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Cengage Advantage Books: Bioethics in a Cultural Context Philosophy, Religion, History, Politics,9780495814085
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Cengage Advantage Books: Bioethics in a Cultural Context Philosophy, Religion, History, Politics

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Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780495814085

ISBN10:
0495814083
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2011
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
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    Cengage Advantage Books: Bioethics in a Cultural Context: Philosophy, Religion, History, Politics, 1st Edition




Summary

BIOETHICS IN A CULTURAL CONTEXT--PHILOSOPHY, RELIGION, HISTORY, POLITICS presents a unique, philosophical approach to modern bioethics. Rather than simply setting up debates about contemporary issues, this book recognizes that many of today's bioethical controversies are tied to profound underlying questions fundamental as: "When does life begin and end?" "What is a human being or person?" "What is life's purpose?" "What is the ideal society?" The book is comprehensive and accessible, featuring a wide range of content that is crisply presented and clearly explained. A multitude of interesting examples and cases provides ample opportunity for discussion, debate, and research.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Bioethics, Schiavo, and Cultural Politics Bioethics Ethics
Normative Ethics
Metaethics
Making Sense of Moral Conflict
Issues
Adversaries
About this Book Cases and Controversies
Reproductive Flashpoints
Refusal Legislation
Canada's Terri Sciavo
References
Sacred and Secular Foundations
Introduction: Two Enduring Traditions
Medieval Religion and Enlightenment Science Welcome to "Technopia" the Medieval Church Augustine and Aquinas the Authority of the Bible
The Biblical Account of Creation
Human Nature
The Relationship and the Covenant
The Problem of Evil
The Augustinian Theodicy
The Doctrines of the Fall and Depravity Moral Failure and Illness
Bi-level Conception of Sin
Medicine and the Supernatural
Illness as Salvific
Role of Government and Law
Enlightenment Science
Scientific Method
Rene Descartes
The Emergent Scientific Medicine
Mechanism
Implications For Religion
Deism
Anthropic Mechanism
Personhood as Consciousness
The Problem of Evil
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
What Doctors Think about Religion and Health
Faith Flags: Office Proselytizing
Criticism of Science and Its Method
The Life and Death of Jane Tomlinson
References
Religious and Secular Ethics
Divine Command Theory
Scriptural Basis
Natural Law
The Doctrine of Double Effect
Secular Natural Law
John Locke
Legal and Moral Rights
Social Contract Theory
Kant's Thought and Ethics
Philosophy's "Copernican Revolution." God, Morality, and the Problem of Evil
Moral Choice
The Categorical Imperative
Social Interests
Moral Rights
Utilitarianism
Utility Principle
Moral Rights and The Harm Principle
Social Interests
Preference Satisfaction
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
The Jodie and Mary Twin Tragedy
Life vs. Law
Crossing the Border To Sell Blood
Is Vaccinating Part of the Social Contract
References
Origins and Context of Bioethics
Introduction: TRIUMPH OF SECULARISM
The Birth of Bioethics
The Emergent Patient Consciousness
The New Frontier of Medicine
Advances in Reproductive Technologies
New Technology and Treatments
Scientific Research
Court Decisions
Law at the Beginning of Life
Law at the End of Life
The Pioneers
The Theologians
The Philosophers
Points of Difference
Common Ground
Utility and Autonomy
Faith in Rationality
A National Religious Identity
The "Jeffersonian Compromise."
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
The Tuskegee Study
The Death of Karen Ann Quinlan
Surrogate Mother Elizabeth Kane
References
The Basic Principles of Bioethics
Hippocratic Paternalism
The Belmont Principles
Autonomy
Religious and Secular Appeal
Implied Moral Requirements: Freedom and Protection
Moral Limits
Nonmaleficence
Beneficence
Justice
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
Drugs, Devices, and Disclosure
Medical Workers Involved in C.I.A. Interrogations
The Steven Jobs Liver Transplant
References
Applications
A Patient's Bill of Rights
Truthtelling
Informed Consent
Deliberation
Voluntariness
Kinds of Informed Consent
Participation in Medical Research
Advance Directives
Privacy and Confidentiality
DNA: The Genetic Fingerprint
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
The Merenstein Case of Informed Consent
Jaffee v. Redmond (1996): Safeguarding Patient Communication
Jesse Gelsinger: The First Gene Therapy Death
References
Beyond Principilism I: Patient Autonomy under Attack
Feeling Betrayed by Principilism
Autonomy as Impoverishing Bioethics
Autonomy as Disallowing Conscientious Objection
Autonomy as Overriding Professional Judgment
