroom Management or Applied Behavior Analysis." "Behavior Management: Applications for Teachers "provides a comprehensive overview of behavior management and classroom management to include introduction, definitions, assessment (functional and formal), strategies and applications. The focus of the strategies presented in this text is positive behavioral support and the prevention of challenging behavior within the classroom setting. Special attention is paid to special populations, such as young children, teens, and students from diverse backgrounds. The text is packed with classroom connection vignettes, follow-up discussion questions per classroom connection, practical applications and examples so that the content is clear to the reader and easily applied to the classroom.

Table of Contents

PART I Understanding and Assessing Behavior 1(186)
Chapter 1 Foundations for Understanding and Managing Behavior
2(38)
Basic Concepts of Behavior and Behavior Management
3(10)
Behavior
3(1)
Antecedents
4(1)
Consequences
5(1)
Stimuli
6(1)
Responses
7(1)
Reinforcement
7(1)
Punishment
8(1)
Prompts and Cues
8(5)
Basic Assumptions of Behavior and Behavior Management
13(3)
Most Behaviors Are Learned
14(1)
Most Behaviors Are Stimulus-Specific
14(1)
Most Behaviors Can Be Taught, Changed, or Modified
14(1)
Behavior Change Goals Should Be Specific and Clearly Defined
14(1)
Behavior Change Programs Should Be Individualized
15(1)
Behavior Change Programs Should Focus on the Here and Now
15(1)
Behavior Change Programs Should Focus on the Child's Environment
15(1)
Myths and Misconceptions About Behavior and Behavior Management
16(4)
Myth: Changing Another Person's Behavior Is Coercive
17(1)
Myth: The Use of Reinforcement to Change Behavior Is a Form of Bribery
18(1)
Myth: Children Will Learn to Behave Appropriately Only for Reinforcement
19(1)
Myth: Children Should "Work" for Intrinsic Reinforcers
19(1)
Myth: All Children Should Be Treated in the Same Way
19(1)
History and Foundations of Current Behavior Analysis and Management
20(13)
Classical Conditioning
20(3)
Operant Conditioning
23(5)
Social Learning Theory
28(1)
Behavior Therapy
28(3)
Applied Behavior Analysis
31(2)
Summary
33(2)
Discussion Questions
35(1)
References
36(4)
Chapter 2 Formal Behavioral Assessment
40(40)
Common Features of Behavioral Assessment
41(2)
Assessment for Intervention Planning: A Seven-Step Model
43(30)
Step 1: Decide If a Problem Exists
43(12)
Data Collection Methods for Step 1
45(10)
Step 2: Determine If Intervention Is Warranted
55(8)
Data Collection Methods for Step 2
56(7)
Step 3: Determine If Medical and/or Psychological Reasons Exist That Contribute to the Problem Behavior
63(18)
Data Collection Methods for Step 3
64(9)
Summary
73(1)
Discussion Questions
74(1)
References
74(6)
Chapter 3 Data Collection Techniques
80(44)
Target Behaviors
81(6)
Defining Target Behaviors
82(1)
Establishing Behavioral Objectives
83(2)
Naturalistic Observation
85(1)
Anecdotal Observation: The ABC Analysis
85(2)
Assessment Interviews
87(1)
Dimensions of Behavior
87(4)
Frequency
88(1)
Duration
88(1)
Rate
89(1)
Latency
90(1)
Intensity or Magnitude
91(1)
Measurement of Behavior
91(8)
Frequency Recording/ Event Recording
92(1)
Duration Recording
93(1)
Interval Recording
93(4)
Time Sampling
97(2)
Accuracy of Behavioral Observation and Measures
99(5)
Reactivity
99(1)
Observer Drift
99(1)
The Recording Procedure
100(1)
Location of the Observation
100(1)
Observer Expectancy
100(1)
Characteristics of Subjects, Observers, and Settings
101(1)
Personal Values and Bias
101(1)
Data Collection Aids
102(2)
Reliability of Observations
104(3)
Reliability of Frequency Counts
104(1)
Reliability of Duration and Latency Measures
105(1)
Reliability of Interval Recording and Time Sampling
105(2)
Recording Observations
107(3)
Permanent Product Recording
107(1)
Data Collection Forms
108(1)
Coding Systems
109(1)
Displaying Observational Data
110(10)
Line Graphs
110(1)
Cumulative Graphs
111(1)
Bar Graphs
112(1)
Baseline and Intervention Methods
113(7)
Summary
120(1)
Discussion Questions
121(1)
References
122(2)
Chapter 4 Single-Subject Designs
124(26)
The Purpose of Single-Subject Designs
125(3)
Baseline and Intervention Conditions
127(1)
Types of Single-Subject Designs
128(19)
The A-B Design
128(3)
The A-B-A Design
131(3)
The A-B-A-B Design
134(1)
The Alternating Treatments Design
134(4)
The Changing Criterion Design
138(1)
Multiple-Baseline Designs
139(8)
Summary
147(1)
Discussion Questions
148(1)
References
148(2)
Chapter 5 Curriculum-Based Assessment: The Relationship Between Classroom Curriculum and Student Behavior
150(22)
What Is Curriculum-Based Assessment (CBA)?
