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Behavior Modification : Principles and Procedures

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780534536008

ISBN10:
053453600X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/4/2003
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

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Summary

Part I: INTRODUCTION TO BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION. 1. Measurement of Behavior and Behavior Change. 2. Observing and Recording Behavior. 3. Graphing Behavior and Measuring Change. Part II: BASIC PRINCIPLES. 4. Reinforcements. 5. Extinction. 6. Punishment. 7. Stimulus Control: Discrimination and Generalization. 8. Respondent Conditioning. Part III. PROCEDURES TO ESTABLISH NEW BEHAVIORS. 9. Shaping. 10. Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control. 11. Chaining. 12. Behavioral Skills Training Procedures. Part IV: PROCEDURES TO INCREASE DESIRABLE BEHAVIORS AND DECREASE UNDESIRABLE BEHAVIORS. 13. Understanding Problem Behavior Through Functional Assessment. 14. Extinction. 15. Differential Reinforcement. 16. Antecedent Manipulations. 17. Using Punishment: Time Out and Response Cost. 18. Other Punishment Procedures and the Ethics of Using Punishment. 19. Promoting Generalization. Part V: OTHER BEHAVIOR CHANGE PROCEDURES. 20. Self-Management. 21. Habit Reversal Procedures. 22. The Token Economy. 23. Behavioral Contracts. 24. Fear and Anxiety Reduction Procedures. 25. Cognitive Behavior Modification.

Author Biography

Raymond G. Miltenberger is Professor of Psychology at North Dakota State University.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Behavior Modification
1(19)
Defining Human Behavior
2(2)
Examples of Behavior
4(1)
Defining Behavior Modification
5(1)
Characteristics of Behavior Modification
5(3)
Historical Roots of Behavior Modification
8(2)
Major Figures
8(1)
Early Behavior Modification Researchers
9(1)
Major Publications and Events
10(1)
Areas of Application
10(4)
Developmental Disabilities
10(1)
Mental Illness
11(1)
Education and Special Education
12(1)
Rehabilitation
12(1)
Community Psychology
12(1)
Clinical Psychology
12(1)
Business, Industry, and Human Services
13(1)
Self-Management
13(1)
Child Management
13(1)
Prevention
13(1)
Sports Psychology
13(1)
Health-Related Behaviors
14(1)
Gerontology
14(1)
The Structure of this Textbook
14(2)
Measurement of Behavior and Behavior Change
14(1)
Basic Principles of Behavior
14(1)
Procedures to Establish New Behavior
15(1)
Procedures to Decrease Undesirable Behaviors and Increase Desirable Behaviors
15(1)
Other Behavior Change Procedures
15(1)
Chapter Summary
16(1)
Practice Test
16(1)
Chapter Quizzes
17(2)
PART 1 Measurement of Behavior and Behavior Change
Observing and Recording Behavior
19(24)
Defining the Target Behavior
21(1)
The Logistics of Recording
22(2)
The Observer
22(1)
When and Where to Record
23(1)
Choosing a Recording Method
24(6)
Continuous Recording
24(4)
Product Recording
28(1)
Interval Recording
28(1)
Time Sample Recording
29(1)
Choosing a Recording Instrument
30(3)
Reactivity
33(1)
Interobserver Reliability
34(2)
Chapter Summary
36(1)
Practice Test
36(1)
Applications/Misapplications
37(2)
Chapter Quizzes
39(4)
Graphing Behavior and Measuring Change
43(26)
Components of a Graph
44(3)
Graphing Behavioral Data
47(3)
Graphing Different Dimensions of Behavior
50(1)
Research Designs
51(9)
A-B Design
52(1)
A-B-A-B Reversal Design
53(1)
Multiple-Baseline Design
53(4)
Alternating-Treatments Design
57(2)
Changing-Criterion Design
59(1)
Chapter Summary
60(1)
Practice Test
61(1)
Applications/Misapplications
62(3)
Chapter Quizzes
65(4)
PART 2 Basic Principles
Reinforcement
