For courses in general biology for majors. Infused with the spirit of inquiry, Freeman, Biological Science helps teach students the fundamentals while introducing them to the excitement that drives the science. By presenting unifying concepts and methods of analysis, Biological Science helps students learn to think like a biologist and gives them the tools they need for success in upper-division courses.
1. Biology and the Tree of Life.
2. The Atoms and Molecules of Ancient Earth.
The Cell Theory. The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. The Tree of Life. Biological Science.
Box 1.1: Scientific Names and Terms.
Box 1.2: Medicine, Economics and the Tree of Life.
Essay: Where Do Humans Fit on the Tree of Life?
UNIT I. THE ORIGIN AND EARLY EVOLUTION OF LIFE.
The Ancient Earth. The Building Blocks of Chemical Evolution. Chemical Reactions, Chemical Energy, and Chemical Evolution. The Composition of the Early Atmosphere: Redox Reactions and the importance of Carbon. The Early Oceans and the Properties of Water. 3. Macromolecules and the RNA World.
Box 2.1: Atomic Mass.
Box 2.2: Bond Types Form a Continuum.
Essay: The Search for Extraterrestrial Life.
The Start of Chemical Evolution: Experimental Simulations. The Building Blocks of Macromolecules. The First Macromolecules. The First Living Entity. 4. Membranes and the First Cells.
Box 3.1: How Do Biologists Define Life?
Box 3.2: Gel Electrophoresis and Autoradiography.
Box 3.3: How Proteins Catalyze Reactions.
Box 3.4: Models in Biology: The Double Helix.
Essay: Molecular Handedness and the Thalidomide Tragedy.
5. Cell Structure and Function.
Lipid Chemistry. Phospholipid Bilayers. Why Molecules Move Across Lipid Bilayers: Diffusion and Osmosis. Membrane Proteins.
Box 4.1: The Transmission Electron Microscope.
Box 4.2: The Scanning Electron Microscope.
Box 4.3: The Fluid-Mosaic Model.
Essay: The Molecular Basis of Cystic Fibrosis.
UNIT II. CELL FUNCTIONS.
A Tour of the Cell. The Nucleus of Nuclear Transport. The Endomembrane System: Synthesis and Distribution of Cellular Products. The Cytoskeleton. 6. Respiration and Fermentation.
Box 5.1: An Introduction to Centrifugation.
Essay: Organelles and Human Disease.
An Overview of Cellular Respiration. Glycolysis. The Krebs Cycle. Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis. Fermentation. How Does Cellular Respiration Interact with Other Metabolic Pathways. 7. Photosynthesis.
Essay: ATP Production During Exercise.
What Is Photosynthesis? How Does Chlorophyll Capture Light Energy? The Photosynthetic Reaction Centers. The Calvin Cycle. 8. Cell Division.
Box 7.1: Types of Plastids.
Box 7.2: Why Was the Oxygen Revolution Important?
Essay: Are Rising CO2 Levels in the Atmosphere Affecting Plant Productivity.
Mitosis and the Cell Cycle. How Does Mitosis Take Place? Control of the Cell Cycle. Cancer: Out-of-Control Cell Division.
Box 8.1: Cell-Culture Methods.
Box 8.2: Cell Division in Bacteria.
Essay: Cancer Chemotherapy.
UNIT III. GENE STRUCTURE AND EXPRESSION.
How Does Meiosis Occur? The Consequences of Meiosis? Why Does Meiosis Exist? Why Sex? Mistakes in Meiosis. 10. Mendel and the Gene.
Box 9.1: Karyotyping Techniques.
Box 9.2: Experimental Evidence for Physical Exchange of Chromosome Segments During Crossing Over.
Box 9.3: Recombination in Bacteria.
Essay: Seedless Fruits.
Mendel's Experiments with a Single Trait? Mendel's Experiments with Two Traits. The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance. Testing and Extending the Chromosome Theory. Extending Mendel's Rules. 11. How Do Genes Work?
Box 10.1: Combining Probabilities.
Box 10.2: Sample Size and Chance Fluctuations.