151(4)
Variations and Similarities
152(3)
Curriculum Probes: Assessing a Student's Entering Skills
155(7)
Developing Probes
156(1)
Examples of Probes
157(1)
Who Administers Probes?
158(1)
When Are Probes Administered?
159(1)
Where Are Probes Administered?
159(1)
Recording Progress: Growth-Over-Time Charts
160(1)
Probes and Student Errors
160(1)
The Value of Student Errors
160(2)
Error Analysis
162(2)
Classroom Behavior and CBA
164(3)
Behavior Problems as Signs of Academic Problems
165(1)
Controlling Instructional Difficulty
165(2)
CBA and Exceptional Students
167(1)
Summary
168(1)
Discussion Questions
169(1)
References
170(2)
Chapter 6 Functional Behavioral Assessment
172(15)
What Is a Functional Assessment?
174(1)
History of Functional Assessment
175(1)
Behaviors Never Occur in Isolation
175(1)
Information Derived from a Functional Assessment
175(3)
Identify the Target Behavior
176(1)
Identify the Setting Events
176(2)
Critical Determinations
178(4)
What Purpose Does the Behavior Serve?
178(1)
No Universal Reinforcers of Punishers
179(1)
Student-Directed Interviews
179(3)
Disruptive Behavior: Is It Always Inappropriate?
182(1)
Purposeful Behavior
182(1)
Behaviors' Payoffs
183(1)
Summary
183(1)
Discussion Questions
184(1)
References
184(3)
PART II Positive Supports for Increasing Behavior 187(80)
Chapter 7 Establishing a Reinforcement Program
188(38)
Reinforcement
189(7)
Definition
189(2)
Positive Reinforcement
191(1)
Negative Reinforcement
191(1)
Types of Reinforcers
192(2)
Identifying Reinforcers
194(2)
Establishing a Reinforcement Program
196(3)
Establishing Clear Rules and Guidelines
196(1)
Setting the Example
197(1)
The Delivery of Reinforcers
197(2)
Schedules of Reinforcement
199(4)
Ratio Reinforcement Schedules
199(2)
Interval Reinforcement Schedules
201(2)
Shaping and Chaining New Behaviors
203(4)
Shaping
203(2)
Chaining
205(2)
Token Economy Reinforcement Programs
207(4)
Characteristics of Tokens
208(1)
Establishing a Token Economy Program
208(3)
Contingency Contracting
211(2)
Advantages of Contracts
212(1)
Generalization
213(4)
Stimulus Generalization
213(2)
Response Generalization
215(1)
Promoting Generalization of Behavior Change
216(1)
Maintenance
217(1)
Promoting the Maintenance of Behavior Change
218(1)
Summary
218(2)
Discussion Questions
220(1)
References
220(6)
Chapter 8 Cognitive Behavior Modification
226(41)
What Is Cognitive Behavior Modification?
227(2)
The Origins of Cognitive Behavior Modification
229(2)
Trends in Behavioral Psychology
229(1)
Trends in Cognitive Psychology
230(1)
The Procedures of Cognitive Behavior Modification
231(28)
Self-Instructional Training
231(5)
Self-Management Training
236(10)
Problem-Solving Training
246(4)
Anger-Control Training
250(6)
Alternate Response Training
256(1)
Attribution Retraining
257(2)
Development and Generalization of CBM Programs
259(2)
Summary
261(1)
Discussion Questions
261(1)
References
261(6)
PART III Understanding and Managing Challenging Behaviors 267(134)
Chapter 9 Behavior Reduction Strategies
268(61)
Terminology
269(2)
Appropriate Terminology for Challenging Behavior
270(1)
Is There Really a Problem?