69(26)
Defining Reinforcement
71(4)
Positive and Negative Reinforcement
75(2)
Escape and Avoidance Behaviors
77(1)
Conditioned and Unconditioned Reinforcers
78(1)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Reinforcement
79(3)
Immediacy
79(1)
Contingency
80(1)
Establishing Operations
80(1)
Individual Differences
81(1)
Magnitude
82(1)
Schedules of Reinforcement
82(5)
Fixed Ratio
84(1)
Variable Ratio
84(1)
Fixed Interval
85(1)
Variable Interval
86(1)
Reinforcing Different Dimensions of Behavior
87(1)
Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement
87(1)
Chapter Summary
88(1)
Practice Test
89(1)
Appendix A
90(1)
Appendix B
90(1)
Chapter Quizzes
91(4)
Extinction
95(16)
Defining Extinction
96(2)
Extinction Burst
98(2)
Spontaneous Recovery
100(1)
Procedural Variations of Extinction
100(3)
A Common Misconception About Extinction
103(1)
Factors Influencing Extinction
103(2)
Chapter Summary
105(1)
Practice Test
106
Appendix A
100(7)
Chapter Quizzes
107(4)
Punishment
111(22)
Defining Punishment
111(3)
A Common Misconception About Punishment
114(1)
Positive and Negative Punishment
114(5)
Unconditioned and Conditioned Punishers
119(1)
Contrasting Reinforcement and Punishment
120(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment
122(2)
Immediacy
122(1)
Contingency
123(1)
Establishing Operations
123(1)
Individual Differences and Magnitude of the Punisher
124(1)
Problems with Punishment
124(3)
Emotional Reactions to Punishment
125(1)
Escape and Avoidance
125(1)
Negative Reinforcement for the Use of Punishment
125(1)
Punishment and Modeling
126(1)
Ethical Issues
126(1)
Chapter Summary
127(1)
Practice Test
127(1)
Appendix A
128(1)
Chapter Quizzes
129(4)
Stimulus Control: Discrimination and Generalization
133(20)
Examples of Stimulus Control
133(1)
Defining Stimulus Control
134(2)
Developing Stimulus Control: Stimulus Discrimination Training
136(3)
Discrimination Training in the Laboratory
136(2)
Developing Reading and Spelling with Discrimination Training
138(1)
Stimulus Discrimination Training and Punishment
138(1)
The Three-Term Contingency
139(1)
Stimulus Control Research
140(1)
Generalization
140(2)
Examples of Generalization
142(4)
Chapter Summary
146(1)
Practice Test
146(1)
Appendix A
147(2)
Chapter Quizzes
149(4)
Respondent Conditioning
153(20)
Examples of Respondent Conditioning
153(1)
Defining Respondent Conditioning
154(3)
Timing of the Neutral Stimulus and US
157(1)
Higher-Order Conditioning
158(1)
Conditioned Emotional Responses
159(2)
Extinction of Conditioned Responses
161(1)
Spontaneous Recovery
161(1)
Discrimination and Generalization of Respondent Behavior
162(1)
Factors that Influence Respondent Conditioning
162(2)
The Nature of the US and CS
163(1)
The Temporal Relationship between the CS and US
163(1)
Contingency between the CS and US
163(1)
The Number of Pairings
163(1)
Previous Exposure to the CS
164(1)
Distinguishing Between Operant and Respondent Conditioning
164(3)
Respondent Conditioning and Behavior Modification
167(1)
Chapter Summary
167(1)
Practice Test
168(1)
Chapter Quizzes
169(4)
PART 3 Procedures to Establish New Behavior
Shaping
173(20)
An Example of Shaping: Teaching a Child to Talk
173(1)
Defining Shaping
174(2)
Applications of Shaping
176(1)
Getting Mrs. F to Walk Again
176(1)
Getting Mrs. S to Increase the Time between Bathroom Visits
177(1)
Research on Shaping
177(5)
How to Use Shaping
182(1)
Shaping of Problem Behaviors
183(3)
Chapter Summary
186(1)
Practice Test
187(1)
Applications/Misapplications
187(2)
Chapter Quizzes
189(4)
Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control
193(22)
An Example of Prompting and Fading: Teaching Little Leaguers to Hit the Ball
193(2)
What is Prompting?
