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The Big Questions: A Short Introduction to Philosophy,9780155036864

The Big Questions: A Short Introduction to Philosophy

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780155036864

ISBN10:
0155036866
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/5/1997
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $48.67

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Summary

Written by a well-known and respected scholar, this best-selling Introduction to Philosophy text has a student-friendly style and organization. Topics are arranged under big questions (see contents) with each chapter's discussion of the selected big question self-contained so instructors can choose which, and in what order, topics are presented. The writing style is concise and accessible, and coverage is comprehensive without being intimidating.

Table of Contents

Preface iii
INTRODUCTION: Doing Philosophy 1(15)
Beyond Buzz Words and Verbal Spaghetti 3(1)
Articulation and Argument: Two Crucial Features of Philosophy 4(2)
Concepts and Conceptual Frameworks 6(10)
Doing Philosophy with Style 11(5)
A Little Logic 16(11)
Deduction 17(1)
Induction 18(2)
Criticizing Arguments 20(7)
Closing Questions 24(2)
Bibliography and Suggested Readings 26(1)
ONE: Philosophical Questions
27(16)
Philosophical Questions
29(1)
Opening Questions
30(12)
Bibliography and Suggested Readings
42(1)
TWO: The Meaning of Life
43(24)
Opening Questions
44(1)
The Meaning of Meaning
45(6)
Children as Meaning
47(1)
God as Meaning
48(1)
Afterlife as Meaning
48(1)
No Meaning at All
49(2)
The Meanings of Life
51(13)
Life as a Game
52(1)
Life as a Story
53(1)
Life as Tragedy
54(1)
Life as Comedy
54(1)
Life as a Mission
55(1)
Life as Art
56(1)
Life as an Adventure
57(1)
Life as Disease
57(2)
Life as Desire
59(1)
Life as Nirvana
59(1)
Life as Altruism
60(1)
Life as Honor
60(1)
Life as Learning
61(1)
Life as Suffering
62(1)
Life as an Investment
62(1)
Life as Relationships
63(1)
Closing Questions
64(1)
Bibliography and Suggested Readings
65(2)
THREE: God
67(38)
Opening Questions
68(1)
Believing in God
69(3)
Gods and Goddesses
72(1)
Our Traditional Conceptions of God
73(11)
God as Transcendent
75(1)
God as Immanent
75(1)
God as Totally Immanent: Pantheism
76(4)
God as Universal Spirit
80(1)
God as Process
81(1)
God as Transcendent Creator: Deism
81(1)
God as the Unknown Object of Faith
82(1)
God as a Moral Being
83(1)
The Problem of Evil
84(5)
Denial of God
84(1)
Two Kinds of Evil
84(1)
Denial of Evil
85(1)
The Least of the Evils
85(2)
The Aesthetic Totality Solution
87(1)
The Free-Will Solution
87(1)
Justice in the Afterlife
88(1)
God's "Mysterious Ways"
88(1)
Working Out an Answer
89(1)
Faith and Reason: Ways of Believing
89(10)
The Cosmological Argument
90(1)
The Argument from Design
91(2)
The Ontological Argument
93(1)
Rational Faith
94(1)
Pascal's Wager
95(2)
Irrational Faith
97(2)
Understanding Your Belief
99(1)
Closing Questions
100(2)
Bibliography and Suggested Readings
102(3)
FOUR: The Nature of Reality
105(38)
Opening Questions
106(1)
The Real World
107(2)
What Is Most Real?
109(4)
The Reality Behind the Appearances
110(1)
Dreams, Sensations, and Reason: What Is Real?
111(1)
The Basis of Metaphysics
112(1)
The First Metaphysicians
113(3)
Thales
113(1)
The Pre-Socratic Materialists
113(3)
Early Nonphysical Views of Reality
116(3)
Plato's Forms
119(2)
Aristotle's Metaphysics
121(1)
Mind and Metaphysics
122(7)
Descartes
123(3)
Spinoza
126(1)
Leibniz
127(2)
Idealism
129(5)
Teleology
134(3)
Metaphysics and the Everyday World
137(2)
Closing Questions
139(2)
Bibliography and Suggested Readings
141(2)
FIVE: The Search for Truth
143(36)
Opening Questions
144(1)
What Is True?
145(1)
Two Kinds of Truth
146(4)
Empirical Truth
147(1)
Necessary Truth
147(3)