270(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Behavior
271(8)
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors
271(3)
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors
274(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors
275(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Lower Rates of Behavior
276(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Higher Rates of Behavior
277(2)
Preventive Strategies
279(10)
Interrupting the Behavior Chain
280(2)
Preventive Strategies for School
282(3)
Preventive Strategies for the Classroom
285(4)
General Behavior Reduction Guidelines
289(3)
The Fair Pair Rule
289(1)
Be Consistent
289(1)
Avoid Reinforcing Inappropriate Behavior
289(1)
Consequences for Inappropriate Behavior
290(1)
Deal with Inappropriate Behavior Immediately
290(1)
Avoid Ineffective Procedures 291
Restrictiveness and Social Acceptability
291(1)
Establishing Safeguards and Program Review Procedures
292(2)
Program Review and Human Rights Committees
293(1)
Specific Behavior Reduction Strategies
294(22)
Review Environmental Influence
294(1)
Extinction
294(5)
Time-Out from Positive Reinforcement
299(7)
Response Cost
306(3)
Restitution, Positive Practice, and Overcorrection
309(4)
Medications
313(3)
Physical Restraint
316(1)
Corporal Punishment
317(2)
Summary
319(1)
Discussion Questions
320(1)
References
321(8)
Chapter 10 Specific Behavior Challenges
329(49)
Disruptive Behavior
332(3)
Common Causes and Antecedents of Disruptive Behavior
332(2)
Effective Interventions for Disruptive Behavior
334(1)
Noncompliance
335(5)
Common Causes and Antecedents of Noncompliance
336(2)
Interventions for Noncompliant Behavior
338(2)
Impulsivity
340(3)
Common Causes and Antecedents of Noncompliance
336(2)
Interventions for Noncompliant Behavior
338(5)
Inattention
343(2)
Common Causes and Antecedents for Inattention
344(1)
Effective Interventions for Inattention
344(1)
Hyperactivity
345(4)
Common Causes and Antecedents for Hyperactive Behavior
346(2)
Effective Interventions for Hyperactivity
348(1)
Aggressive Behavior
349(10)
Target Behaviors Involving Physical Aggression
350(1)
Target Behaviors Involving Verbal Aggression
350(1)
Patterns of Aggression
351(1)
Stages of Aggressive Behavior
352(1)
Common Causes and Antecedents for Aggressive Behavior
352(4)
Effective Interventions for Aggression
356(3)
Temper Tantrums
359(2)
Common Causes and Antecedents for Tantrum Behavior
359(1)
Interventions for Tantrum Behavior
360(1)
Stereotypy
361(4)
Common Causes and Antecedents for Stereotypic Behavior
362(2)
Interventions for Stereotypic Behavior
364(1)
Depression
365(3)
Common Causes and Antecedents for Depression
366(2)
Interventions for Depression
368(1)
Summary
368(2)
Discussion Questions
370(1)
References
370(8)
Chapter 11 Disciplining Students: Legal Issues for Schools
378(23)
Teacher's Duty to Enforce Discipline
380(1)
Student's Due Process Protections
380(4)
Procedural Due Process: The Right to Fair Procedures
381(2)
Substantive Due Process: The Right to Reasonableness
383(1)
Summary of Due Process Protections and Discipline
384(1)
Disciplining Students with Disabilities
385(6)
Disciplinary Provisions of IDEA '97
386(2)
The Manifestation Determination
388(1)
The Interim Alternative Educational Setting
389(1)
Proactively Addressing Behavior Problems of Students with Disabilities
390(1)
Summary of Disciplining Students with Disabilities
391(1)
Schoolwide Discipline
391(3)
Developing Schoolwide Discipline Policies
392(1)
Rules and Consequences
392(1)
Programming for Students with Serious Behavior Problems
393(1)
Implications for Teachers and Administrators
394(3)
Developing School District Disciplinary Policies and Procedures
394(3)
Summary
397(1)
Discussion Questions
397(1)
References
398(3)
PART IV Special Considerations for Special Populations 401
Chapter 12 Issues in Early Childhood Behavior
402(40)
Environmental Influences on Young Children's Behavior
404(7)
Poverty
405(1)
Single-Parent Families
406(1)
Low Birth Weight Babies
406(1)
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
407(1)
Lead Poisoning
407(1)
Child Maltreatment
408(3)
The Efficacy of Early Intervention
411(4)
Variables Associated with Effective Early Intervention
414(1)
Understanding the Behavior of Young Children
415(2)
Appropriate Caregiving for Young Children
417(8)
Establishing a Caring and Loving Environment
417(8)
Variables Associated with Appropriate Behavior in Young Children
425(2)
Supervision
425(1)
Consistency
425(1)
Readiness Skills
426(1)
Environmental Considerations
426(1)
The Educational Setting for Young Children
427(7)
Social Density
427(1)
Physical Layout
427(2)
Appropriate Use of Materials
429(1)
Effective Scheduling
429(1)
Transitions
430(1)
Staffing Qualifications and Ratios
430(4)
Parent-Teacher Relationships
434(1)
Summary
435(1)
Discussion Questions
436(1)
References
437(5)
Chapter 13 Adolescent Behavior: Understanding Influences and Modifying Outcomes
442(28)
Understanding the Changing Behavior of Adolescents
444(14)
Physical Changes
445(2)
Cognitive Changes
447(2)
Social and Relational Changes
449(4)
Contextual Changes
453(1)
Cumulative Effect of Changes
453(1)
Predicting Positive Outcomes for Adolescents
454(1)
Internal Assets
454(1)
External Assets
455(1)
Avoiding Developmental Deficits
456(2)
Behavioral Interventions for Adolescent Populations
458(2)
Resistance and Refusal Skills
459(1)
Social Skills Training
459(1)
Issues Particular to Behavioral Interventions with Adolescents
460(4)
Is It Ever Too Late to Intervene?