195(1)
What is Fading?
196(2)
Types of Prompts
198(3)
Response Prompts
198(2)
Stimulus Prompts
200(1)
Transfer of Stimulus Control
201(5)
Prompt Fading
201(2)
Prompt Delay
203(1)
Stimulus Fading
204(2)
How to Use Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control
206(2)
Chapter Summary
208(1)
Practice Test
209(1)
Applications/Misapplications
209(2)
Chapter Quizzes
211(4)
Chaining
215(22)
Examples of Behavioral Chains
215(1)
Analyzing Stimulus--Response Chains
216(1)
Task Analysis
217(3)
Backward Chaining
220(2)
Forward Chaining
222(2)
Total Task Presentation
224(2)
Other Strategies for Teaching Behavioral Chains
226(4)
Written Task Analysis
226(2)
Picture Prompts
228(1)
Self-Instructions
228(2)
How to Use Chaining Procedures
230(1)
Chapter Summary
231(1)
Practice Test
231(1)
Applications/Misapplications
232(1)
Chapter Quizzes
233(4)
Behavioral Skills Training Procedures
237(20)
Examples of BST Procedures
237(3)
Teaching Marcia to Say ``No'' to the Professors
237(1)
Teaching Children to Protect Themselves from Abduction
238(2)
Components of the BST Procedure
240(3)
Modeling
240(1)
Instructions
241(1)
Rehearsal
242(1)
Feedback
242(1)
Enhancing Generalization After BST
243(1)
BST and the Three-Term Contingency
243(1)
BST in Groups
244(1)
Applications of BST Procedures
245(3)
How to Use BST Procedures
248(1)
Chapter Summary
249(1)
Practice Test
250(1)
Applications/Misapplications
251(2)
Chapter Quizzes
253(4)
PART 4 Procedures to Increase Desirable Behavior and Decrease Undesirable Behavior
Understanding Problem Behaviors through Functional Assessment
257(30)
Examples of Functional Assessment
257(3)
Jacob
257(2)
Anna
259(1)
Defining Functional Assessment
260(1)
Functions of Problem Behaviors
261(1)
Social Positive Reinforcement
261(1)
Social Negative Reinforcement
261(1)
Automatic Positive Reinforcement
262(1)
Automatic Negative Reinforcement
262(1)
Functional Assessment Methods
262(10)
Indirect Methods
263(2)
Direct Observation Methods
265(5)
Experimental Methods (Functional Analysis)
270(2)
Functional Analysis Research
272(4)
Conducting a Functional Assessment
276(2)
Chapter Summary
278(1)
Practice Test
278(1)
Applications/Misapplications
279(4)
Chapter Quizzes
283(4)
Applying Extinction
287(24)
The Case of Willy
287(3)
Using Extinction to Decrease a Problem Behavior
290(7)
Collecting Data to Assess Treatment Effects
290(1)
Identifying the Reinforcer for the Problem Behavior through Functional Assessment
291(1)
Eliminating the Reinforcer after Each Instance of the Problem Behavior
291(6)
Taking Account of the Schedule of Reinforcement Before Extinction
297(1)
Reinforcing Alternative Behaviors
298(1)
Promoting Generalization and Maintenance
299(1)
Research Evaluating the Use of Extinction
299(3)
Chapter Summary
302(1)
Practice Test
303(1)
Applications/Misapplications
304(1)
Appendix A
305(1)
Appendix B
305(2)
Chapter Quizzes
307(4)
Differential Reinforcement
311(30)
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior
311(9)
Getting Mrs. Williams to Be Positive
311(2)
When to Use DRA
313(1)
How to Use DRA
314(2)
Using Differential Negative Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviors
316(2)
Variations of DRA
318(1)
Research on DRA
319(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior
320(8)
Defining DRO
322(3)
Research Evaluating DRO Procedures
325(3)
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding
328(5)
Defining DRL
328(1)
Variations of DRL
328(1)
Implementing DRL Procedures
329(2)
Research Evaluating DRL Procedures
331(2)
Chapter Summary
333(1)
Practice Test
334(1)
Applications/Misapplications
335(2)
Chapter Quizzes
337(4)
Antecedent Control Procedures
341(28)
Examples of Antecedent Control
341(2)
Getting Marianne to Study More
341(1)
Getting Cal to Eat Right
342(1)
Defining Antecedent Control Procedures
343(8)
Presenting the SD or Cues for the Desired Behavior
343(1)