Suggested Off-Setting Principles
The Ecological Principle
The Vital Institution Principle
The Theonomy Principle
The Participated Theonomy Principle
Cases and Controversies
When Plan B Doesn't Work
Guarded about Gardasil
Benitez v. North Coast Women's Care Medical Group
References
Beyond Principilism II: Alternative Perspectives
Theory of Virtue
Feminist Ethics of Care
Justice
Care
The Emergence of Feminist Bioethics
Existential and Spiritual Dimensions of Illness
Narratives
Narrative Theology and Ethics
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
Forever Small: The Ashley
Treatment: Dax Cowart: Burn Victim Wants To Die
Gatekeepers Without Empathy
References
Issues at the Beginning of Life
Introduction: Headlines in Reproductive Medicine
References
Conceptual Issues in Abortion and Reproductive Technology
Banning Abortion in South Dakota
Developmental Sequence of Human Life
First Trimester
Second Trimester
Third Trimester
The Ontological Status of the Unborn
The Meaning of Human Life
The Meaning of Personhood
When the Ontological Status is Attained
Hominization and Ensoulment
The Moral Status of the Unborn
Religious Views
Secular Views
Scientific Views about when Life Begins
Genetic
Embryological
Neurological
Additional Views
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
The Language of Embryology
Is Commander Data a Person
Fetal Life and Personhood
References
The Abortion Debate I: The Lead-up to Roe
The Murder of Dr. George Tiller
A Brief History
Life Matters Most: The Conservative Religious View
Religious Natural Law and The Principle of Double Effect
Scriptural Teachings
The Mobilization of Pro-Choice Consciousness
Philosophical Analyses of Abortion
Religious Social Teaching and Activism
Cases and Controversies
Sherri Finkbine and the Thalidomide Tragedy
Griswold v Connecticut (1965)
The Pre-Roe "Bad Old Days."
References
The Abortion Debate II: Roe and Beyond
Choice Matters Most: The Roe Decision
The Religious Liberty Principle
Privacy
Roe and Cultural Conflict
Current Religious Sentiment
Choice Under Attack
The "Culture of Life." The Creation of the "Fetal Citizen."
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
Gonzales v. Carhart (2007)
The South Dakota Script
Redefining Pregnancy
References
The Assisted Reproduction Debate I: Principled Considerations
Test Tube Babies
Assisted Reproductive Technology
Surrogacy
Ethical Debates
Rights
Procreative Liberty
Life
Respect for Human Life
Unity of Marriage, Sex, and Reproduction
Religious Views
Secular Views
Gender Liberation and Self-Determination
CAses and Controversies
Dahl v. Angle: Who "Owns" Frozen Embryos
What To Do with Frozen Embryos
Love, Sex, and Marriage
References
The Assisted Reproduction Debate II: Empirical Considerations
The Commerce of Reproduction
Questions of Lineage
Religious Considerations
Legal Considerations
The Meaning of Family and the Well-Being of Offspring
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
Baby M: First Surrogacy
Jacob v. Shultz-Jacob: Three Adults with Parental Rights
Wanted: A Few Good Sperm for Choice Mothers
References
The Prenatal Testing Debate I: Embryo Screening
The Boy in the Plastic Bubble
Medical Uses of Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis
Having Healthy Children
Creating Compatible Donors
Generating Embryonic Stem Cells
The Ethical Debate
Embryo Creation and Destruction
Trait Selection
Cases and Controversies
The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act
The Genetic Matchmaker
Growing a Baby with a Disorder
References
The Pre-Natal Testing Debate II: Sex Selection
Proper Use of Technology
Pre- vs Post-Conception Technology
Sexism
Sex Ratios in Local Populations
Commodification of Reproduction
Consumer Eugenics
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
Genetic Risks: To Disclose or Not To Disclose
Made-to-order Babies
Slouching Toward Gattaca
References
The Stem Cell Debate I: Background and Terminology
Loosening the Stem Cell Binds
Embryonic and Non-Embryonic Stem Cells
Differentiation
Lines
Obtaining Stem Cells
Preimplantation or Spare Embryos
Created Embryos
Cloning
Cases and Controversies
The Pernkopf Anatomy
Irreconcilable Differences
The Missyplicity Project
The Stem Cell Debate II: The Ethics of the Science
Personal Ethics
Research Ethics
Destruction of the Early Embryo
Spare vs. Created Embryos
Alternatives to Embryo Destruction
Social Ethics
Disruption of Traditional Understanding
Threats to Social Justice
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
Cloning and Cultural Conflict
NIH ESC Guidelines
Frozen Embryos: The Personal Decision Behind the Public Controversy
References
Issues at the End of Life
Introduction: JACK'S BACK
References
Definition and Criteria of Death
DCD and the Death of Ruben Navarro
Traditional Heart-Lung Definition
Whole-Brain Definition
Challenges to the Whole-Brain Formulation
The Biological vs. Psycho-Social Debate: Organisms vs. Persons
Death of an Organism: A Biological Perspective
Death of the Person: A Psychosocial Perspective