460(1)
Who Should Lead the Intervention-Teachers or Peers?
461(1)
Could Interventions Ever Have Unintended Harmful Effects?
462(1)
How Can We Run Interventions and Cover Required Course Material?
463(1)
Summary
464(1)
Discussion Questions
464(1)
References
465(5)
Chapter 14 Cultural Influences on Behavior
470
A Definition of Terms
473(2)
Worldview
475(2)
African Americans
477(8)
Demographics
477(2)
Cultural Influences on Behavior
479(3)
Recommendations for Schools and Teachers
482(3)
Hispanics/Latinos
485(7)
Demographics
485(2)
Cultural Influences on Behavior
487(3)
Recommendations for Schools and Teachers
490(2)
Asian (Pacific) Americans
492(9)
Demographics
492(1)
Chinese
493(1)
Japanese
494(1)
Koreans
494(1)
Southeast Asians
494(1)
Cultural Influences on Behavior (East Asia: China, Japan, Korea)
495(3)
Cultural Influences on Behavior (Southeast Asia)
498(1)
Recommendations for Schools and Teachers
499(2)
American Indian/Alaskan Native
501(6)
Demographics
501(1)
Cultural Influences on Behavior
502(4)
Recommendations for Schools and Teachers
506(1)
Diverse Learners
507(1)
Integrating a Multicultural Approach in the Classroom
508(3)
Exploring Your Cultural Identity and Bias
511(1)
Internet for the Diverse Classroom
511(2)
Summary
513(2)
Discussion Questions
515(1)
References
515(4)
Name Index
519(10)
Subject Index
529

Excerpts

This text acknowledges the comments and suggestions of many reviewers and users on how we might update and improve the third edition. The text continues to provide readers with both technical and functional understanding of applied behavior analysis, as well as a discussion of the everyday applications of behavior management in classrooms and other educational settings. We try to communicate this information in language that is understandable to professionals and paraprofessionals. As with the third edition, readers will observe several major differences with this text compared to other behavior management or applied behavior management texts. These differences are based on specific values regarding the management of behavior and the recognition of current trends in society. Chapter 5 has been added in order to take a more detailed look at the relationship between student behavior and classroom curriculum through curriculum-based assessment. The topic of functional behavioral assessment has also been expanded and is now covered in greater detail in a new Chapter 6. Chapter 3, which included functional behavioral assessment in the previous edition, now focuses exclusively on data collection procedures and related issues. Cognitive behavior management, a significant topic in the behavior management literature, has been largely ignored in current behavior management texts. In view of this, Chapter 8 includes information that will help fill that void for readers who would like to gain an understanding of behavior management beyond the traditional methods of applied behavior analysis. With constant changes in the law and many court rulings regarding discipline in schools, Chapter 11 provides the very latest information for educators regarding the legal issues of behavior management in the schools. This text also recognizes the growing preschool field and the expansion of day care and other services provided for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Although the basic principles of behavior management apply for all children, preschool teachers and day-care workers must understand that infants and young children have unique characteristics that demand special consideration. The growing number of early childhood programs require that we address this population directly, and so we acknowledge the special issues of early childhood behavior in Chapter 12. Adolescent issues are also a significant and growing concern to many educators. The number of adolescents referred to out-of-home treatment facilities is at an all-time high. Clearly, this population requires special attention in the field of behavior management, and we address these special issues directly in a new Chapter 13. A person's behavior is influenced by his or her ethnic background, gender, culture, and a variety of other individual variables. In a much improved and updated Chapter 14, we urge all educators to learn about, and become sensitive to, individual differences and how these characteristics may influence a child's behavior within the classroom. The danger of stereotyping is always possible while writing about multicultural issues. We have tried to avoid this trap, recognizing the uniqueness of all individuals, while at the same time acknowledging the influence of traditions and customs of those who share a common ethnic and cultural background. Finally, we recognize that the best and most effective behavior management strategy is the teaching and reinforcement of appropriate behaviors. This belief is integrated throughout the text. This text includes the basic mechanics of applied behavior analysis. In many areas, however, the text breaks from the traditionalapplied behavior analysis texts and includes current topics and issues in behavior management, as well as special populations (e.g., diversity, early childhood, and adolescent issues). We hope our readers will find these additional chapters useful and informative.


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