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Biological Anthropology : The Natural History of Humankind,9780131828926
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Biological Anthropology : The Natural History of Humankind

by ; ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131828926

ISBN10:
0131828924
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $124.80
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Summary

The only book that integrates the foundations and the most current innovations in the field from the ground up. Over the past twenty years, this field has rapidly evolved from the study of physical anthropology into biological anthropology, incorporating the evolutionary biology of humankind based on information from the fossil record and the human skeleton, genetics of individuals and of populations, our primate relatives, human adaptation, and human behavior . Stanford combines the most up-to-date, comprehensive coverage of the foundations of the field with the modern innovations and discoveries.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
About the Authors xix
Part I Foundations
Introduction: What Is Biological Anthropology?
1(16)
The Scope of Biological Anthropology
3(5)
Paleoanthropology
3(1)
Skeletal Biology and Human Osteology
4(1)
Paleopathology
4(1)
Forensic Anthropology
5(1)
Primatology
6(1)
Human Biology
7(1)
The Roots of Modern Biological Anthropology
8(1)
Anthropology and its Other Subfields
9(2)
Cultural Anthropology
9(2)
Box 1.1 A Paradigm Split in Anthropology?
11(4)
Archaeology
12(2)
Linguistic Anthropology
14(1)
Biological Anthropology Today
15(2)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Origins of Evolutionary Thought
17(24)
What Is Science?
19(1)
The Early Thinkers
20(3)
The Roots of Modern Science
20(2)
Linnaeus and the Natural Scheme of Life
22(1)
The Road to the Darwinian Revolution
23(3)
The Uniformitarians: Hutton and Lyell
25(1)
The Darwinian Revolution
26(6)
The Galapagos
27(2)
Refining the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
29(3)
Box 2.1 Darwin versus Wallace?
32(2)
The Response to Darwin
34(1)
The Science and Creationism Question
35(2)
Box 2.2 What Is Intelligent Design?
37(4)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Part II Mechanisms of Evolution
Genetics: Cells and Molecules
41(31)
Genetics
43(2)
The Study of Genetics
43(1)
Genetic Metaphors: Blueprints, Recipes, or What?
44(1)
The Cell
45(2)
Cell Anatomy
46(1)
Box 3.1 Cloning Controversies
47(1)
DNA Structure and Function
48(12)
DNA Structure I: The Molecular Level
48(3)
DNA Function I: Replication
51(1)
DNA Function II: Protein Synthesis
52(5)
DNA Structure II: Chromosomes and Cell Division
57(3)
Box 3.2 Biochemical Individuality
60(4)
Molecular Tools for Bioanthropological Research
64(8)
Indirect Methods
64(2)
Direct Sequencing Methods
66(1)
PCR, Mitochondrial DNA, and Ancient DNA
66(6)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Genetics: From Genotype to Phenotype
72(27)
From Genotype to Phenotype
74(3)
The ABO Blood Type System
75(1)
Obesity: A Complex Interaction
76(1)
Mendelian Genetics
77(6)
Mendel's Postulates
79(2)
Linkage and Crossing Over
81(2)
Mutation
83(6)
Point Mutation and Sickle Cell Disease
83(2)
Trinucleotide Repeat Diseases
85(1)
Mutations: Bad, Neutral, and Good
86(2)
X-Linked Disorders
88(1)
Mendelian Genetics in Humans
88(1)
Genetics Beyond Mendel
89(2)
Box 4.1 State Fair Mendelism and the Eugenics Movement
91(1)
Polygenic Traits, the Phenotype, and the Environment
92(3)
Heritability and IQ Test Score Performance
94(1)
Phenylketonuria: Illustrating Mendelian and Post-Mendelian Concepts
95(4)
Genes and Environments
96(3)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
The Forces of Evolution and the Formation of Species
99(27)
How Evolution Works
100(9)
Where Does Variation Come From?
101(1)
How Natural Selection Works
101(2)
Other Ways in Which Evolution Happens
103(6)
Classification and Evolution
109(7)
Taxonomy and Speciation
109(4)
What Is a Species?
113(1)
A Guide to Species Concepts
113(2)
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms
115(1)
The Origin of Species: How Species Are Formed
115(1)
Box 5.1 What's in a Name? Species Concepts, Genetics, and Conservation
116(7)
The Tempo of Speciation
119(1)
Adaptation
120(1)
Is Everything Adaptive?
120(1)
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
121(2)
Levels of Selection
123(3)
Inclusive Fitness
123(3)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Human Variation: Evolution, Adaptation, and Adaptability
126(37)
Human Variation at the Individual and Group Level
128(2)
What Is a Population?
