9781420043310

Biological Influences on Criminal Behavior

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781420043310

  • ISBN10:

    1420043315

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2006-11-02
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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Summary

Biological Influences on Criminal Behavior fundamentally questions the way most criminologists attempt to explain, let alone ameliorate the problem of human criminal behavior. Written by a respected expert in forensics, who also brings a much-needed biological background to the task, this resource champions contemporary biological theory by introducing criminologists to areas of research they might not otherwise encounter. It discusses basic biological concepts such as natural selection and evolution in relation to behavior, and considers patterns of inheritance, sex-linked traits, and propensities toward aggression; explores studies on hormonal effects, as well as brain chemistry, and delves deeply into organic brain dysfunction; and looks at investigations into fetal conditions and birth-related difficulties, as well as research on nutrition and food allergies. While steeped in scientific research, the material does not require a scientific background

Table of Contents

Introduction to Biology and Crime
1(24)
Introduction
1(1)
The Question of Biology, Crime, and the Environment
2(3)
The Promise of Biological Research
5(6)
Further Cautions
11(5)
The History of Biology and Crime
16(5)
Conclusion
21(1)
Questions for Further Study and Discussion
22(1)
References
22(3)
Basic Biological Concepts
25(28)
Introduction
25(1)
Natural Selection
25(6)
Behavior in Humans and Other Animals
31(5)
Innate Behaviors
36(2)
Learned Behaviors
38(4)
Evolution and Behavior
42(7)
Conclusion
49(1)
Questions for Further Study and Discussion
50(1)
References
50(3)
Genetic Concepts
53(22)
Introduction
53(1)
Introduction to Genetics
53(4)
Genetics: The Study of Patterns of Inheritance
57(9)
Linked Genes
61(1)
Sex-Linked Traits
62(1)
Incomplete Dominance
63(1)
Co-Dominance
64(1)
Pleiotropy
64(1)
Epistasis
64(1)
Polygenic Inheritance
65(1)
Recessive Alleles in the Population
66(2)
Aggression
68(4)
Conclusion
72(1)
Questions for Further Study and Discussion
73(1)
References
73(2)
Introduction to Genetic Predispositions for Behavior
75(20)
Introduction
75(1)
Misconceptions about Genetics
76(4)
Misconceptions about Animal Cloning
76(1)
Misconceptions about Human Cloning
77(2)
Does All Crime Have the Same Single Cause?
79(1)
XYY Man: Truth and Fallacy
80(2)
Problems with Experimental Design
82(4)
Introduction to Twin Studies
86(6)
Dizygotic Twins
87(1)
Monozygotic Twins
88(1)
Explanations for Twin Coincidences
89(3)
Using Twins to Study Genetic and Environmental Influences on Behavior
92(1)
Conclusion
93(1)
Questions for Further Study and Discussion
93(1)
References
93(2)
Evidence for Genetic Predispositions for Criminogenic Behavior
95(30)
Introduction
95(1)
Twin Studies
96(6)
Problems with Twin Studies
102(3)
Similar Environments
102(1)
Zygosity
102(1)
Differences in Monozygotic Twins
103(1)
Sample Size
103(1)
Different Countries
103(1)
Political Bias
104(1)
Summary of Twin Studies
104(1)
Identical Twins Reared Apart
104(1)
Adoption Studies
105(8)
Mednick's Danish Adoption Studies
106(2)
Some Caveats to Mednick's Adoption Studies
108(2)
Bohman's Stockholm Adoption Studies, 1996
110(3)
Further Genetic Studies
113(5)
Type II Alcoholism
113(1)
Conduct Disorder
114(1)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
114(2)
Aggression
116(2)
Conclusion
118(1)
Questions for Further Study and Discussion
119(1)
References
119(6)
Hormonal Effects on Behavior
125(30)
Introduction
125(1)
The Functions of Hormones
125(1)
Testosterone
126(7)
Natural Testosterone Levels in Aggressive Men
129(4)
Serotonin and Testosterone
133(8)
Increasing Testosterone
134(1)
Chemical and Physical Castration
135(5)
Other Androgen Activity
140(1)
Premenstrual Syndrome and Crime
141(3)
Growth Hormones
144(1)
Cortisol
144(2)
Other Hormones
146(1)
Thyroid Hormones
146(1)
Adrenalin
147(1)
Conclusion
147(1)
Questions for Further Study and Discussion
148(1)
References
148(7)
Pregnancy and the Effects of Birth
155(22)
Introduction
155(1)
Birth Complications
155(3)
Fetal Development and Diet
158(2)
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
160(4)
Maternal Smoking
164(2)
Maternal Age
166(1)
Fetal Maldevelopment and Minor Physical Anomalies
166(3)
Other Birth-Related Difficulties
169(2)
Twins
169(1)
Maternal Rejection
170(1)
Conclusion
171(1)
Questions for Further Study and Discussion
172(1)
References
173(4)
Brain Chemistry
177(28)
Introduction
177(1)
Introduction to Neurotransmitters
177(1)
The Mechanism of Action
178(3)
Serotonin
181(8)
Serotonin and Suicide Attempts
182(1)
Serotonin and Aggression
183(2)
Serotonin and Impulsivity
185(1)
Serotonin and Antisocial Personality Disorder
185(1)
Serotonin Binding Sites
186(1)
Serotonin Precursors
187(1)
Serotonin in the Courts
188(1)
Norepinephrine
189(1)
Dopamine
189(2)
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
191(4)
MAO and Aggression
191(2)
MAOA and Child Abuse
193(2)
Body Build and Antisocial Behavior
195(2)
Other Factors
197(2)
Conclusion
199(1)
Questions for Further Study and Discussion
199(1)
References
200(5)
Organic Brain Dysfunctions: Part I
205(32)
Introduction
205(1)
Head Injury
205(5)
Frontal Lobe Injury
210(6)
Frontal Lobe Injury and Crime
216(3)
Damage to Other Regions of the Brain
219(3)
Treatment and Legal Issues
222(1)
Psychosurgery
223(7)
Conclusion
230(1)
Questions for Further Study and Discussion
230(1)
References
231(6)
Organic Brain Dysfunctions: Part II
237(20)
Introduction
237(1)
Brain Structure and Function
237(14)
Structural Brain Imaging
239(1)
Computer Tomography
239(1)
Studies Using Computer Tomography
239(2)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
241(1)
Studies Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
242(4)
Functional Brain Imaging
246(1)
Positron Emission Tomography
246(1)
Studies Using Positron Emission Tomography
247(2)
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
249(1)
Studies Using Single Photon Computed Emission Tomography
250(1)
Conclusion
251(2)
Questions for Further Study and Discussion
253(1)
References
253(4)
Diet, Toxins, and Food Additives
257(36)
Introduction
257(1)
Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)
257(4)
Glucose and Serotonin
261(2)
Dietary Tryptophan and Serotonin
263(1)
Diet and Hormonal Changes
264(1)
Influence of Lead as a Neurotoxin
265(6)
Manganese
271(2)
Heavy Metals and Crime
273(3)
Vitamins/Minerals
276(2)
Fat in the Diet
278(1)
Fatty Acids
279(3)
Food Additives
282(3)
Food Allergies
285(1)
Diet and Overall Behavior
286(1)
Conclusion
286(1)
Questions for Further Study and Discussion
287(1)
References
287(6)
Epilogue 293(2)
Index 295

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