9780824707750

Biological and Bioenvironmental Heat and Mass Transfer

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780824707750

  • ISBN10:

    0824707753

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 3/21/2002
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

Providing a solid foundation in, and systematic treatment of, heat and mass transport, Biological and Bioenvironmental Heat and Mass Transfer covers engineering principles of heat and mass transfer. The author discusses biological content, context, and parameter regimes and supplies practical applications for biological and biomedical engineering, industrial food processing, environmental control, and waste management. The book contains end-of-chapter problems, sections highlighting key concepts and important terminology, cross-references for easy access to key concepts and formulas, detailed examples of transport phenomena, and descriptions of physical processes . It covers mechanisms of diffusion, capillarity, convection, and dispersion.

Author Biography

Ashim K. Datta is Professor, Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. The author or coauthor of over 50 journal articles and book chapters and more than 100 presentations on heat and mass transfer, Dr. Datta is a member of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, the Institute of Biological Engineering, and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, among others. He received the B.Tech. degree (1979) from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India, the M.S. degree (1982) from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and the Ph.D. degree (1985) in agricultural engineering from the university of Florida, Gainesville

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments v
Preface vii
Introduction xi
List of Symbols
xxix
I Energy Transfer 1(172)
Equilibrium, Energy Conservation, and Temperature
3(12)
Thermal Equilibrium and the Laws of Thermodynamics
5(1)
Laws of Thermodynamics
5(1)
Thermal Equilibrium
5(1)
Energy Conservation
5(1)
Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics and the Transport of Energy
6(1)
Temperature in Living Systems
6(4)
Temperature Response to Human Body
7(1)
Temperature Sensation in Humans
7(2)
Thermal Comfort of Human and Animals
9(1)
Temperature in the Environment
10(1)
The Greenhouse Effect
10(1)
Temperature Scales
11(1)
Chapter Summary---Energy Conservation and Temperature
12(1)
Concept and Review Questions
13(1)
Further Reading
13(2)
Modes of Heat Transfer
15(12)
Conductive Heat Transfer
15(7)
Thermal Conductivity of Biological and Other Materials
20(1)
Thermal Diffusivity
20(1)
Density and Specific Heat
21(1)
Convective Heat Transfer
22(1)
Radiative Heat Transfer
23(1)
Chapter Summary---Modes of Heat Transfer
23(1)
Concept and Review Questions
24(1)
Further Reading
24(1)
Problems
25(2)
Governing Equation and Boundary Conditions of Heat Transfer
27(18)
Governing Equation for Heat Transfer Derived
29(5)
Meaning of Each Term in the Governing Equation
31(1)
Examples of Thermal Source (Generation) Term in Biological Systems
31(1)
Utility of the Energy Equation
32(2)
General Boundary Conditions
34(2)
The Bioheat Transfer Equation for Mammalian Tissue
36(2)
Governing Equation Derived in Cylindrical Coordinates
38(2)
Governing Equations in Various Coordinate Systems
40(2)
An Algorithm to Solve Transport Problems
42(1)
Chapter Summary---Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions
43(1)
Concept and Review Questions
43(1)
Further Reading
44(1)
Problems
44(1)
Conduction Heat Transfer: Steady-State
45(24)
Steady-State Heat Conduction in a Slab
47(3)
Thermal Resistance and Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
48(2)
Steady-State Heat Conduction in a Cylinder
50(5)
