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Behavior Modification : What It Is and How to Do It,9780130807427
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Behavior Modification : What It Is and How to Do It

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780130807427

ISBN10:
0130807427
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/1999
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $77.33
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Summary

For freshman through senior-level courses in Behavior Modification, Applied Behavior Analysis, or Behavior Therapy. Assuming no prior knowledge of behavior modification or psychology, this widely-adopted text offers students personal, hands-on experience with the principles of behavior modification and their application to everyday concerns from helping children learn life's necessary skills to solving some of their own personal behavior problems. Written in a very readable style with numerous real-life examples it features extensive descriptions of the particulars of program design, implementation, and evaluation and includes summary how-to guidelines for most chapters.

Table of Contents

PREFACE xv
Changes in the Sixth Edition xvii(1)
Acknowledgments xviii(1)
Photo Credits xix(1)
To the Student xix
PART I THE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION APPROACH 1(25)
1 INTRODUCTION
1(11)
What Is Behavior?
3(4)
Characteristics of Behavior Modification
7(1)
The Approach of This Book
8(2)
Study Questions
10(1)
Application Exercises
10(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
10(2)
2 AREAS OF APPLICATION: AN OVERVIEW
12(14)
Parenting and Child Management
12(1)
Education: From Preschool to University
13(1)
Severe Problems: Developmental Disabilities, Childhood Autism, and Schizophrenia
14(2)
Clinical Behavior Therapy
16(1)
Self-Management of Personal Problems
17(1)
Medical and Health Care
17(2)
Gerontology
19(1)
Behavioral Community Psychology
20(1)
Business, Industry, and Government
21(1)
Sport Psychology
21(1)
Behavioral Assessment
22(1)
Conclusion
23(1)
Study Questions
23(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
24(2)
PART II BASIC BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES 26(177)
3 GETTING A BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR MORE OFTEN WITH POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT "Do you want to sit here, Mommy?"
26(20)
Reinforcing Darren's Cooperative Behavior
26(1)
Positive Reinforcement
27(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement
29(10)
Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement
39(2)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Positive Reinforcement
41(1)
Study Questions
42(1)
Application Exercises
43(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
44(2)
4 DECREASING A BEHAVIOR WITH EXTINCTION "Louise, let's get rid of your migraines"
46(15)
Louise's Case
46(1)
Extinction
47(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Extinction
49(5)
Pitfalls of Extinction
54(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Extinction
54(3)
Study Questions
57(1)
Application Exercises
58(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
58(3)
5 GETTING A NEW BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR: AN APPLICATION OF SHAPING "Frank, did you do your jogging?"
61(12)
Improving Frank's Exercising
61(1)
Shaping
62(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping
64(3)
Pitfalls of Shaping
67(2)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Shaping
69(1)
Study Questions
70(1)
Application Exercises
70(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
71(2)
6 DEVELOPING BEHAVIORAL PERSISTENCE THROUGH THE USE OF INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT "Tom, let's see how many arithmetic problems you can do."
73(17)
Improving Tom's Work Rate in Math Class
73(1)
Some Definitions
74(1)
Ratio Schedules
75(1)
Simple Interval Schedules
76(2)
Interval Schedules with Limited Hold
78(2)
Duration Schedules
80(2)
Overview of Eight Basic Schedules for Increasing and Maintaining Behavior
82(1)
Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement
82(2)
Pitfalls of Intermittent Reinforcement
84(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Reinforcement
84(1)
Study Questions
85(2)
Application Exercises
87(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
88(2)
7 TYPES OF INTERMITTENT REINFORCEMENT TO DECREASE BEHAVIOR "Tommy, a little less talking out, please!"
90(8)
Decreasing Tommy's Talking Out
90(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates
91(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding
92(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Responding
93(1)
Pitfalls of Schedules for Decreasing Behavior
94(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior
94(1)
Study Questions
95(1)
Application Exercises
96(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