Arranging Establishing Operations for the Desirable Behavior
344(2)
Decreasing Response Effort for the Desirable Behavior
346(1)
Removing the SD or Cues for Undesirable Behaviors
347(1)
Removing Establishing Operations for Undesirable Behaviors
348(2)
Increasing the Response Effort for Undesirable Behaviors
350(1)
Research on Antecedent Control Strategies
351(7)
Using Antecedent Control Strategies
358(2)
Analysis of the Three-Term Contingency for the Desirable Behavior
359(1)
Analysis of the Three-Term Contingency for the Undesirable Behavior
359(1)
Functional, Nonaversive Interventions for Problem Behavior
360(1)
Chapter Summary
360(1)
Practice Test
361(1)
Applications/Misapplications
362(3)
Chapter Quizzes
365(4)
Using Punishment: Time-Out and Response Cost
369(22)
Time-Out
370(8)
Types of Time-Out
371(1)
Using Reinforcement with Time-Out
372(1)
Considerations in Using Time-Out
372(3)
Research Evaluating Time-Out Procedures
375(3)
Response Cost
378(5)
Defining Response Cost
378(1)
Using Differential Reinforcement with Response Cost
379(1)
Comparing Response Cost, Time-Out, and Extinction
379(1)
Considerations in Using Response Cost
380(2)
Research Evaluating Response Cost Procedures
382(1)
Chapter Summary
383(1)
Practice Test
384(1)
Applications/Misapplications
385(2)
Chapter Quizzes
387(4)
Positive Punishment Procedures and the Ethics of Punishment
391(20)
Application of Aversive Activities
391(7)
Overcorrection
393(1)
Contingent Exercise
394(1)
Guided Compliance
395(2)
Physical Restraint
397(1)
Cautions in the Application of Aversive Activities
398(1)
Application of Aversive Stimulation
398(3)
Positive Punishment: Treatment of Last Resort
401(1)
Considerations in Using Positive Punishment
401(1)
The Ethics of Punishment
402(2)
Informed Consent
402(1)
Alternative Treatments
403(1)
Recipient Safety
403(1)
Problem Severity
403(1)
Implementation Guidelines
403(1)
Training and Supervision
403(1)
Peer Review
403(1)
Accountability: Preventing Misuse and Overuse
404(1)
Chapter Summary
404(1)
Practice Test
404(1)
Applications/Misapplications
405(2)
Chapter Quizzes
407(4)
Promoting Generalization
411(22)
Examples of Generalization Programming
411(1)
Defining Generalization
412(1)
Strategies for Promoting Generalization of Behavior Change
413(9)
Reinforcing Occurrences of Generalization
413(1)
Training Skills That Contact Natural Contingencies of Reinforcement
414(1)
Modifying Natural Contingencies of Reinforcement and Punishment
415(1)
Incorporating a Variety of Relevant Stimulus Situations in Training
416(1)
Incorporating Common Stimuli
417(2)
Teaching a Range of Functionally Equivalent Responses
419(1)
Incorporating Self-Generated Mediators of Generalization
420(2)
Implementing Strategies to Promote Generalization
422(1)
Promoting Generalized Reductions in Problem Behavior
423(2)
Chapter Summary
425(1)
Practice Test
425(1)
Applications/Misapplications
426(3)
Chapter Quizzes
429(4)
PART 5 Other Behavior Change Procedures
Self-Management
433(20)
Examples of Self-Management
433(3)
Getting Murray to Run Regularly
433(1)
Getting Annette to Clean Up Her Mess
434(2)
Defining Self-Management Problems
436(1)
Defining Self-Management
436(1)
Types of Self-Management Strategies
437(5)
Goal-Setting and Self-Monitoring
438(1)
Antecedent Manipulations
438(1)
Behavioral Contracting
439(1)
Arranging Reinforcers and Punishers
440(1)
Social Support
441(1)
Self-Instructions and Self-Praise
442(1)
Steps in a Self-Management Plan
442(4)
Chapter Summary
446(1)
Practice Test
446(1)
Applications/Misapplications
447(2)
Chapter Quizzes
449(4)
Habit Reversal Procedures
453(18)
Examples of Habit Behaviors
453(1)
Defining Habit Behaviors
454(2)
Nervous Habits
454(1)
Motor and Vocal Tics
455(1)
Stuttering
456(1)
Habit Reversal Procedures
456(1)
Applications of Habit Reversal
457(3)
Nervous Habits
457(1)
Motor and Vocal Tics
458(1)
Stuttering
459(1)
Why Do Habit Reversal Procedures Work?
