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Behavior Modification : What It Is and How to Do It,9780131942271
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Behavior Modification : What It Is and How to Do It

by ;
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780131942271

ISBN10:
0131942271
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $131.00
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Summary

For undergraduate courses in Behavior Modification or Behavior Therapy This book presents a comprehensive, practical presentation of both the principles of behavior modification and guidelines for their application. Throughout their separate experiences in teaching behavior modification over the past 39 years, both Garry Martin and Joseph Pearrs"s goals have remained the same: to teach people about the principles of behavior modification and how to apply them effectively to their everyday concerns from helping children learn lifers"s necessary skills to solving some of their own personal behavior problems. Through eight editions their text has remained successful and effective because it addresses the needs of two central audiences: college and university students taking courses in behavior modification and its related areas; and students or practitioners of various helping professions (such as clinical psychology, counseling, medicine, etc.) who are concerned directly with enhancing various forms of behavioral development. Assuming no prior knowledge of behavior modification or psychology, this text facilitates understanding of the principles of behavior modification and helps readers to successfully implement behavior modification programs.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Changes in the Eighth Edition xix
Instructors Resource Manual with Tests and Practica xx
Acknowledgments xx
To the Student xxi
PART I THE BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION APPROACH
Introduction
1(14)
What Is Behavior?
3(3)
What Is Behavior Modification?
6(1)
Behavioral Assessment
7(1)
Behavior Modification and Related Terms
8(1)
Some Misconceptions About Behavior Modification
8(1)
The Approach of This Book
9(2)
Study Questions
11(1)
Application Exercises
12(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
12(3)
Areas of Application: An Overview
15(14)
Parenting and Child Management
15(1)
Education: From Preschool to University
16(1)
Severe Problems: Developmental Disabilities, Childhood Autism, and Schizophrenia
17(3)
Clinical Behavior Therapy
20(1)
Self-Management of Personal Problems
20(1)
Medical and Health Care
21(2)
Gerontology
23(1)
Community Behavioral Analysis
23(1)
Business, Industry, and Government
24(1)
Sport Psychology
25(1)
Behavior Modification with Culturally Diverse Individuals
25(1)
Conclusion
26(1)
Study Questions
26(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
27(2)
PART II BASIC BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES
Getting a Behavior to Occur More Often with Positive Reinforcement
29(22)
``Do you want to sit here, Mommy?''
Reinforcing Darren's Cooperative Behavior
29(1)
Positive Reinforcement
30(1)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement
31(13)
Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement
44(2)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Positive Reinforcement
46(1)
Study Questions
47(1)
Application Exercises
48(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
49(2)
Developing and Maintaining Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement
51(9)
``Ok, team! Here's how you can earn an Eagle Effort Award.''
Coach Dawson's Points Program
51(1)
Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers
52(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement
54(2)
Pitfalls of Conditioned Reinforcement
56(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Conditioned Reinforcement
56(1)
Study Questions
57(1)
Application Exercises
58(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
58(2)
Decreasing a Behavior with Extinction
60(15)
``Louise, let's get rid of your migraines.''
Louise's Case
60(1)
Extinction
61(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Extinction
63(6)
Pitfalls of Extinction
69(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Extinction
70(1)
Study Questions
71(1)
Application Exercises
72(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
73(2)
Developing Behavioral Persistence Through the Use of Intermittent Reinforcement
75(17)
``Jan, let's see how many arithmetic problems you can do.''
Improving Jan's Work Rate in Math Class
75(1)
Some Definitions
76(1)
Ratio Schedules
77(1)
Simple Interval Schedules
78(3)
Interval Schedules with Limited Hold
81(1)
Duration Schedules
82(2)
Overview of Eight Basic Schedules for Increasing and Maintaining Behavior
84(1)
Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement
84(2)
Pitfalls of Intermittent Reinforcement
86(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Reinforcement
86(1)
Study Questions
87(2)
Application Exercises
89(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
89(3)
Types of Intermittent Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior
92(8)
``Tommy, a little less talking out, please!''
Decreasing Tommy's Talking Out
92(1)
The Schedules in This Chapter
93(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates
93(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding
94(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Responding
95(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior
96(1)
Pitfalls of Schedules for Decreasing Behavior
96(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Intermittent Schedules to Decrease Behavior
97(1)
Study Questions
98(1)
Application Exercises
99(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
99(1)
Doing the Right Thing at the Right Time and Place: Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization
100(15)
``Now, children, please work at your desks.''