Thermal Resistance Term for the Hollow Cylinder
52(1)
Comparison with the Solution for the Slab
52(1)
Thickness of Fur in Small and Large Animals
53(2)
Steady-State Heat Conduction in a Slab with Internal Heat Generation
55(3)
Thermoregulation-Maintaining the Core Body Temperature of Human and Animals
56(2)
Steady-State Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces: Fins
58(3)
Fins and Bio-heat Transfer
60(1)
Chapter Summary---Steady-State Heat Conduction
61(1)
Concept and Review Questions
62(1)
Further Reading
63(1)
Problems
64(5)
Conduction Heat Transfer: Unsteady State
69(26)
Transient Heat Transfer with No Internal Resistance
71(1)
Biot Number: Deciding When to Ignore the Internal Resistance
72(3)
Transient Heat Transfer with Internal Resistance
75(7)
How Temperature Changes with Time
77(1)
Temperature Change with Position and Spatial Average
77(1)
Temperature Change with Size
78(1)
Charts Developed from the Solutions: Their Uses and Limitations
78(2)
Internal and External Resistance
80(1)
Numerical Methods as Alternatives to the Charts
81(1)
Transient Heat Transfer in a Finite Geometry---Multi-Dimensional Problems
82(1)
Semi-infinite Region
82(4)
Chapter Summary---Transient Heat Conduction
86(1)
Concept and Review Questions
86(1)
Further Reading
86(1)
Problems
87(8)
Convection Heat Transfer
95(28)
Governing Equation for Convection
95(2)
Temperature Profiles and Boundary Layers Over a Surface
97(2)
Laminar and Turbulent Flows
99(1)
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient Defined
100(1)
Significant Parameters in Convective Heat Transfer
101(3)
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculations
104(11)
Flat plate, Forced Convection
106(2)
Flat plate, Natural Convection
108(2)
Flow Over Cylinder, Natural Convection
110(1)
Flow Over Cylinder, Forced Convection
110(1)
Flow Through Cylinder, Forced Convection
111(1)
Flow Over Sphere, Natural Convection
111(1)
Flow Over Sphere, Forced Convection
111(1)
Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow
111(1)
Orders of Magnitude for Heat Transfer Coefficient Values
112(1)
Coefficients for Air Flow Over Human Subjects
112(1)
Wind Chill Factor and Boundary Layer Thickness
112(3)
Chapter Summary---Convective Heat Transfer
115(1)
Concept and Review Questions
115(1)
Further Reading
116(1)
Problems
117(6)
Heat Transfer With Change of Phase
123(22)
Freezing and Thawing
125(1)
Freezing of Pure Water
126(2)
Freezing Process
126(1)
Property Changes During Freezing
127(1)
Freezing of Solutions and Biomaterials
128(3)
Solutions
128(1)
Cellular Tissues
129(1)
Cooling Rates and Success of Freezing
130(1)
Temperature Profiles and Freezing Time
131(4)
Freezing Time for and Infinite Slab of Pure Liquid
131(2)
Freezing Time for Biomaterials
133(2)
Evaporation
135(4)
Evaporation from Wet Surfaces
136(2)
Evaporation Inside a Solid Matrix
138(1)
Evaporation of Solutions
138(1)
Chapter Summary---Heat Transfer with Change of Phase
139(1)
Concept and Review Questions
140(1)
Further Reading
140(2)
Problems
142(3)
Radiative Energy Transfer
145(28)
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
147(1)
Reflection, Absorption and Transmission of Waves at a Surface
147(3)
Transmissivity of a Leaf and Photosynthesis
148(1)
Transmissivity of the Atmosphere: Greenhouse Effect
149(1)
Albedo--Reflection from Soil
149(1)
Absorption and Transmission in Biomaterials
150(1)
Thermal Radiation from an Ideal (Black) Body
150(3)
Fraction of Energy Emitted
153(1)
Thermal Radiation from a Real Body: Emissivity
154(2)
Emission from Human Bodies
156(2)
Solar, Atmospheric, and Earth Surface Radiation
158(2)
Solar Radiation--Magnitude and Spectral Distribution
158(1)
Emission from Earth's Surface
159(1)
Atmospheric Emissions
159(1)
Global Energy Balance
160(1)