460(2)
Other Treatment Procedures for Habit Disorders
462(1)
Chapter Summary
463(1)
Practice Test
464(1)
Applications/Misapplications
465(2)
Chapter Quizzes
467(4)
Rehabilitating Sammy
471(1)
The Token Economy
471(22)
Defining a Token Economy
472(2)
Implementing a Token Economy
474(5)
Defining the Target Behaviors
474(1)
Identifying the Items to Use as Tokens
474(1)
Identifying Backup Reinforcers
475(1)
Deciding on the Appropriate Schedule of Reinforcement
476(1)
Establishing the Token Exchange Rate
477(1)
Establishing the Time and Place for Exchanging Tokens
477(1)
Deciding Whether to Use Response Cost
478(1)
Staff Training and Management
479(1)
Practical Considerations
479(1)
Applications of a Token Economy
480(6)
Advantages and Disadvantages of a Token Economy
486(1)
Chapter Summary
486(1)
Practice Test
487(1)
Applications/Misapplications
487(2)
Chapter Quizzes
489(4)
Behavioral Contracts
493(20)
Examples of Behavioral Contracting
493(3)
Getting Steve to Complete His Dissertation
493(1)
Helping Dan and His Parents Get Along Better
494(2)
Defining the Behavioral Contract
496(1)
Components of a Behavioral Contract
496(2)
Types of Behavioral Contracts
498(2)
One-Party Contracts
498(1)
Two-Party Contracts
499(1)
Negotiating a Behavioral Contract
500(1)
Why Do Behavioral Contracts Influence Behavior?
501(1)
Applications of Behavioral Contracts
502(3)
Chapter Summary
505(1)
Practice Test
506(1)
Applications/Misapplications
506(3)
Chapter Quizzes
509(4)
Fear and Anxiety Reduction Procedures
513(24)
Examples of Fear and Anxiety Reduction
513(2)
Overcoming Trisha's Fear of Public Speaking
513(1)
Overcoming Allison's Fear of Spiders
514(1)
Defining Fear and Anxiety Problems
515(2)
Procedures to Reduce Fear and Anxiety
517(12)
Relaxation Training
518(4)
Systematic Desensitization
522(4)
In Vivo Desensitization
526(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Systematic and In Vivo Desensitization
527(2)
Other Treatments for Fears
529(1)
Clinical Problems
529(1)
Chapter Summary
530(1)
Practice Test
530(1)
Applications/Misapplications
531(2)
Chapter Quizzes
533(4)
Cognitive Behavior Modification
537(20)
Examples of Cognitive Behavior Modification
537(3)
Helping Deon Control His Anger
537(2)
Helping Claire Pay Attention in Class
539(1)
Defining Cognitive Behavior Modification
540(2)
Defining Cognitive Behavior
540(1)
Functions of Cognitive Behavior
541(1)
Cognitive Behavior Modification Procedures
542(7)
Cognitive Restructuring
542(4)
Cognitive Coping Skills Training
546(3)
Acceptance-Based Therapies
549(1)
Clinical Problems
549(1)
Chapter Summary
549(1)
Practice Test
550(1)
Applications/Misapplications
550(3)
Chapter Quizzes
553(4)
Glossary 557(12)
References 569(21)
Credits 590(2)
Name Index 592(5)
Subject Index 597


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