Learning to Follow Teacher's Instructions
100(1)
Stimulus Discrimination Learning and Stimulus Control
101(2)
Types of Controlling Stimuli: SDs and SΔs
103(2)
Stimulus Generalization
105(3)
Factors Determining the Effectiveness of Stimulus Discrimination Training
108(2)
Pitfalls of Stimulus Discrimination Training
110(1)
Guidelines for Effective Stimulus Discrimination Training
111(1)
Study Questions
112(1)
Application Exercises
113(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
113(2)
Developing Appropriate Behavior with Fading
115(10)
``Peter, what's your name?''
Teaching Peter His Name
115(1)
Fading
116(1)
Dimensions of Stimuli for Fading
117(1)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading
118(3)
Pitfalls of Fading
121(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Fading
122(1)
Study Questions
122(1)
Application Exercises
123(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
123(2)
Getting a New Behavior to Occur: An Application of Shaping
125(12)
``Frank, did you do your jogging?''
Improving Frank's Exercising
125(1)
Shaping
126(3)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping
129(2)
Pitfalls of Shaping
131(2)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Shaping
133(1)
Study Questions
134(1)
Application Exercises
135(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
135(2)
Getting a New Sequence of Behaviors to Occur with Behavioral Chaining
137(13)
``Steve, your preputt routine is inconsistent.''
Teaching Steve to Follow a Consistent Preputt Routine
137(1)
Behavioral Chaining
138(1)
Methods for Teaching a Behavioral Chain
139(4)
Chaining Compared with Fading and Shaping
143(1)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Behavioral Chaining
143(3)
Pitfalls of Behavioral Chaining
146(2)
Guidelines for the Effective Use of Behavioral Chaining
148(1)
Study Questions
148(1)
Application Exercises
149(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
149(1)
Eliminating Inappropriate Behavior Through Punishment
150(16)
``Ben, don't be so aggressive.''
Eliminating Ben's Aggressiveness
150(1)
The Principle of Punishment
151(1)
Types of Punishers
152(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment
154(4)
Should Punishment Be Used?
158(2)
Behavior Modifiers and Punishment Programs
160(1)
Pitfalls of Punishment
161(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Punishment
161(1)
Study Questions
162(1)
Application Exercises
163(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
164(2)
Establishing a Desirable Behavior by Using Escape and Avoidance Conditioning
166(9)
``Jason, that's bad for your health!''
Curing Jason's Slouching
166(1)
Escape Conditioning
167(1)
Avoidance Conditioning
167(4)
Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning
171(1)
Guidelines for the Effective Application of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning
172(1)
Study Questions
173(1)
Application Exercises
173(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
174(1)
Procedures Based on Principles of Respondent Conditioning
175(14)
``I hate that word!''
Making Words Unpleasant
175(1)
Operant Versus Respondent Behavior
176(1)
Principle of Respondent Conditioning
176(3)
Higher-Order Conditioning
179(1)
Respondent Extinction
180(1)
Counterconditioning
181(1)
Common Respondently Conditioned Responses
182(1)
Respondent and Operant Conditioning Compared
183(1)
Applications of Respondent Conditioning
184(2)
Study Questions
186(1)
Application Exercises
187(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
188(1)
Respondent and Operant Conditioning Together
189(12)
``I have to finish my term paper!''
Responding to Meet Deadlines
189(1)
Operant-Respondent Interactions
189(2)
Respondent and Operant Components of Emotions
191(5)
Respondent and Operant Components of Thinking
196(1)
Private Thoughts and Feelings: More Respondent-Operant Interactions
197(1)
Study Questions
198(1)
Application Exercises
199(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
199(2)
Transferring Behavior to New Settings and Making It Last: Generality of Behavior Change
201(14)
``Hi, there, I have a nice surprise for you in my car.''