Essay: Does “Genetic Determinism” Exist?
DNA as the Hereditary Material. What Do Genes Do? The Genetic Code? The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology. 12. DNA Synthesis, Mutation, and Repair.
Box 11.1: RNA Genomes: Exceptions to the Central Dogma.
Essay: How Do Viruses Work?
Testing Early Hypotheses About DNA Replication. A Comprehensive Model for DNA Synthesis. Analyzing DNA Sequences in the Laboratory. The Molecular Basis of Mutation. Repairing Damaged DNA. 13. Transcription and Translation.
Essay: The Genetic Basis of Cancer.
Transcription in Bacteria. Transcription in Eukaryotes. An Introduction to Translation. The of Transfer RNA. The Ribosome. Post-Transitional Events. 14. Control of Gene Expression in Bacteria.
Box 13.1: An Introduction to X-Ray Crystallography.
Box 13.2: Prions.
Essay: Transcription, Translation, and Toxins.
Gene Regulation and Information Flow. Identifying the Genes Involved in Lactose Metabolism. The Discovery of the Repressor. Catabolite Repression and Positive Control. The Operator and the Repressor—An Introduction to DNA-Binding Proteins. 15. Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes.
Box 14.1: Gene Transfer in Bacteria.
Box 14.2: Negative Control and Attentuation in the trp Operon.
Box 14.3: DNA Footprinting.
Essay: Controlling the Expression of Disease-Causing Genes.
Mechanisms of Gene Regulation—An Overview. Eukaryotic DNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression. Regulatory Sequences in DNA. Regulatory Proteins. Post-Transcriptional Processing. Linking Cancer with Defects in Gene Regulation. 16. Genomes.
Box 15.1: Recombinant DNA Technology.
Box 15.2: Southern Blotting.
Essay: Gene Regulation and the Green Revolution.
An Introduction to Whole-Genome Sequencing. Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes. Eukaryotic Genomes. Future Prospects. 17. Genetic Engineering and its Applications.
Box 16.1: Bioinformatics.
Essay: Genomics and Issues of Privacy.
18. An Introduction to Development.
Using Recombinant DNA Techniques to Manufacture Proteins: The Effort to Cure Pituitary Dwarfism. Gene Hunting Based on Pedigree Analysis. Can Gene Therapy Cure Inherited Diseases in Humans? Biotechnology in Agriculture.
Box 17.1: Genome Sequencing and Gene Hunting.
Box 17.2: Genetic Testing.
Essay: Controversies over Genetically Modified Foods.
UNIT IV. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY.
Developmental Stages and Patterns. Does the Genetic Makeup of Cells Changes as Development Proceeds? What Causes Differential Gene Expression? 19. Early Development.
Essay: Human Cloning.
Gametogenesis. Fertilization. Cleavage. Gastrulation. 20. What Determines a Cell's Fate?
Box 19.1: Visualizing mRNAs by Situ Hybridization.
Essay: Treating Human Infertility.
21. Darwinism and the Evidence for Evolution.
Pattern Formation in Drosophila. Pattern Formation in Arabidopsis. Differentiation: Becoming a Specialized Cell.
Box 20.1: Maternal Effect Inheritance.
Box 20.2: Programmed Cell Death.
Essay: Human Stem Cells.
UNIT V. EVOLUTIONARY PATTERNS AND PROCESSES.
The Evidence for Evolution. How Natural Selection Works. Evolution in Action: Recent Research on Natural Selection. 22. Evolutionary Processes.
Box 21.1: The Evidence for Evolution.
Box 21.2: How Natural Selection Works.
Box 21.3: Evolutionary Theory Before Darwin.
Box 21.4: Problems in Estimating the Heritability of Traits.
Essay: The Debate over “Scientific Creationism” .
Why is Genetic Diversity Important? Analyzing Allele Frequency Change: The Hardy-Weinberg Principle. Mutation. Migration. Inbreeding. Natural Selection. Sexual Selection. 23. Speciation.
Essay: Evolutionary Theory and Human Health.