128(2)
Historical Perspectives on Human Variation
130(6)
Recording Human Variation in Past Civilizations
131(1)
The Monogenism-Polygenism Debate
131(3)
The Race Concept in the Twentieth Century
134(1)
Changing Attitudes toward Race in Anthropology
135(1)
Box 6.1 Traits in Folk Taxonomies
136(1)
Population Genetics
137(9)
Polymorphisms: ABO and Other Blood Type Systems
137(5)
Gene Flow and Protein Polymorphisms
142(3)
Polymorphisms and Phylogenetic Studies
145(1)
Polymorphisms and Natural Selection in Human Populations
146(7)
The Evolution of Lactose Tolerance
147(2)
Balanced Polymorphisms: Sickle Cell and Other Conditions
149(4)
Adaptation and Adaptability
153(2)
Levels of Adaptability
153(1)
Heat and Cold
153(2)
Box 6.2 Technology and Extreme Environments
155(8)
Body Size and Shape
156(1)
Living at High Altitude
157(2)
Adaptability to Water
159(4)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Part III Primates
The Primates
163(45)
The Primate Radiation
164(10)
The Extraordinary Diversity of Nonhuman Primates
165(1)
What Exactly Is a Primate?
166(1)
Anatomical Traits
166(6)
Life History Traits
172(2)
Behavioral Traits
174(1)
A Guide to the Nonhuman Primates
174(2)
The Strepsirhines
174(2)
Special Feature Primates in the New World
176(6)
The Haplorhines
181(1)
Box 7.1 The Rarest of the Rare
182(10)
The New World Monkeys
184(2)
The Old World Monkeys
186(1)
The Hominoids
187(5)
Box 7.2 The Impending Extinction of the Great Apes?
192(4)
Primate Ecology
196(8)
Diet
197(1)
The Cycles of a Tropical Forest
198(1)
You Are What You Eat: Dietary and Digestive Strategies
199(1)
Diet and Activity Budgets
200(1)
Feeding Competition
200(4)
Primate Communities
204(4)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Primate Behavior
208(25)
Studying Primates
210(8)
Why Are Nonhuman Primates Social?
212(1)
The Paradox of Sociality
212(3)
Types of Nonhuman Primate Societies
215(3)
Box 8.1 The Infanticide Wars
218(3)
The Evolution of Primate Social Behavior
221(1)
Social Behavior and Reproductive Asymmetry
221(1)
Box 8.2 Are Chimpanzees from Mars and Bonobos from Venus?
222(11)
Male Reproductive Strategies
224(2)
Female Reproductive Strategies
226(3)
Reconstructing the Evolution of Primate Societies
229(4)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Part IV The Fossil Record
Fossils in Geological Context
233(34)
Monte L. McCrossin
How to Become a Fossil
234(2)
The Importance of Context
236(6)
Stratigraphy
236(2)
The Geologic Time Scale
238(3)
How Old Is It?
241(1)
Relative Dating Techniques
241(1)
Special Feature Key Changes in Evolution
242(4)
Calibrated Relative Dating Techniques
245(1)
Box 9.1 The Piltdown Hoax
246(2)
Box 9.2 Dating Controversies
248(9)
Chronometric Dating Techniques
249(8)
The Earth in the Cenozoic
257(10)
Continents and Land Masses
257(1)
How Cold Was It?
258(4)
Overview of Climatic Changes during the Cenozoic
262(5)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Origin of Primates
267(31)
Monte L. McCrossin
The Mesozoic and Beyond
269(1)
Dawn of the Age of Mammals
269(1)
The Crater of Doom: What Happened at the K-T Boundary?
269(1)
After the Crater of Doom: Changes in the Paleocene
270(3)
Questionable Primates: The Plesiadapiforms
270(1)
Why Primates?
271(2)
Early Primates of the Eocene
273(2)
Adapoids (Strepsirhine Ancestors)
273(1)
Omomyoids (Haplorhine Ancestors)
274(1)
Box 10.1 Subfossil Lemurs of Madagascar
275(2)
Continental Drift and Eocene Primates
276(1)
Selective Pressures Favoring the Strepsirhine-Haplorhine Split
276(1)
Evolution of Higher Primates
277(12)
The First Monkeys?
277(2)
New World Monkeys
279(2)
Old World Monkeys
281(2)
What Favored the Origin of Anthropoids?
283(1)
The Earliest Apes
283(5)
Selection Pressures and the Divergence of Monkeys and Apes
288(1)
The Monkey's Tale: What Happened to Primate Diversity in the Miocene?
