Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases, Second Edition, explores the philosophical, medical, social, and legal aspects of key bioethical issues. Opening with a thorough introduction to ethics, bioethics, and moral reasoning, it then covers influential moral theories and the criteria forevaluating them. Integrating eighty-five readings - thirteen of them new to this edition - numerous cases, and abundant pedagogical tools, the book addresses the most provocative and controversial topics in bioethics. Updated throughout, the second edition incorporates new information on justice, health care, and health insurance reform along with more coverage of issues related to race and culture and of the moral challenges facing nurses and other health care professionals. It also offers additionalstep-by-step guidance on how to identify and evaluate moral arguments in real-world contexts, with accompanying exercises and answers in an appendix.
Lewis Vaughn is the author or coauthor of several books, including Philosophy Here and Now: Powerful Ideas in Everyday Life (2012), Contemporary Moral Arguments, Second Edition (2012), The Power of Critical Thinking, Fourth Edition (2012), and Great Philosophical Arguments (2011), all published by Oxford University Press.
Table of Contents
*=New to this edition Chapters 3-10 include an "Applying Major Theories" section. Chapters 3-11 include Cases for Evaluation. Each chapter includes Key Terms, a Summary, Further Reading, and Notes. Preface PART 1. PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES CHAPTER 1. MORAL REASONING IN BIOETHICS Ethics and Bioethics Ethics and the Moral Life In Depth: Morality and the Law Moral Principles in Bioethics Autonomy Beneficence Utility Justice Ethical Relativism In Depth: Anthropology and Moral Diversity Ethics and Religion Moral Arguments Argument Fundamentals Review: Valid and Invalid Argument Forms In Depth: Fallacies in Moral Reasoning Evaluating Premises * Assessing Whole Arguments CHAPTER 2. BIOETHICS AND MORAL THEORIES The Nature of Moral Theories Influential Moral Theories Utilitarianism In Depth: Utilitarianism and the Golden Rule Kantian Ethics Natural Law Theory Rawls' Contract Theory Virtue Ethics In Depth: Can Virtue Be Taught? The Ethics of Care Feminist Ethics Criteria for Judging Moral Theories Review: Evaluating Moral Theories: Criteria of Adequacy Applying the Criteria Utilitarianism Kant's Theory * READINGS: * "Utilitarianism," John Stuart Mill * "The Moral Law," Immanuel Kant * "Virtue and the Moral Life," Bernard Mayo * "The Ethics of Care," Virginia Held PART 2. MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL AND PATIENT CHAPTER 3. PATERNALISM AND PATIENT AUTONOMY Shades of Autonomy and Paternalism In Depth: The Hippocratic Oath Refusing Treatment Legal Brief: Refusing Treatment for Children on Religious Grounds Futile Treatment In Depth: CPR and DNR Classic Case File: Elizabeth Bouvia * In Depth: Moral Conflicts in Nursing READINGS: "Paternalism," Gerald Dworkin "The Refutation of Medical Paternalism," Alan Goldman "Why Doctors Should Intervene," Terrence F. Ackerman "Autonomy, Futility, and the Limits of Medicine," Robert L. Schwartz Bouvia v. Superior Court, California Court of Appeals "Fundamental Elements of the Patient-Physician Relationship," AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs "Code of Ethics for Nurses," American Nurses Association *"In Defense of the Traditional Nurse," Lisa H. Newton *"Advocacy or Subservience for the Sake of Patients?" Helga Kuhse CHAPTER 4. TRUTH-TELLING AND CONFIDENTIALITY Paternalism and Deception In Depth: Do Patients Want the Truth? Do Physicians Tell It? Confidential Truths Legal Brief: Confidentiality and a Duty to Warn Classic Case File: Carlos R. READINGS: "Telling the Truth to Patients: A Clinical Ethics Exploration," David C. Thomasma "On Telling Patients the Truth," Mack Lipkin "On a Supposed Right to Lie from Altruistic Motives," Immanuel Kant "Respect for Patients, Physicians, and the Truth," Susan Cullen and Margaret Klein "Why Privacy Is Important," James Rachels "Confidentiality in Medicine--A Decrepit Concept," Mark Siegler *"Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society," Ruth Macklin Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, Supreme Court of California CHAPTER 5. INFORMED CONSENT Autonomy and Consent Conditions of Informed Consent In Depth: Two Views of Informed Consent Legal Brief: Important Informed Consent Cases Classic Case File: Jerry Canterbury READINGS: "The Concept of Informed Consent," Ruth R. Faden and Tom L. Beauchamp "Informed Consent--Must It Remain a Fairy Tale?" Jay Katz "Transparency: Informed Consent in Primary Care," Howard Brody "Informed Consent: Some Challenges to the Universal Validity of the Western Model," Robert J. Levine Canterbury v. Spence, United States Court of Appeals CHAPTER 6. HUMAN RESEARCH The Science of Clinical Trials In Depth: The Tuskegee Tragedy Beneficence, Science, and Placebos In Depth: Women in Clinical Trials Science and Informed Consent In Depth: Why Enter a Clinical Trial? Research on the Vulnerable Classic Case File: The UCLA Schizophrenia Study READINGS: The Nuremberg Code Declaration of Helsinki, World Medical Association "The Belmont Report," National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research "Final Report: Human Radiation Experiments," Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments "Of Mice but Not Men: Problems of the Randomized Clinical