Defining and Identifying Species. Isolation and Divergence in Sympatry. Isolation and Divergence in Allopatry. Secondary Contact. 24. The History of Life.
Box 23.1: How Do Researchers Estimate Phylogenetic Trees?
Essay: Human Races.
25. Bacteria and Archaea.
Tools for Studying History. The Cambrian Explosion. The Genetic Mechanisms of Change. Adaptive Radiations. Mass Extinctions.
Box 24.1: The Molecular Clock.
Essay: Is a Mass Extinction Event Under Way Now?
UNIT VI. THE DIVERSIFICATION OF LIFE.
What Are the Bacteria and Archaea? Metabolic Diversity in Bacteria and Archaea? Bacteria, Archaea, and Global Change. Bacterial Diseases. 26. Viruses.
Box 25.1: Cultural Techniques as a Research Tool.
Essay: Antibiotics and the Evolution of Resistance.
What Are the Viruses? What Is HIV? How Does and HIV Infection Begin? How Does HIV Replicate Its Genome? How Are Viral Proteins Translated and Processed? How Are Viruses Transmitted to New Hosts? 27. Protists.
Box 26.1: Where Did Viruses Come From?
Essay: Emerging Viruses.
What Are the Protists? Themes in the Evolution of Protists? The Origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts. How Do Protists Affect Human Health and Welfare? 28. Land Plants.
Box 27.1: How Should We Name the Tree of Life's Major Branches?
Essay: Revolutions in Science.
Phylogenies and the Fossil Record: origins and Diversification. The Transition to Land: Key Innovations and Trends. Strategies for Photon Capture. Food, Fuel, and Fiber: Human Use of Pants. 29. Fungi.
Essay: Genetic Diversity in Crop Plants?
What Are the Fungi? Growth, Digestion, and Absorption. Mutualism. Parasitism. 30. Animals.
Box 29.1: The Problem of Convergence.
Box 29.2: Fungi at Work.
Essay: Why Are Frogs Dying?
31. Plant Form and Function.
Origins and Early Diversification. Feeding. Key Innovations in the Radiation of Arthropods. Key Innovations in the Radiation of Vertebrates. Human Evolution.
Essay: So Human An Animal.
UNIT VII. HOW PLANTS WORK.
The Diversity of Plant Form. Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Systems. The Anatomy of Plant Growth. Studying Adaptation. 32. Water and Sugar Transport in Plants.
Box 31.1: Nonvascular Plants.
Box 31.2: Monocots and Dicots.
Box 31.3: Tree-Ring Studies.
Essay: Wood as a Structural Material.
Water Potential and Cell-to-Cell Movement. Transpiration and Water Movement from Roots to Leaves. Translocation. 33. Plant Nutrition.
Essay: Irrigated Agriculture.
Nutritional Requirements. Soil. Nutrient Uptake. Nitrogen Fixation. Nutritional Adaptation of Plants. 34. Sensory Systems in Plants.
Essay: Tropical Soils.
Sensing Light. How Do Plants Perceive Gravity? How Do Plants Respond to Touch? 35. Communication: Chemical Signals.
Essay: Can Plants Tell Time?
Phototropism. Apical Dominance. Growth and Dormancy. 36. Plant Reproduction.
Box 35.1: Cytokinins.
An Introduction to Plant Reproduction. Reproductive Structures. Pollination and Fertilization. The Seed. 37. Plant Defense Systems.
Box 36.1: Pure and Applied Science.
Essay: Why Do Wasps Try to Copulate with Hammer Orchids?
38. Animal Form and Function.
Barriers to Entry. Plant Poisons. The Cost of Defense. Responding to Pathogens. Responding to Herbivores.
Essay: Chemical Prospecting.
UNIT VIII. HOW ANIMALS WORK.
The Nature of Natural Selection. The Nature of Adaptation. Tissues, Organs, and Systems: How Does Structure Correlate with Function? Body Size and Scaling. Homeostasis. 39. Water and Electrolyte Balance in Animals.
Essay: Is Fever Adaptive?