289(1)
Molecular Evolution in Primates
289(1)
Special Feature Primate Evolution
290(8)
A Primate Molecular Phylogeny
293(1)
Molecular Phylogeny and Human Origins
294(1)
Gene Function and Human Origins
295(3)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Becoming Human: The Ape-Hominid Transition
298(22)
Becoming a Biped
300(9)
Anatomical Changes
301(5)
Constructing the Bipedal Body Plan
306(1)
Locomotion of the Last Common Ancestor
306(1)
Why Bipeds?
307(2)
Box 11.1 Overheated Radiator?
309(2)
Box 11.2 What Did Love Have to Do with It?
311(1)
The Transition to Human Behavior
311(9)
Primate Intelligence: Why Are Humans So Smart?
312(5)
What Made Humans Human?
317(3)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Early Hominids
320(32)
Will You Know a Hominid When You See One?
321(1)
Box 12.1 A Rose by Any Other Name: Hominids versus Hominins
322(2)
The First Hominids?
324(4)
Sahelanthropus tchadensis (7.0--6.0 mya)
325(2)
Orrorin tugenensis (6.0 mya)
327(1)
Ardipithecus ramidus (4.4 mya) and Ardipithecus kadabba (5.8--5.2 mya)
327(1)
Box 12.2 Treasures of the Afar Triangle
328(1)
Australopithecus and Kin
329(3)
Australopithecus anamensis (4.2--3.9 mya)
330(1)
Australopithecus afarensis (3.9--2.9 mya)
331(1)
Special Feature Early Hominid Evolution
332(13)
Australopithecus bahrelghazali (3.5--3.0 mya)
335(1)
Kenyanthropus platyops (3.5 mya)
335(1)
Australopithecus garhi (2.5 mya)
336(1)
Australopithecus africanus (3.5--<2.0 mya)
337(4)
The Robust Australopithecines (or Paranthropines)
341(4)
Understanding the Australopithecine Radiation
345(4)
Cohabitation
345(1)
Tools and Intelligence
346(1)
Ancestors and Descendants
347(2)
Questions for Future Paleoanthropologists
349(3)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Rise of the Genus Homo
352(31)
Defining the Genus Homo
353(1)
Earliest Genus Homo
354(5)
Early Tool Use
356(2)
Hunting and Scavenging
358(1)
Box 13.1 Understanding the Meat-Eating Past through the Present
359(2)
Who Was Homo Erectus?
361(4)
Anatomical Features
362(3)
Homo erectus versus Homo ergaster
365(1)
Homo Erectus Around the World
365(1)
Special Feature The Genus Homo through Time
366(10)
African Origins
368(1)
The First African Diaspora: Republic of Georgia
369(1)
Dispersal into East Asia
370(5)
The Status of Homo erectus in Europe
375(1)
The Lifeways of Homo Erectus
376(7)
Homo erectus and the Early Stone Age
376(2)
A Higher-Quality Diet: Homo erectus Subsistence
378(1)
Homo erectus Life History
379(1)
Homo erectus Leaves Africa
380(3)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Archaic Homo Sapiens and Neandertals
383(34)
Hominid Evolution in the Mid-To Late Pleistocene
385(2)
Defining Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens
386(1)
Archaic Homo Sapiens
387(4)
European Archaic Homo sapiens
387(3)
African Archaic Homo sapiens
390(1)
Asian Archaic Homo sapiens
391(1)
Behavior of Archaic Homo Sapiens
391(4)
Stone Tools
392(1)
Tools from Organic Materials
393(1)
Big Game Hunting
393(2)
Fire, Campsites, and Home Sites
395(1)
The Neandertals
395(3)
Geographic and Temporal Distribution
396(1)
History of Neandertal Discovery
397(1)
Box 14.1 Neandertal Image Makeovers
398(7)
Neandertal Anatomy: Built for the Cold
399(4)
Growth and Development
403(1)
Health and Disease
404(1)
Neandertal DNA
405(1)
Neandertal Behavior
405(6)
Material Culture
405(1)
Coping with Cold
406(1)
Hunting and Subsistence
407(1)
Cannibalism
408(1)
Burials
409(2)
Ritual and Symbolic Behavior
411(1)
Phylogenetic and Taxonomic Issues: An Overview
411(1)
Special Feature Hominid Evolution in the Mid-to-Late Pleistocene
412(5)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
The Emergence and Dispersal of Homo Sapiens
417(30)
The Emergence of Modern Humans
419(1)
Models of Modern Human Origins
420(1)
Multiregional and Replacement Models
420(1)
Predictions of the Two Models
420(1)
Anatomy and Distribution of Early Humans
421(6)