Lingering Questions about Brain Death
Definition or Permission
Help or Harm
Event or Process
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
Terry Wallis: The Man Who Woke Up After Nineteen Years
Baby Theresa
In the conservatorship of Wendland
References
Conceptual Issues in Suicide and Euthanasia
The Assisted Death of Piergiorgio Welby
Suicide: The Problem of Definition
Self-Sacrificial Deaths
Coerced Deaths
Euthanasia
Definition: Narrow and Broad Interpretations
Killing vs. Allowing To Die
Voluntary and Nonvoluntary Decisions
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
Pope John Paul II: Life-Sustaining Treatments and Vegetative State
The Boston Declaration on Assisted Dying
Barney Clark's Key
References
Suicide in the West: A Brief History
The Suicide of Isadore Millstone
Suicide as an Offense to God, Neighbor, Self: Plato and Aristotle
Suicide as a Rational Act: The Stoics
Suicide as a Sinful Act: Augustine and Aquinas
Suicide as a Benefit to Self and Others: Hume
On Suicide
Suicide as a Violation of Moral Responsibility: Kant
The Argument from Free Will
The Argument from Human Nature
The Argument from Autonomy
The Argument from Divine Will
Suicide as a Social Utility: Bentham and Mill conclusions
Cases and Controversies
The "Rational" Suicide of Carolyn Heilbrun
Final Exit Network
The Suicide of Garrett Hardin
References
The Assisted Death Debate I: Individual Morality
The Assisted Death of Velma Howard
Principles
Utility/Happiness
Respect for Persons
Divine Command
Virtue
Roles and Professions
Feminist Ethics
Cases and Controversies
The Coup de Grace
Hurricane Katrina: Mercy Killing When Disaster Strikes
Does Responsible Care Include Assisted Dying
References
The Assisted Death Debate II: Social Policy and Law
The Final Campaign of Booth Gardner
Individual Rights
Human Rights
Welfare Rights
Equality
Disparate Impact
The General Welfare
State Paternalism
Self-Regarding vs. Other Regarding Virtues and Vices
The Case for Indirect Harm
The Case against Indirect Harm
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
Oregon's Death with Dignity Act
Dying and the War on Drugs
Baxter v. Montana
The "Euthanasia Underground."
References
Rationing Health Care at the End of Life
The Death of Barbara Wagner
Rationing
The High Cost of End-Of-Life Care
Arguments for Age-Based Rationing
Arguments Against Age-Based Rationing
Rationing by Medical Futility
Arguments for a Judgment of Futility
Professionalism
Responsible Stewardship
Arguments Against a Judgment of Futility
No Consensus about the Definition of Futility
Uncertain Prognoses/Mistaken Diagnoses
Social Contract
Conclusions
Cases and Controversies
The Case of Helga Wanglie
Gilgunn-Massachusetts General Hospital
The Death of Toddler Emilio Gonzales
References
Conclusion Bioethics, Religion, and Liberal Democracy
Religious vs. Secular Bioethics
Liberal Democracy and its Preconditions
Human Beings as Capable of Self-Government
Separation of Theology from Politics
Rethinking The "Jeffersonian Compromise."
Unprovable First Principles
Double Standard
No Common Ground for Dialogue
Religon in Public Bioethics
Cases and Controversies
The Battle Over Bioethics
References
Bioethics Across Cultures
Introduction
Religion and HIV/AIDS in Africa
Islam's View of the Body and Suffering
Buddhism, Health, and Disease
Islamic Science
Spain Extends Rights to Apes
Bentham in Bhutan
Globalization of Clinical Research
Africa Still Waiting for "The Sanitary Revolution."
Cross-Cultural Care
Transcultural Human Rights
Traditional Medicine for the Hmong
East Asian Autonomy
A Japanese Woman with Aggressive Leukemia
A Slow Dying in Nigeria
Baseball's Genetic Testing in Latin America
Unmarried and Pregnant in Saudi Arabia
Egyptian Doctor's Honesty Backfires
Global Violence Against Women
Buddhist Virtue
Bioethics in the 21st Century
Buddhism, Personhood, and Abortion
Islamic Understanding of Fetal Development
Jewish Beliefs About Personhood
A Young Muslim Woman with a Complicated Pregnancy
Abortions in Kenya
Early Induction in Ontario
Abortion Around the World
Outrage in Brazil
Mexico Legislates Personhood
Sunni and Shiva View of Reproductive Technology
ARTs and Women in India
Wombs for Rent in India
Dead Men To Father Children in Israel and England
Biotechnology in China
Eugenics Around the World
Chinese Bias for Baby Boys
Clinics' Pitch to Indian?migr?s
Japanese Create Fatherless Mouse with Three Mothers
ESC Research in Iran
Embryonic Cell Research Worldwide
Human-Animal Hybrid in Britain
Japan's Organ Transplantation Law
A Cross-Cultural Perspective of Brain Death
"Compassionate Murder" in Canada
Suicide Tourists
Field of Tears in South Korea
Al-Qaida and Suicide Terrorism
The Groningen Protocol
Englaro Case Tears Italy Apart
World Legal Opinion on Assisted Death
YouTube Plea from Australia
QALY in the UK
Conclusion
Cross-Cultural, International Bioethics
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.


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