Radiative Exchange Between Bodies
160(5)
Radiative Heat Transfer Coefficient
163(1)
Radiative Exchange Between a Leaf and Surroundings
163(2)
Radiative Exchange Between Human (or Animal) and Its Surroundings
165(1)
Chapter Summary---Radiative Energy Transfer
165(2)
Concept and Review Questions
167(1)
Further Reading
168(1)
Problems
169(4)
II Mass Transfer 173(140)
Equilibrium, Mass Conservation, and Kinetics
175(20)
Concentration
177(2)
Concentrations in a Gaseous Mixture
177(2)
Species Mass Balance (Mass Conservation)
179(1)
Equilibrium
179(6)
Equilibrium Between a Gas and a Liquid
180(2)
Equilibrium Between a Gas and A Solid (with Adsorbed Liquid)
182(3)
Equilibrium Between Solid and Liquid in Adsorption
185(1)
Chemical Kinetics: Generation or Depletion of a Mass Species
185(4)
Rate Laws of Homogeneous Reactions
186(1)
Zeroth Order Reaction
186(1)
First Order Reaction
187(2)
nth Order Reaction
189(1)
Effects of Temperature
189(1)
Chapter Summary---Equilibrium, Mass Conservation, and Kinetics
189(1)
Concept and Review Questions
190(1)
Further Reading
190(1)
Problems
191(4)
Modes of Mass Transfer
195(28)
A Primer on Porous Media Flow
197(6)
Physical Interpretation of Hydraulic Conductivity K and Permeability k
198(3)
Capillarity and Unsaturated Flow in a Porous Media
201(1)
Osmotic Flow in a Porous Media
202(1)
Diffusive Mass Transfer
203(10)
Molecular Diffusion
203(8)
Capillary Diffusion
211(2)
Dispersive Mass Transfer
213(1)
Convective Mass Transfer
214(2)
Convection-Diffusion Mass Transfer Over a Surface
214(2)
Convection-Dispersion Mass Transfer
216(1)
Comparison of the Modes of Mass Transfer
216(2)
Chapter Summary---Modes of Mass Transfer
218(1)
Concept and Review Questions
219(1)
Further Reading
219(1)
Problems
220(3)
Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions of Mass Transfer
223(14)
Modified Fick's Law for Bulk Flow of Convection
224(3)
Velocity and Mass Average Velocity
225(1)
Flux Equation for a Convective Situation
225(2)
Governing Equation for Mass Transfer
227(3)
Meanings of Each Term in the Governing Equation
229(1)
General Boundary Conditions
230(3)
Governing Equations for Mass Diffusion in Various Coordinate Systems
233(1)
Chapter Summary---G.E. & B.C. of Mass Transfer
234(1)
Concept and Review Questions
234(1)
Further Reading
234(1)
Problems
235(2)
Diffusion Mass Transfer: Steady State
237(16)
Steady-State Mass Diffusion in a Slab
238(6)
One-Dimensional Mass Diffusion Through a Composite Slab---Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient
240(4)
Steady-State Diffusion in a Slab with Chemical Reaction
244(4)
Photosynthesis and the Transport of Water Vapor and CO2 in a Leaf
247(1)
Chapter Summary---Steady-State Mass Diffusion with and Without Chemical Reaction
248(1)
Concept and Review Questions
249(1)
Further Reading
249(1)
Problems
250(3)
Diffusion Mass Transfer: Unsteady-State
253(24)
Transient Mass Transfer with No Internal Diffusive Resistance
254(3)
Transient Mass Transfer with Internal Diffusive Resistance
257(5)
How Concentration Changes with Time
259(1)
Concentration Change with Position and Spatial Average
259(1)
Concentration Change with Size
260(1)
Charts Developed from the Solutions: Their Uses and Limitations
260(1)
When Both Internal and External Resistances are Present: Convective Boundary Condition
261(1)
Transient Diffusion in a Finite Geometry---Multi-Dimensional Problems
262(4)
Transient Diffusion in a Semi-Infinite Region
266(3)
Chapter Summary---Transient Diffusive Mass Transfer
269(1)
Concept and Review Questions
269(1)
Further Reading
270(1)
Problems
270(7)
Convection Mass Transfer
277(36)
Convection-Dispersion in an Infinite Fluid
279(5)
Convection-Dispersion in a Semi-Infinite Porous Solid
284(5)
Convection-Dispersion in a Semi-Infinite Porous Solid: Inclusion of Sorption