Trial," Samuel Hellman and Deborah S. Hellman "A Response to a Purported Ethical Difficulty with Randomized Clinical Trials Involving Cancer Patients," Benjamin Freedman "How to Resolve an Ethical Dilemma Concerning Randomized Clinical Trials," Don Marquis * "Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study," Allan M. Brandt "The Ethics of Clinical Research in the Third World," Marcia Angell "Ethical Issues in Clinical Trials in Developing Countries," Baruch Brody PART 3. LIFE AND DEATH CHAPTER 7. ABORTION Starting Point: The Basics Fact File: U.S. Abortions In Depth: Abortion and Public Opinion The Legal Struggle In Depth: Late-Term Abortion Persons and Rights Classic Case File: Nancy Klein READINGS: "A Defense of Abortion," Judith Jarvis Thomson "Why Abortion Is Immoral," Don Marquis "An Almost Absolute Value in History," John T. Noonan, Jr. "On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion," Mary Anne Warren "Abortion Decisions: Personal Morality," Daniel Callahan "Abortion and the Concept of a Person," Jane English "In Defense of Abortion and Infanticide," Michael Tooley "Abortion Through a Feminist Ethic Lens," Susan Sherwin Roe v. Wade, U.S. Supreme Court Planned Parenthood v. Casey, U.S. Supreme Court CHAPTER 8. REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY Fact File: Assisted Reproduction In Vitro Fertilization In Depth: IVF and Children's Future Children Surrogacy Legal Brief Cloning In Depth: Cloning Time Line Classic Case File: Baby M READINGS: "IVF: The Simple Case," Peter Singer "IVF and Women's Interests: An Analysis of Feminist Concerns," Mary Anne Warren "'Give Me Children or I Shall Die!' New Reproductive Technologies and Harm to Children," Cynthia B. Cohen "Instruction on Respect for Human Life in Its Origin and on the Dignity of Procreation," Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith * "The Presumptive Primacy of Procreative Liberty," John A. Robertson "Surrogate Mothering: Exploitation or Empowerment?," Laura M. Purdy "On 'Surrogacy,'" Barbara Katz Rothman * Is Women's Labor a Commodity?," Elizabeth S. Anderson "The Wisdom of Repugnance," Leon R. Kass "Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and Con," Dan W. Brock Opinion in the Matter of Baby M, New Jersey Supreme Court CHAPTER 9. GENETIC CHOICES Genes and Genomes Genetic Testing In Depth: Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests Fact File: Genetic Tests Gene Therapy In Depth: Recent Research in Gene Therapy Stem Cells Classic Case File: The Kingsburys READINGS: "Implications of Prenatal Diagnosis for the Human Right to Life," Leon R. Kass "Genetics and Reproductive Risk: Can Having Children Be Immoral?," Laura M. Purdy "The Morality of Screening for Disability," Jeff McMahan * Genetic Dilemmas and the Child's Right to an Open Future," Dena S. Davis "Disowning Knowledge: Issues in Genetic Testing," Robert Wachbroit "The Non-Identity Problem and Genetic Harms--the Case of Wrongful Handicaps," Dan W. Brock "Is Gene Therapy a Form of Eugenics?," John Harris "Genetic Enhancement," Walter Glannon "Germ-Line Gene Therapy," LeRoy Walters and Julie Gage Palmer "What Does 'Respect for Embryos' Mean in the Context of Stem Cell Research?," Bonnie Steinbock "Declaration on the Production and the Scientific and Therapeutic Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells," Pontifical Academy for Life CHAPTER 10. EUTHANASIA & PHYSICIAN-ASSISTED SUICIDE Deciding Life and Death Legal Brief: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: Major Developments In Depth: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: What Doctors Think and Do Autonomy, Mercy, and Harm In Depth: Oregon's Death With Dignity Act In Depth: Physician-Assisted Suicide and Public Opinion Classic Case File: Nancy Cruzan READINGS: *"Death and Dignity: A Case of Individualized Decision Making," Timothy E. Quill "Voluntary Active Euthanasia," Dan W. Brock "When Self-Determination Runs Amok," Daniel Callahan "When Abstract Moralizing Runs Amok," John Lachs "Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Tragic View," John D. Arras "Active and Passive Euthanasia," James Rachels "The Distinction Between Refusing Medical Treatment and Suicide," New York State Task Force on Life and the Law "The Philosophers' Brief," Ronald Dworkin, Thomas Nagel, Robert Nozick, John Rawls, Thomas Scanlon, and Judith Jarvis Thomson Vacco v. Quill, U.S. Supreme Court Washington v. Glucksberg, U.S. Supreme Court PART 4. JUSTICE AND HEALTH CARE CHAPTER 11. DIVIDING UP HEALTH CARE RESOURCES Health Care in Trouble In Depth: Unequal Health Care for Minorities Fact File: U.S. Health Care Theories of Justice In Depth: Public Opinion: Obtaining Adequate Heath Care A Right to Health Care The Ethics of Rationing Classic Case File: Christine deMeurers READINGS: "Is There a Right to Health Care and, if So, What Does It Encompass?," Norman Daniels "The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care," Allen E. Buchanan "Rights to Health Care, Social Justice, and Fairness in Health Care Allocations: Frustrations in the Face of Finitude," H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr. * Health Care Reform: Lessons from Canada," Raisa Berlin Debar "Rationing Fairly: Programmatic Considerations," Norman Daniels "The Allocation of Exotic Medical Lifesaving Therapy," Nicholas Rescher "QALYfying the Value of Life," John Harris "The Prostitute, the Playboy, and the Poet: Rationing Schemes for Organ Transplantation," George J. Annas Glossary Index