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Biological Anthropology,9780078034954
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Biological Anthropology

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780078034954

ISBN10:
0078034957
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/4/2012
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages
List Price: $192.04

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Summary

Biological Anthropologyis a concise introduction to the basic themes, theories, methods and facts of bioanthropology. The scientific method provides a framework that brings accessibility and context to the material. This seventh edition presents the most recent findings and interpretations of topics in anthropology including Australopithecus sediba, the Denisovians, and epigenetics.

Table of Contents

Preface

To the Reader

1 Biological Anthropology

In the Field: Doing Biological Anthropology

Among the Hutterites

A Hawaiian in Connecticut

What Is Biological Anthropology?

Defining Anthropology

The Specialties of Bioanthropology

Bioanthropology and Science

The Scientific Method

Some Common Misconceptions about Science

Science Is Conducted in a Cultural Context

Contemporary Reflections: Is Evolution a Fact, a Theory, or Just a Hypothesis?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

2 The Evolution of Evolution

"On the Shoulders of Giants": Explaining the Changing Earth

The Biblical Context

The Framework of "Natural Philosophy"

"Common Sense at Its Best": Explaining Biological Change

Darwin's Predecessors

Charles Darwin

The Modern Theory of Evolution

Contemporary Reflections: Has Science Dehumanized Society?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

3 Evolutionary Genetics

How Genes Work

An Overview of the Human Genome

From Genes to Traits

How Inheritance Works

Contemporary Reflections: What is Genetic Cloning?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

4 The Processes of Evolution

Species: The Units of Evolution

The Four Processes of Evolution

Mutations: Necessary Errors

Natural Selection: The Prime Mover of Evolution

Gene Flow: Mixing Populations' Genes

Genetic Drift: Random Evolution

Sickle Cell Anemia: Evolutionary Processes in Action

Genetics and Symptoms

Contemporary Reflections: Are Humans Still Evolving?

The Adaptive Explanation

Other Relationships

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

5 The Origin of Species and the Shape of Evolution

New Species

Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms

Processes of Speciation

The Evolution of Life's Diversity

Our Family Tree

Adaptive Radiation

The Grand Pattern of Evolution

The Pattern of Speciation

Species Selection

Catastrophic Mass Extinctions

Contemporary Reflections: Are There Alternatives to Evolution?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

6 A Brief Evolutionary Timetable

From the Beginning: A Quick History

Drifting Continents and Mass Extinctions: The Pace of Change

Contemporary Reflections: Are Mass Extinctions a Thing of the Past?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

7 The Primates

Naming the Animals

What Is a Primate?

The Senses

Movement

Reproduction

Intelligence

Behavior Patterns

The Primate Adaptive Strategy

A Survey of the Living Primates

Prosimians

Anthropoids

The Human Primate

The Senses

Movement

Reproduction

Contemporary Reflections: What Is the Status of Our Closest Relatives?

Intelligence

Behavior Patterns

Are We Hominids or Hominins?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

8 Primate Behavior and Human Evolution

Behavioral Evolution

How Do Complex Behaviors Evolve?

How Do We Study Behavior?

Primate Behavior

Baboons

Chimpanzees

Bonobos

Culture and Social Cognition

Contemporary Reflections: Are Some Human Behaviors Genetic?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

9 Studying the Human Past

Bones: The Primate Skeleton

Old Bones: Locating, Recovering, and Dating Fossils

Finding Fossils

Recovering Fossils

Dating Fossils

How Fossils Get to Be Fossils

Genes: New Windows to the Past

The "Molecular Clock"

The Genetic Differences between Chimps and Humans

Contemporary Reflections: Who Owns Old Bones?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

10 Evolution of the Early Hominids

The Origin and Evolution of the Primates

Bipedalism

The Benefits of Bipedalism

The Evolution of Bipedalism

The Early Hominids

Australopithecus

Paranthropus

The Search for the First Hominids

Ardipithecus

Kenyanthropus

Orrorin

Sahelanthropus

Putting It All Together

Connecting the Dots

The Ecological Context

Contemporary Reflections: Is There a "Missing Link"?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

11 The Evolution of Genus Homo

The Nature of Genus Homo

The First Members of Genus Homo

The First Stone Tools

The Fossils

A New Adaptive Mode

To New Lands

The First Fossils

Migration and the Ice Ages

The Life of Homo erectus

Big Brains, Archaic Skulls

Homo antecessor

Homo heidelbergensis

The Neandertals

Physical Features

Culture

Modern Humans

Anatomy

Dates

Culture

Contemporary Reflections: Who Are the "Hobbits" from Indonesia?

More Neandertals and Yet Another Human Group?

The Debate Over Modern Human Origins

The Models

The Evidence

Is This Debate Important?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

12 Evolution and Adaptation in Human Populations

Population Adaptations

Species Adaptations

Variation in Adaptations

Are All Variations Adaptively Important?

Disease and Human Populations

Diseases are "Natural"

Disease and Hominid Evolution

Disease and Human History

Emerging Diseases

Contemporary Reflections: Are There Jewish Diseases? Are There Black Pharmaceuticals?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

13 Human Biological Diversity

Sex and Gender

Why Are There No Biological Races Within the Human Species?

Race as a Biological Concept

Human Phenotypic Variation

Genetic Variation

Evolutionary Theory

What, Then, Are Human Races?

Anthropology and the History of Race Studies

Race, Bioanthropology, and Social Issues

Race and Intelligence

Race and Athletic Ability

Contemporary Reflections: Are Genetic Ancestry Tests Worth the Money?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

14 Biological Anthropology and Today's World

Forensic Anthropology: Reading the Bones

Lessons from the Past

Bioanthropology and Global Issues

Contemporary Reflections: What Can One Do with a Degree in Bioanthropology?

Summary

Questions for Further Thought

Key Terms

Suggested Readings

Appendix I: Protein Synthesis and the Genetic Code

Appendix II: Genes in Populations

Glossary of Human and Nonhuman Primates

Glossary of Terms

References

Credits

Index



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