96(2)
8 DOING THE RIGHT THING AT THE RIGHT TIME AND PLACE IS A MATTER FOR STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION LEARNING "Now, children, please work at your desks."
98(14)
Learning to Follow Teacher's Instructions
98(1)
Stimulus Discrimination Learning and Stimulus Control
99(2)
Discriminative Stimuli: S(D)s and S(Delta)s
101(3)
Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training
104(2)
Pitfalls of Stimulus Discrimination Training
106(1)
Guidelines for Effective Stimulus Discrimination Training
107(1)
Study Questions
108(1)
Application Exercises
109(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
109(3)
9 DEVELOPING APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR WITH FADING "Peter, what's your name?"
112(12)
Teaching Peter His Name
112(1)
Fading
113(2)
Using Fading Procedures to Teach Verbal Skills
115(3)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading
118(1)
Pitfalls of Fading
119(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Fading
120(1)
Study Questions
120(1)
Application Exercises
121(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
122(2)
10 DEVELOPING AND MAINTAINING BEHAVIOR WITH CONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT "OK, team! Here's how you can earn an Eagle Effort Award."
124(8)
Coach Dawson's Point Program
124(1)
Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers
125(1)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement
126(2)
Pitfalls of Conditioned Reinforcement
128(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Conditioned Reinforcement
129(1)
Study Questions
129(1)
Application Exercises
130(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
130(2)
11 GETTING A NEW BEHAVIOR TO OCCUR WITH BEHAVIORAL CHAINING "Agnes, please make a coffee pack for me."
132(12)
Teaching Agnes to Assemble a Coffee Pack
132(1)
Stimulus-Response Chaining
133(1)
Methods for Teaching a Behavior Chain
134(2)
Chaining Compared with Fading and Shaping
136(1)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Chaining
137(3)
Pitfalls of Chaining
140(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Chaining
141(1)
Study Questions
142(1)
Application Exercises
143(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
143(1)
12 TRANSFERRING BEHAVIOR TO NEW SETTINGS AND MAKING IT LAST: GENERALITY OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE "Hi, there. I have a nice surprise for you in my car."
144(17)
Teaching Stan to Protect Himself
144(1)
Generality
145(5)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Programming Generality of Behavioral Change
150(5)
Pitfalls of Generality
155(1)
Guidelines for Programming Generality of Behavior Change
156(1)
Study Questions
157(1)
Application Exercises
158(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
158(3)
13 ELIMINATING INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR THROUGH PUNISHMENT "Ben, don't be so aggressive."
161(15)
Eliminating Ben's Aggressiveness
161(1)
The Principle of Punishment
162(1)
Types of Punishers
163(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment
165(4)
Should Punishment Be Used?
169(2)
Pitfalls of Punishment
171(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Punishment Procedures
172(1)
Study Questions
173(1)
Application Exercises
174(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
174(2)
14 ESTABLISHING A DESIRABLE BEHAVIOR BY USING ESCAPE AND AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING "Jason, that's bad for your health!"
176(9)
Curing Jason's Slouching
176(1)
Escape Conditioning
177(1)
Avoidance Conditioning
177(4)
Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance
181(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Escape and Avoidance
182(1)
Study Questions
183(1)
Application Exercises
184(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
184(1)
15 PROCEDURES BASED ON PRINCIPLES OF RESPONDENT CONDITIONING "I hate that word!"
185(18)
Making Words Unpleasant
185(1)
Operant Versus Respondent Behavior
186(1)
Principle of Respondent Conditioning
186(3)
Respondent Extinction
189(1)
Counterconditioning
190(1)
Respondent and Operant Conditioning Compared
190(3)
Respondent and Operant Components of Emotions
193(4)
Applications of Respondent Conditioning Principles
197(3)
A Cautionary Note
200(1)
Study Questions
200(1)
Application Exercises
201(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
202(1)
PART III SOME PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS TO EFFECTIVE PROGRAMMING STRATEGIES 203(27)
16 CAPITALIZING ON EXISTING STIMULUS CONTROL: RULES AND GOALS
203(14)
Rules
204(6)
Goals
210(4)
Study Questions
214(1)
Application Exercises
215(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
215(2)
17 CAPITALIZING ON EXISTING STIMULUS CONTROL: MODELING, GUIDANCE, AND SITUATIONAL INDUCEMENT
217(13)
Modeling
217(4)
Physical Guidance
221(1)
Situational Inducement
222(5)
Study Questions
227(1)
Application Exercises