Rationalism and Empiricism
150(3)
The Presuppositions of Knowledge
153(1)
Skepticism
154(9)
Descartes and the "Method of Doubt"
157(1)
David Hume's Skepticism
158(4)
The Resolution of Skepticism: Kant
162(1)
Knowledge, Truth, and Science
163(5)
The Nature of Truth
168(4)
The Coherence Theory of Truth
170(1)
The Pragmatic Theory of Truth
171(1)
Rationality
172(3)
Why Be Rational?
174(1)
Subjective Truth: Any Truth at All?
175(2)
Closing Questions
177(1)
Bibliography and Suggested Readings
178(1)
SIX: Self
179(34)
Opening Questions
180(1)
The Essential Self
181(3)
Self as Body, Self as Consciousness
184(11)
The Self as a Problem
189(4)
No Self, Many Selves
193(2)
The Mind-Body Problem
195(16)
Behaviorism
197(1)
Identity Theory
198(2)
Functionalism
200(1)
The Egocentric Predicament
201(3)
The Self as Social
204(4)
Self and Relationships
208(3)
Closing Questions
211(1)
Bibliography and Suggested Readings
212(1)
SEVEN: Freedom
213(26)
Opening Questions
214(1)
Freedom and the Good Life
215(9)
Why Is Freedom So Important to Us?
216(4)
What Is Freedom?
220(4)
Free Will and Determinism
224(12)
Determinism Versus Indeterminism
227(4)
The Role of Consciousness
231(1)
"Soft" Determinism
232(1)
In Defense of Freedom
233(3)
Closing Questions
236(1)
Bibliography and Suggested Readings
237(2)
EIGHT: Morality and the Good Life
239(36)
Opening Questions
240(3)
The Good Life
243(7)
Hedonism
243(2)
Success
245(1)
Asceticism
246(1)
Freedom
247(1)
Power and Creativity
247(1)
Religion
248(1)
Happiness
249(1)
Egoism versus Altruism
250(5)
Morality and Theories of Morality
255(4)
Duty-defined Morality
259(2)
Kant and the Authority of Reason
259(2)
Consequentialist
261(3)
Utilitarianism: Bentham and Mill
262(2)
Aristotle and the Ethics of Virtue
264(2)
Morality-Relative or Absolute?
266(2)
Nietzsche and the Attack on Morality
268(3)
Closing Questions
271(1)
Bibliography and Suggested Readings
272(3)
NINE: Justice and the Good Society
275(24)
Opening Questions
276(1)
Morals and Society
277(1)
The Nature of Society
278(2)
Who Should Rule?-The Question of Legitimacy
280(2)
Anarchism, the Free Market, and the Need for Government
282(3)
What Is Justice?
285(3)
The Meaning of Equality
288(3)
The Origins of Justice and the Social Contract
291(3)
Rights and the Notion of the Self
294(2)
Libertarianism
295(1)
Liberalism
295(1)
Communitarianism
296(1)
Closing Questions
296(1)
Bibliography and Suggested Readings
297(2)
TEN: Philosophy, Sex, Race, and Culture
299(34)
Opening Questions
300(1)
Expanding the Philosophical "Canon"
301(3)
Beyond the "Western Tradition"
304(1)
Other Cultures, Other Philosophies
305(16)
South Asian Philosophy
307(6)
East Asian Philosophy
313(3)
The Middle East
316(2)
Native American and African Philosophy
318(3)
Sexual Politics: The Rise of Feminist Philosophy
321(7)
Women and Nature
323(2)
Plato: Patriarch or Early Feminist?
325(1)
Reason versus Passion in Ethics: The Ethics of Care
325(2)
Feminist Epistemology and Feminist Science
327(1)
The Revival of African-American Philosophy
328(2)
Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X
328(2)
Closing Questions
330(1)
Bibliography and Suggested Readings
331(2)
Appendix I: Writing Philosophy 333(22)
Opening Questions 333(1)
The Rules of Good Writing in Philosophy 334(12)
Organize 334(2)
Write Simply 336(1)
Be Clear 336(1)
Be Human 337(1)
Use Examples 338(2)
Argue Your Point 340(3)
Consider the Objections and Alternatives 343(1)
Define Your Specialized Terms 344(1)
Use the History of Philosophy 345(1)
Indirect Styles 346(9)
Dialogue Style 346(3)
Ironic Style 349(2)
Aphoristic Style 351(4)
Appendix II: Deductive Logic Valid Argument Forms 355(6)
Appendix III: Common Informal Fallacies 361(6)
"Informal" Fallacies 361(6)
Brief Biographies 367(4)
Glossary 371(16)
Index 387


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