289(2)
Convection-Diffusion in a Stagnant Gas
291(4)
Convection-Diffusion Over a Surface
295(10)
Concentration Profiles and Boundary Layers Over a Surface
295(3)
Convective Mass Transfer Coefficient Defined
298(1)
Significant Parameters in Convective Mass Transfer
299(1)
Calculation and Physical Implications of Convective Mass Transfer Coefficient Values
300(4)
Convection-Diffusion of Heat and Mass (Simultaneous) Over a Surface: Example of a Wet Bulb Thermometer
304(1)
Chapter Summary---Convective Mass Transfer
305(1)
Concept and Review Questions
306(1)
Further Reading
307(1)
Problems
308(5)
III APPENDIX 313(62)
A Summary
315(6)
A.1 Generic Transport Equation and the Physical Meanings of the Constituent Terms
316(1)
A.2 Generic Boundary Conditions and Initial Conditions Needed to Solve the Transport Equation in A.1
316(1)
A.3 Solution Map for Heat Conduction and Mass Diffusion Problems (Without Bulk Flow)
317(1)
A.4 Solution Map for Mass Diffusion or Dispersion with Bulk Flow (Convection-Diffusion/Dispersion)
318(1)
A.5 Basic Heat and Mass Transfer Parameters and Fluxes
319(1)
A.6 Heat and Mass Transfer Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions
320(1)
B Physical Constants, Unit Conversions, and Mathematical Functions
321(10)
B.1 Physical Constants
321(1)
B.2 Some Useful Conversion Factors
322(3)
B.3 Error Function Tabulated
325(1)
B.4 Charts for Unsteady Diffusion
326(5)
C Heat Transfer and Related Properties
331(14)
C.1 Basal Metabolic Rate for a Few Animals
332(1)
C.2 Typical Metabolic Rate for Various Human Activities
333(1)
C.3 Blood Flow, Oxygen Consumption, and Metabolic Rate for Various Human Organs
334(1)
C.4 Thermal Properties of Animal Materials
335(2)
C.5 Thermal Conductivities of Some Animal Hair Coats
337(1)
C.6 Thermal Properties of Some Agricultural Materials
338(1)
C.7 Thermal Properties of Food Materials (Representative Values)
339(1)
C.8 Thermal Properties of Air at Atmospheric Pressure
340(1)
C.9 Psychrometric Chart
341(1)
C.10 Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water from 0 to 100°C
342(1)
C.11 Steam Properties at Saturation Temperatures
343(1)
C.12 Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Water
344(1)
D Mass Transfer Properties
345(12)
D.1 Apparent Diffusivities in Solids
346(1)
D.2 Apparent Diffusivities in Liquids
347(1)
D.3 Diffusivities in Air at 1 atm
348(1)
D.4 Representative Values of Resistances to Water Vapor Transport Out of Leaves
349(1)
D.5 Approximate Ranges of Dispersion Coefficients in Surface Water
350(1)
D.6 Approximate Ranges of Dispersion Coefficients in Porous Media
351(1)
D.7 Kinetic Parameters for Various First Order Rate Processes in Biological and Environmental Systems
352(1)
D.8 Surface Tension of Water
353(1)
D.9 References to Data on Heat and Mass Transfer and Related Properties
354(3)
E Miscellaneous Environmental Data
357(4)
E.1 Atmospheric Temperature, Pressure, and Other Parameters as Function of Altitude
358(1)
E.2 National (U.S.) Primary Ambient Air Quality Standards
359(2)
F Equations of Motion in Various Coordinate Systems
361(4)
F.1 The Equation of Motion in Rectangular Coordinates (x, y, z)
361(1)
F.2 The Equation of Motion in Cylindrical Coordinates (r, θ, z)
362(1)
F.3 The Equation of Motion in Spherical Coordinates (r, θ, φ)
362(3)
G Some Useful Mathematical Background
365(10)
G.1 Series Solution to the One-Dimensional Heat Equation
365(4)
G.2 Similarity Transformation of the Heat Equation
369(2)
G.3 Lumped Parameter Analysis as Related to the Energy Equation
371(1)
G.4 Transformation of the Convection-Diffusion Equation to the Diffusion Equation
372(1)
G.5 Solution to Steady One-Dimensional Diffusion in a Slab with Chemical Reaction
373(2)
Index 375

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