228(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
229(1)
PART IV DEALING WITH DATA 230(55)
18 BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT: INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS
230(12)
Minimal Phases of a Program
230(2)
Sources of Information for Baseline Assessment
232(3)
Data! Data! Data! Why Bother?
235(4)
Study Questions
239(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
240(2)
19 DIRECT BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT: WHAT TO RECORD AND HOW
242(16)
Characteristics of Behavior to Be Recorded
242(9)
Continuous Recording, Interval Recording, and Time-Sampling Recording
251(2)
Assessing the Accuracy of Observations
253(2)
Study Questions
255(1)
Application Exercises
255(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
256(2)
20 FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CAUSES OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
258(13)
Approaches to Functional Assessment
258(3)
Major Causes of Problem Behaviors
261(6)
Medical Causes of Problem Behaviors
267(1)
Guidelines for Conducting a Functional Assessment
268(1)
Study Questions
269(1)
Application Exercises
270(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
270(1)
21 DOING RESEARCH IN BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
271(14)
The Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Research Design
272(3)
Multiple-Baseline Designs
275(3)
Alternating-Treatments (or Multi-Element) Designs
278(2)
Data Analysis and Interpretation
280(2)
Study Questions
282(1)
Application Exercises
283(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
284(1)
PART V PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 285(91)
22 PLANNING, APPLYING, AND EVALUATING A TREATMENT PROGRAM
285(11)
A Problem Has Been Referred: Should You Design a Program?
285(2)
Selecting and Implementing an Assessment Procedure
287(2)
Strategies of Program Design and Implementation
289(3)
Program Maintenance and Evaluation
292(1)
Study Questions
293(1)
Application Exercise
294(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
294(2)
23 TOKEN ECONOMIES
296(12)
Initial Steps in Setting up a Token Economy
297(4)
Specific Implementation Procedures
301(1)
Preparing a Manual
302(1)
Programming Generality to the Natural Environment
303(1)
Ethical Considerations
304(1)
A Summary of Considerations in Designing a Token Economy
304(1)
Study Questions
305(1)
Application Exercise
306(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
306(2)
24 HELPING AN INDIVIDUAL TO DEVELOP SELF-CONTROL
308(22)
Causes of Self-Control Problems
309(2)
A Model for Self-Control
311(2)
Steps in a Self-Control Program
313(12)
Circumventing the Therapist
325(1)
Study Questions
326(1)
Application Exercises
327(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
327(3)
25 SYSTEMATIC SELF-DESENSITIZATION
330(15)
Behavioral Treatments of Simple Phobias
331(2)
Systematic Self-Desensitization
333(10)
When to Seek Professional Assistance
343(1)
Study Questions
343(1)
Application Exercise
343(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
344(1)
26 COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
345(20)
"Thinking," "Feeling," and Private Behavior
345(3)
Carol's Case
348(2)
Some Cognitive Behavioral Procedures
350(6)
Evaluation of "Cognitive" Techniques
356(2)
A Behavioral Interpretation of Cognitive Behavior Modification
358(3)
Concluding Comments
361(1)
Study Questions
361(2)
Application Exercise
363(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
363(2)
27 AREAS OF CLINICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY
365(11)
Anxiety Disorders: Focus on Agoraphobia
365(1)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
366(1)
Failure to Cope with Stress
367(1)
Depression
368(2)
Alcohol Problems
370(1)
Obesity
371(1)
Marital Distress
372(1)
Sexual Dysfunction: Focus on Low Sexual Desire
373(1)
Habit Disorders: Nervous Habits, Muscle Tics, and Stuttering
373(1)
Study Questions
374(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
375(1)
PART IV A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND ETHICAL ISSUES 376(25)
28 GIVING IT ALL SOME PERSPECTIVE: A BRIEF HISTORY
376(12)
The Operant-Conditioning Orientation: Applied Behavior Analysis
376(4)
The Respondent-Conditioning (and Hullian and Wolpean) Orientation
380(2)
Mixtures and Offshoots of the Two Major Orientations
382(1)
The Terms Behavior Therapy, Behavior Modification, and Applied Behavior Analysis
383(2)
The Future of Behavior Modification
385(1)
Study Questions
385(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
386(2)
29 ETHICAL ISSUES
388(13)
A Behavioral View of Ethics
390(1)
Arguments Against Deliberately Controlling Behavior
391(1)
Ethical Guidelines
392(6)
Conclusions
398(1)
Study Questions
398(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
399(2)
REFERENCES 401(32)
AUTHOR INDEX 433(6)
SUBJECT INDEX 439


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