Osmotic Stress and Osmoregulation. Water and Electrolyte Balance in Aquatic Environments. Water and Electrolyte Balance in Terrestrial Invertebrates. Water and Electrolyte Balance in Terrestrial Vertebrates. 40. Animal Nutrition.
Essay: Life in the Desert.
Nutritional Requirements. Obtaining Food: The Structure and Function of Beaks, Teeth, and Mouthparts. Digestion. Nutritional Homeostasis—Glucose as a Case Study. 41. Gas Exchange and Circulation.
Essay: Cholesterol, Heart Disease, and Diet.
Air and Water as Respiratory Media. Organs of Gas Exchange. Blood. The Circulatory System. Homeostasis in Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry. 42. Electrical Signals in Animals.
Box 41.1: Measuring Blood Pressure.
Essay: Smoking and Lung Function.
Principles of Electrical Signaling. Dissecting the Action Potential. The Synapse. The Vertebrate Nervous System. 43. Animal Sensory Systems and Movement.
Box 42.1: The Nernst Equation and the Goldman Equation.
Essay: Can Brain Tissue Transplants Help People with Parkinson's Disease?
How Do Sensory Organs Convey Information to the Brain? Hearing? Vision? Taste and Smell. Movement. 44. Chemical Signals in Animals.
Box 43.1: Senses that Humans Don't Have.
Box 43.2: Vertebrate Versus Cephalopod Eyes.
Essay: Sprinters and Marathoners—Born or Made?
Cataloging Hormone Structure and Function. What Do Hormones Do? How Is the Production of Hormones Regulated? How Do Hormones Act on Target Cells? 45. Animal Reproduction.
Box 44.1: A Closer Look at Thyroxine and the Thyroid Gland.
Box 44.2: Oxytocin and ADH.
Essay: Do Humans Produce Pheromones?
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction. Fertilization and Egg Development. Reproductive Structures and Their Functions. The Role of Sex Hormones in Mammalian Reproduction. Human Pregnancy and Birth. 46. The Immune System in Animals.
Box 45.1: Unusual Aspects of Fertilization.
Box 45.2: Abuse of Synthetic Steroids.
Innate Immunity. The Acquired Immune Response: Recognition. The Acquired Immune Response: Activation. The Acquired Immune Response: Culmination.
Box 46.1: Producing Monoclonal Antibodies.
Box 46.2: How Does the Immune System Distinguish Self from Non-Self?
Box 46.3: The ELISA Test.
UNIT IX. ECOLOGY.
The Role of Genes. How Animals Act: Neural and Hormonal Control. The Adaptive Consequences of Behavior. The Evolution of Behavior. 48. Population Ecology.
Box 47.1: Using Reverse Genetics to Study Behavior.
Box 47.2: Conditional Strategies and the Nature/Nurture Debate.
Box 47.3: The Importance of Observation in Behavioral Studies.
Box 47.4: Calculating the Coefficient of Relatedness.
Essay: Children at Risk.
Population Growth. How Do the Sizes of Populations Change over Time? Population Structure. Demography and Conservation. 49. Species Interactions.
Box 48.1: What's the Best Way to Clean Up an Oil Spill?
Box 48.2: Mark-Recapture Studies.
Essay: What Limits Human Population Growth?
Parasitism. Predation. Herbivory. Competition. Mutualism. 50. Community Ecology.
Essay: Predator Control.
Climate and the Distribution of Ecological Communities. How Predictable Are Community Assemblages? Species Diversity in Ecological Communities. 51. Ecosystems.
Box 50.1: Measuring Species Diversity.
Essay: Let-It-Burn Policies.
Energy Flow and Trophic Structure. Biogeochemical Cycles. 52. Biodiversity and Conservation.
Essay: Global Warming.
How Many Species Are Being Lost, and Why? Why Should We Care? Setting Conservation Priorities. Appendix. Glossary. Index.
Box 52.1: Why Do Small Populations Become Inbred, and Why is Inbreeding Harmful?
Essay: Metaphors for the Future: Easter Island and Guanacaste.