9780470026748

Biofuels

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780470026748

  • ISBN10:

    047002674X

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2009-03-09
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Summary

This book gives a broad overview of the key topics in this field of study, approaching them from a technical and economic angle giving the reader a comprehensive insight into biofuels as a whole. Dealing specifically with liquid and gaseous biofuels that can be produced from renewable resources this text also gives a summary of the past, present and future production technologies and applications of biofuels. This book is particularly relevant as it highlights the extensive debate of the on-going global needs to find alternative fuels, making it not only a necessary text for working professionals and researchers in the field, but for anyone with an interest in sustaining the earth.

Author Biography

Wim Soetaert, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Erick J. Vandamme, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

Table of Contents

Series Prefacep. ix
Prefacep. xi
List of Contributorsp. xiii
Biofuels in Perspectivep. 1
Fossil versus Renewable Energy Resourcesp. 1
Economic Impactp. 2
Comparison of Bio-energy Sourcesp. 4
Conclusionp. 7
Referencesp. 7
Sustainable Production of Cellulosic Feedstock for Biorefineries in the USAp. 9
Introductionp. 9
Availability of Cellulosic Feedstocksp. 11
Feedstock Optionsp. 13
Sustainable Removalp. 16
Erosion Controlp. 18
Tilling Practicep. 19
Transitioning to No-tillp. 21
Realizing Removalp. 22
Removal Economicsp. 25
Climate Change Mitigationp. 27
Pretreatmentp. 29
Farmer in Value Chainp. 32
The Start: Preprocessing Pentose Sugars and Ligninp. 32
Continuing Downstream: Fungible Fermentation Sugarsp. 32
Looking Upstreamp. 33
Logisticsp. 33
Conclusionsp. 33
Policy Recommendationsp. 34
Referencesp. 35
Bio-Ethanol Development in the USAp. 39
Introductionp. 39
Federal Policyp. 40
The US Ethanol Marketp. 41
Corn Ethanol Technologyp. 46
Cellulosic Ethanolp. 49
The Futurep. 52
Referencesp. 53
Bio-Ethanol Development(s) in Brazilp. 55
Overviewp. 55
Introductionp. 56
The Brazilian Experience with Ethanolp. 56
Policy and Regulatory Instruments Applied to Deploy Large-Scale Ethanol Productionp. 59
Cost Reductionsp. 61
Technological Developmentp. 62
Is the Ethanol Production in Brazil Sustainable?p. 65
Is the Brazilian Experience Replicable?p. 72
Conclusionsp. 73
Referencesp. 74
Process Technologies for Biodiesel Productionp. 77
Introductionp. 77
Biodiesel Production Worldwidep. 77
Feedstocks for Biodiesel Productionp. 79
Chemical Principles of Biodiesel Productionp. 80
Catalysts for Transesterification and Esterification Reactionsp. 81
Transesterification in Supercritical Alcoholsp. 86
Alternative Approachesp. 87
Overview of Process Technologiesp. 87
Referencesp. 91
Bio-based Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Production Technologiesp. 95
Introductionp. 95
Theoretical Background Catalytic FT-Diesel Synthesis Processp. 96
Biomass Gasification-Based FT-Diesel Production Conceptsp. 100
Economics of Biomass-Based FT-Diesel Production Conceptsp. 110
Conclusionsp. 113
Referencesp. 114
Plant Oil Biofuel: Rationale, Production and Applicationp. 117
Introductionp. 117
Plant Oil Biofuels: the Underlying Ideap. 118
Perspectives of the Plant Oil Fuel Marketp. 119
System Requirementsp. 122
Plant Oil Conversion Technologyp. 124
The User Perspectivep. 125
Referencesp. 127
Enzymatic Production of Biodieselp. 129
Introductionp. 129
Enzymatic Transesterification by Lipasep. 130
Use of Extracellular Lipasesp. 131
Use of Intracellular Lipase as Whole-Cell Biocatalystp. 136
Use of Cell-Surface Displaying Cells as Whole-Cell Biocatalystp. 143
Conclusions and Future Prospectsp. 147
Referencesp. 147
Production of Biodiesel from Waste Lipidsp. 153
Introductionp. 153
Alternative Resources for Biodiesel Productionp. 155
Conversion of Waste Frying and Cooking Oils into Biodieselp. 155
Conclusionp. 168
Referencesp. 169
Biomass Digestion to Methane in Agriculture: A Successful Pathway for the Energy Production and Waste Treatment Worldwidep. 171
Overviewp. 171
Introductionp. 172
Biogas Production Potentialp. 174
Biogas Production Configurationsp. 183
Outlookp. 191
Conclusionsp. 193
Referencesp. 194
Biological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Microorganismsp. 197
Abbreviationsp. 197
Introductionp. 198
Hydrogen Formation in Natural Ecosystemsp. 198
Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Formationp. 199
Enzymologyp. 204
Enterobacteriap. 206
The Genus Clostridiump. 207
The Genus Caldicellulosiruptorp. 208
The Genus Thermoanaerobacterp. 210
The Genus Thermotogap. 211
The Genus Pyrococcus/Thermococcusp. 212
Approaches for Improving Hydrogen Productionp. 213
Concluding Remarksp. 214
Referencesp. 215
Improving Sustainability of the Corn-Ethanol Industryp. 223
Introductionp. 223
Energy Balancep. 224
Crop Production and Greenhouse Gas Emissionsp. 226
CO2 Adjustment in a Changing Ethanol Industryp. 228
Conclusionsp. 232
Referencesp. 233
Indexp. 235
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