Teaching Stan to Protect Himself
201(1)
Generality
202(2)
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Programming Generality of Operant Behavior
204(4)
Programming Generality of Respondent Behavior
208(2)
Pitfalls of Generality
210(2)
Guidelines for Programming Generality of Operant Behavior
212(1)
Study Questions
212(1)
Application Exercises
213(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
214(1)
PART III SOME PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE PROGRAMMING STRATEGIES
Capitalizing on Existing Stimulus Control: Rules and Goals
215(14)
Rules
216(6)
Goals
222(4)
Study Questions
226(1)
Application Exercises
227(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
227(2)
Capitalizing on Existing Stimulus Control: Modeling, Guidance, and Situational Inducement
229(13)
Modeling
229(3)
Physical Guidance
232(2)
Situational Inducement
234(5)
Study Questions
239(1)
Application Exercises
240(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
240(2)
Motivation and Behavior Modification
242(10)
A Traditional View of Motivation
242(1)
A Behavioral View of Motivation
243(3)
Some Applications of Motivating Operations
246(2)
Motivating Operations and Behavior Modification
248(1)
Study Questions
249(1)
Application Exercise
249(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
250(2)
PART IV DEALING WITH DATA
Behavioral Assessment: Initial Considerations
252(16)
Minimal Phases of a Program
252(3)
Sources of Information for Baseline Assessment
255(5)
Data! Data! Data! Why Bother?
260(4)
Behavioral Assessment Compared to Traditional Assessment
264(1)
Study Questions
265(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
266(2)
Direct Behavioral Assessment: What to Record and How
268(17)
Characteristics of Behavior to Be Recorded
268(9)
Strategies for Recording Behavior
277(2)
Assessing the Accuracy of Observations
279(2)
Study Questions
281(1)
Application Exercises
282(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
282(3)
Functional Assessment of the Causes of Problem Behavior
285(13)
Approaches to Functional Assessment
285(3)
Major Causes of Problem Behaviors
288(6)
Medical Causes of Problem Behaviors
294(2)
Guidelines for Conducting a Functional Assessment
296(1)
Study Questions
296(1)
Application Exercises
297(1)
Note and Extended Discussion
297(1)
Doing Research in Behavior Modification
298(14)
The Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Research Design
299(3)
Multiple-Baseline Designs
302(3)
The Changing-Criterion Design
305(1)
Alternating-Treatments (or Multielement) Design
306(1)
Data Analysis and Interpretation
307(2)
Study Questions
309(1)
Application Exercises
310(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
311(1)
PART V PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
Planning, Applying, and Evaluating a Treatment Program
312(11)
A Problem Has Been Referred: Should You Design a Program?
312(2)
Selecting and Implementing an Assessment Procedure
314(2)
Strategies of Program Design and Implementation
316(3)
Program Maintenance and Evaluation
319(1)
Study Questions
320(1)
Application Exercise
321(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
321(2)
Token Economies
323(12)
Initial Steps in Setting Up a Token Economy
324(4)
Specific Implementation Procedures
328(2)
Preparing a Manual
330(1)
Programming Generality to the Natural Environment
330(1)
Ethical Considerations
331(1)
A Summary of Considerations in Designing a Token Economy
331(1)
Study Questions
332(1)
Application Exercises
333(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
333(2)
Helping an Individual to Develop Self-Control
335(21)
Causes of Self-Control Problems
336(2)
A Model for Self-Control
338(1)
Steps in a Self-Control Program
339(14)
Circumventing the Therapist
353(1)
Study Questions
353(1)
Application Exercises
354(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
354(2)
Cognitive Behavior Modification
356(17)
Cognitive Restructuring Methods
357(4)
Self-Directed Coping Methods
361(3)
Mindfulness and Acceptance
364(2)
A Behavioral Interpretation of Cognitive Behavioral Techniques
366(3)
Concluding Comments
369(1)
Study Questions
369(1)
Application Exercise
370(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
371(2)
Areas of Clinical Behavior Therapy
373(15)
Specific Phobias
374(4)
Other Anxiety Disorders
378(3)
Depression
381(1)
Alcohol Problems
382(1)
Eating Disorders and Obesity
383(1)
Couple Distress
384(1)
Sexual Dysfunction
385(1)
Habit Disorders
385(1)
Study Questions
386(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
386(2)
PART VI A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND ETHICAL ISSUES
Giving It All Some Perspective: A Brief History
388(13)
The Operant-Conditioning Orientation: Applied Behavior Analysis
388(4)
The Respondent-Conditioning (and Hullian and Wolpean) Orientation
392(2)
Mixtures and Offshoots of the Two Major Orientations
394(1)
Behavior Therapy, Behavior Modification, and Applied Behavior Analysis
395(2)
The Future of Behavior Modification
397(1)
Study Questions
397(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
398(3)
Ethical Issues
401(13)
A Behavioral View of Ethics
403(1)
Arguments Against Deliberately Controlling Behavior
404(1)
Ethical Guidelines
405(6)
Conclusions
411(1)
Study Questions
411(1)
Notes and Extended Discussion
412(2)
Glossary 414(9)
References 423(36)
Author Index 459(7)
Subject Index 466


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