Africa
421(2)
Near East
423(1)
Europe
423(2)
Asia and Southeast Asia
425(1)
Australia
426(1)
Box 15.1 The Little People of Flores
427(1)
Archaeology of Modern Human Origins
428(8)
Stone and Other Tools
428(3)
Subsistence
431(1)
Settlement of the New World and Pacific Islands
431(2)
Symbolism
433(3)
Molecular Genetics and Human Origins
436(3)
Mitochondrial DNA
437(1)
The Y Chromosome
438(1)
MRCAs for Nuclear Genes
438(1)
Box 15.2 The Genghis Khan Effect
439(2)
Ancient DNA
440(1)
Interpreting Models of Human Origins
441(6)
Paleontology and Archaeology
441(1)
Molecular Genetics
442(5)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Part V Biology and Behavior of Modern Humans
Evolution of the Brain and Language
447(29)
Overview of the Brain
449(4)
Major Divisions of the Cerebrum
451(1)
Primary and Association Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
451(1)
Methods for Studying Brain Structure and Function
452(1)
Issues in Hominid Brain Evolution
453(6)
Brain Size and Encephalization
453(3)
Brain Size and the Fossil Record
456(3)
Box 16.1 The Ten Percent Myth: Evolution and Energy
459(3)
Brain Reorganization
459(3)
Language: Biology and Evolution
462(6)
What Is Language?
463(1)
The Evolution of Grammar
463(2)
Language in the Brain
465(1)
Language in the Throat
466(1)
Language Ability and the Fossil Record
467(1)
Box 16.2 Ape Language Studies
468(4)
Scenarios of Language Evolution
470(2)
Brain Size, Language, and Intelligence
472(4)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Biomedical Anthropology
476(33)
Epidemiology: Basic Tools for Biomedical Anthropology
478(3)
Rates: Mortality, Incidence, and Prevalence
478(2)
Epidemiological Transitions
480(1)
Biocultural and Evolutionary Approaches to Disease
481(2)
The Biocultural Approach
481(1)
The Evolutionary Approach
482(1)
Birth, Growth, and Aging
483(10)
Human Childbirth
483(1)
Patterns of Human Growth
484(1)
Stages of Human Growth
485(3)
The Secular Trend in Growth
488(1)
Menarche and Menopause
489(2)
Aging
491(2)
Human Variation and Health: Skin Color
493(4)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Light and Dark Skin Color
495(1)
Skin Color and Health: Evolutionary Synthesis
496(1)
Infectious Disease and Biocultural Evolution
497(1)
Human Behavior and the Spread of Infectious Disease
497(1)
Box 17.1 Kuru, Cannibalism, and Prion Diseases
498(5)
Infectious Disease and the Evolutionary Arms Race
500(3)
Diet and Disease
503(6)
The Paleolithic Diet
503(2)
Agriculture and Nutritional Deficiency
505(1)
Agriculture and Abundance: Thrifty, Nonthrifty, and Thrifty-Pleiotropic Genotypes
505(4)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
The Evolution of Human Behavior
509(30)
Studying the Evolution of Human Behavior
512(3)
The Evolution of Human Behavior: Four Approaches
512(2)
Behavioral Patterns and Evolution
514(1)
Traditional Lives in Evolutionary Ecological Perspective
515(5)
Quantification in Evolutionary Ecological Research
515(4)
Hunting, Gathering, and the Sexual Division of Labor
519(1)
Box 18.1 ``Man the Hunter''
520(2)
Sexual Selection and Human Behavior
522(4)
Risk-Taking Behavior
523(1)
Inbreeding Avoidance and Incest Taboos
524(2)
Language-Related Cross-Cultural Behaviors
526(1)
Motherese or Infant-Directed Speech
526(1)
Box 18.2 Reading, Writing, and Evolution
527(2)
Basic Color Terms
528(1)
Behavioral Disease
529(6)
Depression and Natural Selection
529(2)
Schizophrenia
531(1)
Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse
532(3)
Epilogue
535(4)
Summary
Critical Thinking Questions
Key Terms
Suggested Reading
Appendix A Forensic Anthropology 539(7)
Appendix B Primate and Human Comparative Anatomy 546(5)
Appendix C The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 551(3)
Appendix D Metric-Imperial Conversions 554(1)
Glossary 555(10)
Bibliography 565(18)
Credits 583(2)
Index 585


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